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2ND EDITION

C1

TEACHER’S BOOK

Advanced

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CONTENTS Introduction to Gold Experience 2nd Edition Course components Teaching pathways

Unit walkthrough Student’s Book unit Workbook unit

Classroom teaching ideas

4–7 5–6 7

8–12 8–11 12

13-21

How to teach for exams

13–15

How to flip the classroom

16–17

How to encourage independent learning

18–19

How to teach with projects

20

How to teach with Readers

21

Unit 1

Look ahead, lookback

22–38

Unit 2

Winners andlosers

39–54

Unit 3

Choices andchanges

55–69

Unit 4

Same or different?

70–85

Unit 5

All or nothing

Unit 6

Image and reality

102–117

Unit 7

Be seen, be heard

118–134

Unit 8

Healthy body, healthymind

135–151

Unit 9

Leaders andfollowers

152–168

Unit 10

Movingon

169–178

86–101

Switch on videoscripts

179–182

Workbook answer key

183–203

Speaking: success criteria

204–207

Writing: success criteria

208–216

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INTRODUCTION GOLD EXPERIENCE 2 ND EDITION Gold Experience second edition is an 8-level course that prepares students for the Cambridge English exams while building their language and real-world skills. The course gives students thorough exam preparation in terms of both strategy and language, while simultaneously developing the life skills that students will need to use English successfully beyond the classroom. Real-world, engaging materials ensure students are switched on and curious to learn more. This second edition is fully updated with new content and a new design.

The C1 level Brand new for the second edition, the C1 level is designed for students at an advanced level of English, who are preparing for an advanced exam such as the Cambridge C1 Advanced exam. As well as developing students’ confidence in using English for communication, and extending their knowledge of vocabulary and structures, the C1 level aims to help bridge the cognitive and experiential gap between a typical older teen and the mature and academic demands of the Cambridge C1 Advanced exam. It will also develop the thinking and self-expression in English that students will need for university study. Gold Experience second edition aims to find surprising and engaging ways to make mature topics and themes accessible to very young adults, and equip them to succeed in both the Cambridge C1 Advanced exam, and in their upcoming university life.

The principles and methodology Reliable First and foremost, you need your course to help you achieve students’ core aims of building language skills and passing exams. With Gold Experience second edition, the syllabus is based on a combination of exam requirements and the Global Scale of English, ensuring comprehensive language coverage. Meanwhile, we have brought together highly experienced authors and exam consultants to ensure accuracy and rigor in exam preparation, as well as managing the balance of general English, exam English and life skills. This means you can rest assured that your students will be learning the right language with suitable practice to help them excel in their exams and communicate with confidence.

Engagement Gold Experience second edition aims to bring new experiences to students, and encourage students to bring their own experience to the classroom. We believe that any text or discussion topic should be interesting regardless of the language, and we have tried to balance light, quirky topics that students will have fun with, with more weighty themes to really get them thinking. Where possible, we have used authentic texts and real people in reading texts allowing students to expand on anything that takes their interest. Authentic broadcast video from a variety of sources, and grammar ‘vox pop’ interviews with the general public introduce students to authentic accents and real experiences and stories. As every teacher knows, when students are engaged with the topic and the material, they are engaged with English and everything else is just that little bit easier.

‘Whole student’ development As well as language and exams, we know you care about developing your students as citizens of the world. This means helping them develop their ability to think critically, assimilate new information and points of view, and formulate, express and defend their opinions. This means helping them develop research techniques, work both alone and with others, and reflect on their own learning. In Gold Experience second edition, these skills are developed throughout each unit in the Speak up sections, where students are encouraged to discuss and debate, and in a more focused way, at the end of each unit in the Project and Independent Learning strands. The Projects are designed to be flexible and you can decide to do them quickly in class, or expand them into longer-term projects over several classes or weeks. The Independent Learning syllabus builds over the course of the book to help students discover both study tools and techniques, and more about themselves as learners.

Flexible resources We know that the real classroom can often be far more complex than the ideal classroom we imagine. For that reason, we’ve provided a wealth of materials to provide extra support or further challenge for students who need it, plenty of additional and alternative ideas and resources for you, and a full suite of components to allow you to tailor your teaching package to your classroom.

‘Under-the-hood’ exam preparation We believe that students need training and practice to excel in exams, but that this doesn’t need to be the overarching feel of a class. In Gold Experience second edition, exam tasks are woven seamlessly into the flow of the lesson, but can be easily identified by the icon. Each unit includes work on every exam paper, giving students exposure to realistic tasks with a focus on the target language of the unit. Over the course of the book, students build their exam strategies and their confidence through the step-by-step core activities and task-based exam tips. For those classes or individuals wanting more targeted exam preparation we have a full practice test in the Workbook, and an additional Exam Practice book for practice of full papers.

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COURSE COMPONENTS

eBook for students

For students

Workbook

Student’s Book with App

• Mirrors the Student’s Book lesson by lesson and consolidates learning with targeted practice.

• Nine topic-based units divided into 8 main teaching lessons, plus video, project, independent learning, wordlist and unitcheck.

• Suitable for computer or tablet

• Additional topic-related practice of reading, writing, speaking, listening and use of English skills. • Extensive practice of course grammar and vocabulary, including practice of Extend vocabulary from the back of the Student’s Book for stronger students.

• Final tenth unit review provides revision of language and skills from the course in exam task format.

• Complete practice exam in Unit 10. • Designed for either independent study at home or in-class extra practice.

• Training and practice for the Cambridge C1 Advanced exam is seamlessly integrated into every lesson. • Students and teachers can easily identify exam-like tasks with the

• Full Student’s Book in digital format with embedded audio, video and interactive activities.

App. • Audio for listening lessons available on the Student’s App

icon.

• Additional examples of vocabulary sets in Extend vocabulary in the back of the book.

Online Practice for students • Fully interactive digital version of the Workbook, which complements and consolidates the Student’s Book material. • Remediation videos and activities powered by MyGrammarLab. • Students are encouraged to explore their ideas, opinions and knowledge of the world through frequent discussion opportunities, for example through Speak up activities. • Video clips expose students to a variety of authentic broadcasting formats, accents and ideas, and encourage students to think critically about what they watch. • Where appropriate, grammar vox pop interviews give authentic examples of target grammar in use. • End of unit projects can be adapted depending on the time available, and encourage students to explore a topic, collaborate and work creatively with classmates, and present back to the class. • Independent learning sections guide students through different aspects of self-reflection and help them become more successful learners.

• Instantly graded activities with supportive feedback. • Personal gradebook for students to review their performance. • Access to Student’s Book video and audio for students.

Exam practice books • Additional intensive practice for the Cambridge C1 Advanced exam. • Two complete practice tests, one with tips and guidance for every task. • Extensive support for productive tasks at the back of the book. • Online answer keys, audio and speaking test videos with teacher’s resources.

• The back of book Grammar file gives a full page of detailed grammar and language explanation, plus a full page of practice activities for every unit. • Writing file and Speaking file give task-by-task exam-related help and useful language for productive tasks. • Student’s App gives access to videos and the extensive class and workbook audio, as well as additional fun practice of course vocabulary. Accessed via a code in every Student’s Book

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INTRODUCTION

For teachers

Resources • Teaching notes (digital teacher’s book).

Teacher’s Book • Teaching notes with a wealth of additional and alternative classroom ideas, including for mixed ability classes, fast finishers, and additional questions to encourage critical thinking. • Exam information, including how Student’s Book activities may differ from exam tasks (for example, shorter text length, fewer items, a focus on unit language meaning less variety of tested language than in the exam, etc.).

• Detailed grammar PowerPoint presentations for each unit’s grammar points. • Three photocopiable worksheets (Grammar, Vocabulary + skill or exam focus) per Student’s Book unit, with full teaching notes and answerkey. • Class audio and video. • Assessment package (seebelow).

• ‘How to’ sections in the introduction, giving advice on teaching for exams, flipping the classroom, developing your students as independent learners, teaching with projects and teaching with readers. • Speaking and Writing Success Criteria at the back of the book to help you and your students understand what a solid answer, a good answer and an ‘acing it’ answer looks like. • Photocopiable audio scripts and videoscripts at the back of the book. • Workbook answer key. • Access code for all Gold Experience digital teacher tools. 5 All ornothing

READING

SBpp64–65

Tostart If you have the technology available, play an interesting advertisem*nt in English. Discuss the techniques the advertisem*nt uses to influence thebuyer. Ask students to work in pairs to see how many forms of the word advertisem*nt they can come up with: advertise (verb), advert, advertisem*nt (noun), ad (informal nouns),etc.

1 Share an example of something you’ve been persuaded

Lead-in SBp63 Write the unit title All or nothing on the board and ask what the expression means (it is used to say that unless something is done completely, it is not acceptable, i.e. half-heartedness won’t do – it’s got to be all ornothing). Ask students to look at the picture on page 63. Read the quote aloud and elicit ideas of what it means (people today are so busy thinking about money that they lose sight of what is really important in life or forget to be grateful). Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit someideas.

All ornothing

X 5

READING

USE OFENGLISH

topic: future ofadvertising skill: identifying expansion or exemplification ofpoints task: gappedtext

opencloze wordformation

GRAMMAR ways of talking about thefuture verb phrases +prepositions

VOCABULARY buying andselling separable andinseparable phrasalverbs nouns from phrasalverbs

LISTENING topic: businessstart-ups skill: understanding points ofview task: multiplematching

SPEAKING topic: gender paygap skill:speculating task: longturn

WRITING topic: a charityevent skill: writing topicsentences task:report

SWITCH ON video: the scenicroute project: trip around theworld

Possibleanswers 1 The child is enjoying the simple pleasure of feeling rain on his/her face. The photo contrasts with the quote because it shows someone who appears grateful for a small pleasure that doesn’t costanything. 2 Spending time with friends and family, having some time alone, a break, working towards goals,etc. 3 • I value my phone the most because it contains my most important information and is the possession I use mostoften. • I was given a special locket by my late grandmother and I always wear it to remind myself ofher. • I have a signed poster from one of my favourite stars who I was lucky enough to meet. It’s more than a signature to me – it’s the memory of meeting myidol.

extra Ask: To what extent do you think the quote reflects society in your country? Does it depend? If so, onwhat? Ask students to work in pairs to think of some simple pleasures that they are grateful for. Elicit someideas.

to buy recently by an advertisem*nt. For example, say: Recently, I saw an online advert for a new kind of chocolate biscuit and I just had to buy a packet. Check pronunciation of persuade /pəˈsweɪd/. Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs then elicit some responses to eachone. Possibleanswers 1 • I’m a sucker when it comes to advertising, and I know it. I’m quite easily persuaded, especially when it comes to online advertising. The advertisers seem to know exactly what I’m looking for and put it right in front of me. Whoam I to resist? For example, recently… • I’m quite critical of advertisem*nts and that helps me not to be taken in. For example, am I really going to be popular, rich and good-looking just because I wear a new fragrance? However, recently, I did buy… 2 My favourite advert at the moment would probably be the one for … . I say this because… One ad I really like is … because… It’s hard to top the advert for … as…

alternative Students could show each other a favourite advertisem*nt and discuss how persuasive it is, and why it is memorable forthem.

Readon extra: whole class Focus students on the picture on page 65 and elicit/ point out that it represents virtual reality (VR), which allows a person wearing a headset to watch or experience an environment produced by a computer that looks and seems real. Ask: Have you ever tried VR? What is it like? How do you think the rise of virtual reality may changeadvertising?

2 Students discuss the question in pairs. Elicit some responses.

Possibleanswer By 2030, I think most advertising will be done online and print advertising will be a thing of thepast. I’d say adverts are going to get more and more responsive to the individual. We might walk by the same billboard and it will show one advert to me, and a different one toyou. By then, heaps of people will have access to virtual reality headsets so we will be able to view online purchases much more closely before buying. Imagine walking around a hotel before you booked, or getting to walk around a university campus abroad before you enrolled – that’s thefuture!

3 Remind students that quickly reading for gist is an

important strategy for understanding the main ideas in all the Reading and Use of English tasks, and will prepare them to answer the individual questions more accurately and efficiently. Give students three minutes to read the article and paragraphs to see if any of their ideas from Ex 2 werementioned.

exam task: gappedtext Read through the exam tip with students, giving them time to follow the instructions in the second part. Elicit theanswers. C The highlighted phrases in paragraph iii all relate to the idea of personalisation, first generally (that means personalisation; all about us) and then with the specific example of personalised customer service operatives, based on what each individual finds attractive or not. Paragraph C gives other examples of personalised products: As well as this, … you’ll be able to buy a robot friend … use a small chip to measure how many times a day you blink, to assess your eye health and find the perfect mascara. Driverless public transport will interact with us all individually.) The linking phrase As well as this, at the beginning of paragraph C, provides a clue that this paragraph is likely to fit after a paragraph where another example of a personalised product has beengiven.

4

• Extensive range of tests for use throughout the course. • A/B versions of core tests to prevent cheating. • Versions for students with special educational needs. • Available as ready-to-print pdfs or editable word documents.

Ask students to do the remainder of this examstyleexercise.

1 B (At the end of paragraph i, it says … the defining point of the whole film was when the proud creator of Hawking’s world-famous voice synthesiser turned it on and announced, ‘Welcome to the future.’ This moment is referred to in B as … a single moment summed up so wonderfully the extent to which technology can change lives for the better…) 2 G (Paragraph ii ends with a question: how is this going to happen? i.e. how is every single advertising message going to be relevant to the receiver? Paragraph G responds directly to this: To put it briefly, over the next ten years, advertising will move from communicating to predicting, and emoting…) 3 C (See exam tip answer keyabove) 4 E (Paragraph iv ends with the question how will brands actually use it [VR]? This question is referred to at the beginning of paragraph E: That is where the imagination must take a leap because in reality, even the experts don’t know. Paragraph E goes on to speculate on how the question from paragraph iv might be answered: A logical progression would be … and to give a current example of VR use In fact, there is actually a VR advert now…) 5 A (The first sentence in paragraph vi says Wearable and connected devices will be providing the data to enable this targeting to become more detailed, referring to Screens and posters will display different images based on the information on your mobile in paragraphA.) 6 D (Paragraph vi ends with We’ll enter a store to hear our own playlist playing and be immediately directed to … This links to the similar example in paragraph D, Tom Cruise walks past a number of digital ads that address him by name as hepasses.)

86

Assessment package

• Answer keys and audio files. • Test pack includes: • Diagnostic test to help place students and identify strengths or weaknesses. 87

Teacher’s Online Resources All the support a busy teacher needs in one place, accessed via the access code in the back of the Teacher’s Book or via your Pearson consultant. Presentation tool

• Unit tests with two papers: Grammar, vocabulary and Use of English; Listening and reading. • Review tests every three units with three papers: Grammar, vocabulary and use of English; Writing; Speaking. • End of Year test with three papers: Listening, Reading and Use of English; Writing; Speaking. Online Practice for teachers • Teacher view of Online Practice provides a full learning management system . • Assign tasks to the whole class, groups or individual students depending on their needs. • Automatic marking to save time. • Performance area lets you see how individual students and the whole class are progressing overall and by skill.

• Front-of-class teacher’s tool with fully interactive version of every Student’s Book and Workbook activity with integrated audio and video. • Planning mode, including teacher’s notes, and teaching mode. • Easy navigation via either book page or lesson flow. • Additional whole-class game activities – plus score and timer tools for teacher-led games. 6

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TEACHING PATHWAYS We know that not every class is the same, and there are many influences, from your course hours, teaching context and personal style to your class size, and the needs of every one of your students. Gold Experience 2nd Edition has been designed to be as flexible as possible, allowing you to add relevant sections and support to the core content, and tailor the course to your classes and students.

Component Print Student’s Book + App

To focus on …

Blended / Core Digital material Student’s eBook

Grammar and vocabulary

Exam preparation

21st Century skills

Fun activities

Units 1–9:

• Unit checks

• core lessons

• Grammar file (reference & practice)

• Unit 10 (review unit)

• Independent Learning section

• Writing file

• Switch on video project

• Game on activities in main units

• Extended Vocabulary lists

• Speaking file

• Speak up & extended discussions

• App: Vocab activities • Authentic ‘on-thestreet’ interviews Workbook

Online Practice Units 1–9: • core lessons

• Extend vocabulary sections

• Improve it writing sections

• Switch on video & project • Footers in main units

• Unit 10 (full practice exam)

• Writing tasks

• Puzzles (e.g. crosswords)

• How to teach for exams

• Speaking Success Criteria

• How to encourage • How to teach with projects independent learning • Extra activities • How to flip the in teaching classroom notes • How to teach with

• Extra activities in teaching notes

• How to teach with readers

• Unit checks • Online Practice: MyGrammarLab videos & activities

Teacher’s Book

Units 1–9: • core lessons

• Alternative and extra activities in teaching notes • Additional activities for fast-finishers • Information about common student errors

• Writing Success Criteria

projects

• Critical thinking activities in teaching notes • Project extensions Units 1–9:

Assessment package (Word or pdf - part of Online Resources)

Unit tests:

• Diagnostic test

• Unit tests: Skills

Grammar & Vocabulary

• Review tests (main)

• Review tests: Writing

• audio & video

• Grammar PowerPoint Presentations

• Photocopiable activities

Teacher’s Online Resources (including Teacher’s Presentation Tool)

• Photocopiable activities

• Photocopiable activities • Presentation Tool games

Tests used as assessment for learning

• Review tests: Speaking • End of Year tests Exam practice booklet

Exam booklet • 2 full practice tests • Guidance, tips & reference

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UNIT WALKTHROUGH STUDENT’S BOOK UNIT Nowadays people know the price of everything and the value of nothing.

Each unit has a lead-in photo, quote and discussion questions to get students thinking about the unit theme, and using their existing topic vocabulary.

Look at the picture and discuss the questions. 1 How does the quote relate to the photo? 2 What things do you value most in your day? 3 What possessions do you value the most? Why?

All or nothing

5

READING

VOCABULARY

USE OF ENGLISH

WRITING

topic: future of advertising skill: identifying expansion or exemplification of points task: gapped text

buying and selling separable and inseparable phrasal verbs nouns from phrasal verbs

open cloze word formation

topic: a charity event skill: writing topic sentences task: report

GRAMMAR

LISTENING

ways of talking about the future verb phrases + prepositions

topic: business start-ups skill: understanding points ofview task: multiple matching

SPEAKING topic: gender pay gap skill: speculating task: long turn

The Unit overview gives a brief outline of topics, key language, skills focus and exam tasks.

SWITCH ON video: the scenic route project: trip around the world 63

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The main reading text previews grammar that students will meet in the next lesson. Power up sections get students thinking about the lesson topic.

5 All or nothing

READING Power up 1 Work in pairs and discuss the questions. 1 Do you find adverts persuasive? What has an advert persuaded you to buy recently? Whydid it persuade you? 2 What’s a favourite advert of yours? Why?

Read on 2 Work in pairs. Imagine it’s the year 2030. How has advertising changed?

3 Read the article. Ignore the gaps. Does it

Exam tasks are easily identified by the symbol. Exam skills and strategies are built up through both core activities and exam tips.e

mention your ideas from Ex 2?

4

Read the article again and choose from the paragraphs (A–G) the one which fits each gap (1–6). There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use.

exam tip: gapped text The paragraph you are looking for may contain an example of, or expand on, something mentioned in the previous paragraph. Read paragraph iii. Look at the highlighted phrases. Read paragraphs A–G and choose the one where these phrases are exemplified or expanded on. Which phrases give links?

5 Match the words and phrases in bold in the

A Advertisers will also know how much we like their ads because our pulses, via our smart watches, will tell them. Every ad you see will be based on who you are. Screens and posters will display different images based on the information on your mobile – your purchase history, the brands you like on social platforms, who your friends are, your gender and your age. Already, seventy-five percent of consumers expect and want retail experiences to be personalised, and over the next ten years most marketing will become like the ‘Amazon Recommends’ feature, only bigger!

B Rarely has a single moment summed up so wonderfully the extent to which technology can change lives for the better, allowing us to interact in ways beyond any initial realms of possibility. And it’s these almost unimaginable developments in technology, according to futurists, that will play a major part in persuading us what products to spend our money on.

5 husbands/wives

2 first

6 produced

3 believing in, accepting

7 major part

4 portraying emotion

8 likely to be/do something

Sum up the article says about the following. 1 Stephen Hawking

what will it look like in ten years’ time?

1

D In the sci-fi film Minority Report Tom Cruise walks past a number of digital ads that address him by name as he passes. Science fiction perhaps then, but as we have seen, not so far away from the realities that we may be confronted with relatively soon, albeit perhaps more subtle and sophisticated. But who really knows?

3 virtual reality

7 Work in pairs. Some people say that

Sum up sections require students to think about the text as a whole.

advertising is a ‘necessary evil’. What do you think they mean? Do you agree?

64

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The consumer is hard to impress and the next ten years of advertising will be relying completely on them buying into the largely tech-driven, utopian vision of making every single advertising message relevant to the receiver. So how is this going to happen?

E

That is where the imagination must take a leap because in reality, even the experts don’t know. A logical progression would be that people will be able to ‘step into’ brand experiences and ads will be filmed with 360-degree cameras. In fact, there is actually a VR advert now that allows the prospective customer to experience what a hiking boot feels like when walking.

Other than the obvious novelty and excitement around these ideal marketing tools, the latter is also quickly becoming the only truly immersive experience to capture people on an emotional level. All exterior stimuli are blocked out and we are cocooned in our own individually created world.

2 iii

G To put it briefly, over the next ten years, advertising will move from communicating to predicting, and emoting, based on human needs. According to a recent study by neuroeconomist Paul Zak, three out of eight people now love brands more than their spouses; thinking of brands releases more oxytocin in the brain – the same reaction generated when being hugged.

How advertising makes us feel will become more important than how it looks, and that means personalisation. By 2025 we’ll have developed the technology to make the bulk of our interaction with products all about us. One example is that customer service operatives will be holograms, based on what each individual finds attractive or needs – imagine holograms in airports and train stations providing customer information.

3 iv

The term we use to describe this method of reaching each individual is ‘immersive creativity’ and the way into this is already well established through advances in virtual reality (VR). VR is big business – it’s estimated the VR market will soon be worth 5.2 billion dollars. The experience is unparalleled, taking the user into another mind-blowing world that feels real. But how will brands actually use it?

4 v

2 relevance to individuals

Speak up

The award-winning film about Stephen Hawking The Theory of Everything has plenty of touching scenes. From the initial diagnosis of Motor Neurone Disease to the academic brilliance and final passionate exchanges, this is a film that ticks every emotional box. But for me, the defining point of the whole film was when the proud creator of Hawking’s world-famous voice synthesiser turned it on and announced, ‘Welcome to the future.’

i

ii

F

6 Work in pairs. Take turns to summarise what

of

advertising:

C As well as this, in 2025 you’ll be able to buy a robot friend and even use a small chip to measure how many times a day you blink, to assess your eye health and find the perfect mascara. Driverless public transport will interact with us all individually.

article with their meanings (1–8). 1 significant

The

This is just one technological step in the new emotional journey that brands and consumers are about to embark upon. The most used word in social media last year was the heart emoticon, but in ten years’ time, most of our words will be emoticons and customers will give feedback in Snaps. 5

vi

Wearable and connected devices will be providing the data to enable this targeting to become ever more detailed and clever. By the end of the ten years advertisers will have been mining our personal data for a long time. We’ll enter a store to hear our own playlist playing and be immediately directed to clothes we’ve looked at in other stores.

6 vii

There is not, nor ever can there be, a fixed answer. Hawking described the future as ‘indefinite, existing only as a spectrum of possibilities’. Unexpected things will occur; we don’t know the names of the next big entrepreneurs, nor what the biggest platform will be in ten years. But whatever happens, advertising in the future will be exciting, powerful and impossible to ignore.

Over to you! Comments, please. RALPH Worrying stuff, but this is going to happen, guys – whether we like it ornot. JONBOY Great timing! I’m to see my course tutor later about a project I’m starting next week on the very same topic. Useful stuff!

JENNIWREN 11 Just want to give a heads up: brilliant VR exhibition starts on Saturday at the Brack Centre. Some experts will be demonstrating how the latest stuff works. Can’t wait!

65

The first TV commercial was in the USA, on 1 July 1941. It was ten seconds long and promoted a watch.

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Speak up sections develop critical thinking, asking students to think more deeply about the topic and consider different viewpoints, and provides extra speaking practice. 8

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Language is contextualised in authentic Grammar vox pop interviews, scripted conversations or short texts. Grammar vox pops are provided as both audio and video.

Editable PowerPoint presentations for each core grammar area save valuable preparation time and bring the grammar to life.

5 All or nothing

GRAMMAR

3

1 Complete the example sentences in the grammar box with

explore grammar

(happen), guys – whether we like it

C There is a brilliant VR exhibition which starts on Saturday at the Brack Centre. D By 2025 we (develop) the technology to make people genuinely happy.

F I’m to see my course tutor later about a project. (demonstrate) how the

future in the past We use was/were going to, was/were (about) to and would to express a future idea in the past. I was going to throw out my old school books, but my mum stopped me. I knew I would never get the job. I was about to text Megan when she called me.

2 Match the sentences in the grammar box (A–G)with the descriptions (1–7).

1 something that is inevitable or unstoppable 2 something that will be completed before a certain time limit 3 something that will have been in progress up to a time limit

audioscript.

5 Complete the article with the correct future form of the

verbs in brackets. Do not use the future simple if another form is possible.

1 The museum has

an old map dating back 700 years.

2 Households today few years ago.

far less fresh food than they did a

Not just a problem for the oldies We’ve all seen them: the programmes about people who have 1possessed / accumulated way too much stuff and have 2cluttered / untidied up their space with piles of old newspapers or clothes. And we all think these guys are older, with a lifetime of stuff that they have 3collected / hoarded away in case it’s ever needed. I’m living proof that that isn’t the case. I’m nineteen and my hoarding tendencies started back when I was about eleven. I know where it began: with my dad losing his job, which meant moving to a much smaller house and having to 4chuck / bin out huge amounts of things that had been part of my life – stuff with 5monetary / sentimental value like toys and presents. I was terrified of losing my stuff again and developed this 6undeniable / insatiable desire to 7keep / collect things. I wasn’t 8giving / splashing out loads of money on buying 9off/ up the local clothes shops; I just couldn’t 10pass / miss up an opportunity to pocket free things and store them away. I’ve since learnt that this can develop into a full-blown disorder. We hoarders give an abnormal meaning to things which we simply can’t part 11 from/ with. We believe they’re part of our identity and 12throwing / dumping things will mean we’ll be losing a bit of ourselves. Iwas lucky and I got help, but it could have gone so badly wrong.

4 Most children like to swap them with friends.

things like stamps or coins and

5 My grandfather used to lots of things, like old newspapers. He thought he might need them one day!

As I 1 (move) into a shared flat next weekend – I2 (sleep) in this room for seventeen years by then – the idea behind the challenge really hits home. There’s no way all my stuff 3 (fit) into the bedroom I’ve got, so I 4 (have to) get rid of a load. My mum won’t stand for me leaving it here as she 5 (use) my old room for guests, so let’s see if I can cut it down to 100 things! It 6 (be) hard, but all the soft toys must go. And come next weekend the bags of concert ticket stubs and programmes 7 (be) long gone. I8 (give) a lot of old books to charity and, really, who needs twenty pairs of shoes? Just think that this time next week I 9 (throw out) all the junk of my old life, ready for the new one! Obviously, I can’t throw out my old CDs or DVDs, but maybe as a group they just count as one? And I’ve clearly got to keep the T-shirt with a wolf on – my best friend gave me that. Mmm, maybe I10 (just / have) another look through the books …

2

5.2 Listen to two people answering a question about spending habits. Do you know anyone who is like either of the people described?

3

5.3 Work in pairs. Listen again and complete the collocations. Then talk to your partner about these things. Tell your partner about: 1 someone you know who is a(n)

touch.

2 someone you know who is

prey for advertisers.

3 something you’ve bought recently at a(n) 4 a time you experienced a(n)

price. sell.

5 a time when you had a(n)

desire for something.

6 something you own that has

value.

4 Complete the sentences with prepositions. Check your answers in the audioscript.

an opportunity to get a good deal.

1 Never pass

2 No one can convince me to part trainers even though they’re falling apart! 3 My mum hangs way she’s ever going to use.

my favourite

tons of old recipes that there’s no

4 All these souvenirs just clutter 5 I’ll have to go

1 Could you do the 100-thing challenge? What would youkeep?

7 an action in progress, repeated in the future, or part of the anticipated programme

3 I’m going away with the school in July, so until then I’ll have to watch my money.

6 Choose the correct words to complete the blog.

3 I have a lot of rubbish over the years and I need to have a good clear-out.

Too much clutter? Try the 100-thing challenge

6 something that is organised or timetabled

2 It is easy to persuade people to part with their money if you know their unique preferences.

accumulate acquire collect consume hoard

4 Work in pairs. Find all the examples of future forms in the

6 Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

5 something that is arranged officially and formally

1 Advertisers know how to push all the right buttons.

Then make your own sentences with the verbs. Try to show the differences in meaning.

Speak up

4 something that is considered or believed to be a future fact

5 Rephrase the expressions in bold in your own words.

1 Complete the sentences with the correct form of these verbs.

Dave Bruno set himself a challenge: to live for a period of time with only 100 possessions. Could you do it? Oneofour readers gives it a go.

E By the end of the ten years advertisers (mine) our personal data for a long time. G Some experts latest stuff works.

buying and selling

4 What will you have spent money on in five years’ time?

A Over the next ten years advertising (move) from communicating to predicting, and emoting.

Active explore grammar boxes require students to engage with the taught grammar.

VOCABULARY

1 What do you think will be your next big purchase? Why?

3 What will you have done with the rest of your possessions?

p150

ways of talking about the future B This ornot.

5.1 Watch or listen to two people answering these questions. Make notes about their answers. 2 Which of the possessions that you have now do you think you will stillhave in ten years’ time?

the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

Speak up

the room.

chocolate this week as I’m on a diet.

7 Work in pairs. What would

someone learn about you by looking at the possessions you have in your room?

explore language

2 Answer the questions in Ex 3 andcompare answers.

separable and inseparable phrasal verbs Remember and record which phrasal verbs are separable and which are not. he splashed a load of money out on … my mum hangs tons of recipes onto Also remember that we cannot separate phrasal verbs when the object is a pronoun object. He splashed it out on …

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According to British research, the average ten-year-old owns 238 toys but only plays with twelve every day.

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The explore language boxes provide explanation and examples of key language areas.

Frequent opportunities for personalisation and discussion using new language.

All audioscripts are printed in the back of the book.

Use of English lessons focus on language frequently tested in the exam. Lesson 1 focuses on more lexical topics, Lesson 2 on more grammatical topics.

5 All or nothing

Task layout reflects the exam.

LISTENING

USE OF ENGLISH 1

5 Look at the picture of a pop-up shop. What do you think a pop-up

Power up

1 Work in pairs. What strategies can you think of to

6 Read the article about a pop-up shop. How successful have the Bray

1 Work in pairs. In which situations

2 Read the language box and underline the verb

remember fixed phrases? Which do you use?

would you use these different buying methods?

explore language

auction bargain barter haggle trade

A A fixed phrase is often a verb + a noun/an adjective + a preposition that go together. You need to play a part in the campaign. B The phrases can only be expanded before the noun, usually with an adjective or determiner.

3 Read the two tasks. Identify the key words in the

You need to play a bigger part in the campaign.

lists (A–H). Then think of different ways these words can be expressed.

Vocabulary-fromthe-text activities encourage students to notice and absorb vocabulary they find.

p150

verb phrases + prepositions

5.4 You are going to hear five people talking about a retail business they have started. Listen and decide what product each speaker sells.

Task 2

Choose from the list (A–H) the reason each speaker gives for setting up their business.

Choose from the list (A–H) how each speaker feels about their future business.

A B C D E F G H

A B C D E F G H

a recommendation by a friend the financial security the rise in popularity of a certain product the cheap set-up costs the international opportunities the best way to use a talent to fund a lifestyle a commitment to help others 1 2 3

Speaker 4 Speaker 5

Pop-up stores are everywhere at the moment and 0 they offer budding entrepreneurs a great opportunity 1 publicise their brand for a few weeks during the year. These stores allow people who ordinarily sell goods online to gain 2 to customers in thestreet. Twin sisters Tanya and Linda Bray 3 currently finding pop-up stores to be a great solution to marketing their fashion and accessories label. The twenty-five-year-olds normally sell through their website but they use pop-up stores 4 so often and, when they do, have succeeded in making money 5 them. Their first one brought in around £2,000 in the first month, which was surprising as they 6 only just launched the brand and were relatively unknown. Apart from the money, the sisters said they also enjoy the feedback they get from speaking face-to-face with their customers, which has had 7 positive influence on their product design. By next month they 8 have established their brand to the extent that they may be able to open a permanent shop.

You need to play your part in the campaign. C The noun in the phrases can sometimes be substituted, as long as the noun has the same meaning.

Task 1

Speaker 1 Speaker 2 Speaker 3

sisters been?

OUR POP-UP SUCCESS

phrases with prepositions.

Listen up 2

shop is?

4 5

You need to play a bigger role in the campaign.

3 Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

reassured that big companies want to partner with them optimistic about expansion into different products inspired by the opportunity to be more international encouraged that they can run an ethical business hopeful that they can make a difference excited by the chance to develop a new type of business surprised that the company will be able to grow so quickly convinced that they will do better than their competitors 6 7 8

Speaker 1 Speaker 2 Speaker 3

Speaker 4 Speaker 5

1 We will need to examine the evidence shoplifting. 2 She has a strong relationship customers.

her

3 It’s important to identify the causes any poor sales results. 4 The company based their theory very unreliable data.

9 10

5 I can provide the information not-for-profit organisation.

our

6 They are investigating attitudes recycling of used goods.

4

5.5 Listen again and complete the tasks.

Speak up

Make sure you listen for all the options in every extract. When you listen for the first time, pencil in all the possible answers, then confirm your answers when you listen for the second time.

these verbs. Then ask and answer them.

1 Which speaker do you think had the most interesting way of selling? Why?

1 Do you think younger people aptitude for creative tasks? 2 Should you always a sales site you use?

5 Match the expressions (1–6) with their meanings (A–F). A be beating one’s competitors

2 be ahead of the game

B sell something you have bought for a profit

3 be hot property

C understand and be able to do something

4 get the hang of something

D be the object of a reaction, often negative

5 flip something

E

be something very valuable and marketable

6 come in for

F

use something and not replace it

Try to identify if a gap is part of a fixed phrase. Look at the language around the gap.

create have impose make take

2 Do you think haul videos are showing off or genuinely interesting?

1 eat up something (e.g. resources)

exam tip: open cloze

4 Complete the questions with the correct form of

6 Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

exam tip: multiple matching

1 They offer an opportunity a comment on

3 Is it worth a chance on crowd-funding new businesses?

2 It was his

7

4 Will online marketing more opportunities for individuals to sell things? 5 Do you think we need to the number of haul videos?

Read the sentences. Which gap needs you to focus on the word before and which one on the words after?

an

a limit on

win more customers.

opportunity and his last.

Read the article again and complete the gaps with one word only.

Speak up 8 Work in groups and discuss the questions. 1 If you had a shop, what would you like to sell? Why? 2 Why do you think we like products that are less ‘available’?

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Did you know more people watch haul videos than the most popular music videos?

The Cuddle Café, a pop-up in London, allows customers to pay for tea and cake with hugs.

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Fun footers, loosely connected to the topic, can be explicitly exploited or left for students to notice. 9

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UNIT WALKTHROUGH Step-by-step approach to exam tasks.

Common examples are presented and practised on the page. Further examples are in Extend vocabulary at the back of the book.

5 All or nothing

USE OF ENGLISH 2

5

2

How much do they get? Is this a good idea?

POCKET MONEY EQUALITY

5.6 Listen to two people talking about pocket money. What points do they make? Do you agree withthem?

There are a fair number of 0 drawbacks to being a girl. The workplace is still a man’s world and there have been very few 1 in women’s rights. That glass ceiling still exists. It doesn’t make us 2 ; it just means that we need to work that much harder to get where we should be. But that’s not the point of this blog – it’s understood. My concern today is related to how early this 3 actually starts and you might be surprised to know that it’s at a(n) 4 young age – when we get pocket money from our parents!

3 Read the language box. Find examples of A–D in the audioscript.

explore language nouns from phrasal verbs A When forming nouns from phrasal verbs, we can put the preposition before or after the verb. downpour

breakdown

B The noun may have a similar meaning to the phrasalverb. A lot of people turned out for the rally in the park. There was a great turnout for the rally in the park. C The noun may have a different meaning to the phrasal verb. Look out for James in the school play. He’s in the secondact. The weather outlook for the weekend is pretty bleak. D Nouns may be single words (e.g. outbreak) or hyphenated (e.g. write-up). Check in a dictionary.

4 Read the email extracts. Complete the nouns with these prepositions.

back down out (x4) over (x2) up (x2)

Extend vocabulary section in the back of the Student’s Book and related Workbook activities provide more useful vocabulary.

SPEAKING

Read the blog. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.

1 Do children in your country get regular pocket money?

According to a recent survey, boys receive thirteen percent more pocket money than ! It sets the girls. I find that 5 bar from the outset and continues into the working life. So, just why do parents favour their male 6 ? Could it be that boys’ toys are pricier or that boys bargain harder? Whatever, there should definitely be a(n) 7 in the pocket money system from now. There needs to be a(n) 8 from all the girls out there: ‘Equality in pocket money!’

1 Look at the picture. Do you think the

DRAW

man earns more, less or the same as a woman doing the same job? Why?

2 Read the extract from an article and

BREAK

EXTREME

GRACE

CRY

3

5.7 Look at the pictures (A–C) and listen to a student talking about them. Which two questions is she answering?

4

5.8 Listen to the teacher and check your answers to Ex3.

5

5.9 Listen to the student again and complete the phrases she uses to speculate. 1 I

1 Do you think people should always earn the same money for doing the same job? Why/Why not? 2 Should employers be forced to make public the amount they pay their staff ? Why/Why not? 3 Some people say that women lose out on promotion because of family responsibilities. Is this a valid reason, in your opinion? 4 More and more men are staying at home to bring up children while their wives work. Is this a good thing? Why/Why not?

A

B

be wrong but …

2 I’m

that …

3 As

as I can gather, …

4 It could dowith …

Work in pairs. Student A, complete the exam task in Ex3 on this page. Compare a different combination of pictures from the recording. Student B, turn to page 172 and complete the task.

7 Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

SPRING

HAUL

p162

Speaking extra

OK, time out on all those ‘women don’t earn enough’ moans. Check this out: guys who model get up to seventy-five percent less than the girls! Can you believe it? Reasons given include the excuse that women spend more on fashion and beauty products than men but that’s changed big time over the last five years. So, why are they still paid less? Time male models stood up for themselves and refused to work until they get pay parity.

EQUAL

unexpected. The company has experienced several 1 set s in the last financial year and 2 turn was far less than anticipated. Acontributory factor was the initial 3 lay for opening the two new branches. If there is no improvement in the situation, a 4buy or5take will be likely and we should allbe prepared for this. date on what’s happening at work. The rumour is that there have been some dodgy dealings at the top and there’s been a 7cover. They’re on overtime planning to have a 8crack and there’s going to be an 9 cry, I’m convinced. The 10fall from all this will bepeople having to look for a second job.

6

check your answer to Ex 1. Do you agree with the ideas in the article? Why/Why not?

AMBITION

A The outcome of the financial meeting yesterday was

B This is just to give you a quick 6

exam tip: long turn

In the long turn, you will need to use your imagination to speculate about the situation or the people in the pictures. Remember that the questions asked by the examiner are also printed on your sheet; so use them to remind yourself about what you need to speculate about.

Power up

have something to

5 I think I’m

in that.

6 … have nearly always been male, I say.

C

useful language: speculating

exam tip: word formation

It’s highly likely that … In all probability, … There’s no way she could … It’s a pure guess on my part, but … There’s a faint chance that … There’s a (strong) possibility that … The likelihood of … is pretty low. It’s a foregone conclusion that …

Remember to reread the text when you’ve finished, to check whether the words you have formed make sense in context.

Speak up 6 Work in pairs. Do you think the things children spend their

pocket money on has changed a lot since you were a child? How?

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Speaking extra provides more general speaking practice on the topic.

Plan on asks students to: • analyse the exam task, with tasks and tips to help them; • work on appropriate language; • break down tasks such as how to make an argument in writing.

Write on walks students through planning and writing their own answer.

5 All or nothing

WRITING

exam tip: report

Report on the school fair

Power up 1 Work in pairs and discuss the questions. 1 Why might people want feedback after an event they have organised? 2 What kind of information would it be most helpful to report on and why? • numbers of attendees • amount of money taken • quality of what was offered • layout or design of the event • who helped • things that went wrong • things that could be changed for any future event • how much attendees enjoyed the event oractivity 3 What sorts of things can go wrong with an event?

Plan on 2 Look at the picture and read the writing task. What do you have to write about? Who will read your report?

Your school recently held a fair where students sold products and services to raise money for charity. Write a report for the organising committee describing the fair, explaining how successful it was and what you would recommend for next time.

3 Work in pairs. Read the report opposite and discuss the questions.

1 Is a report formal? Why? 2 Why does the report use headings? 3 Which of these language features might you typically need in a report?

This report gives information about the charity fair which was recently held at our school. The report outlines what took place at the fair and comments on its success as well as giving recommendations for any similar events in the future. The fair The one-day fair was set up in order to raise money for a children’s charity which the school supports. There were twenty stands selling a range of products. Some of these were homemade, such as the cakes and biscuits and the handmade jewellery, made by the students. In addition, many of the stalls sold second-hand goods. Over 250 people attended the fair and most of the goods were sold by the end of the day. Results The fair was very successful, raising over £2,500 for the charity. Many of the people attending commented on how well organised it was and most said they had bought something. The homemade products were the most successful and many of these had sold out by lunchtime on the day. The charity was grateful for the support and promised to spend the money on toys and books for the children it helps.

9 Work in pairs. Read the writing task and decide what details you need to write about.

Your school recently held a quiz night in order to raise money for a school trip. Write a report for the organising committee describing the event, explaining how successful it was and what you would recommend for next time.

2 Think about the balance of information you are giving. Is the amount of text after each heading roughly the same or different? Why?

4 Work in pairs. Read the first sentence under ‘The fair’ in the report in Ex 3. Answer the questions.

10 Follow these steps to plan your report.

1 What is the purpose of this topic sentence?

1 Think about the objectives of the event.

2 Does the sentence include detail or a general point?

2 Make notes on the information you need (e.g. people attending, how entertaining it was, profit).

3 What kind of information comes after this sentence?

3 Decide what went well and what might need improving. What suggestions do you have?

5 Identify the topic sentences in the other sections of the report in Ex 3.

4 Work out which headings you need (a maximum of four). Think about the focus of each section.

6 Which of these is a topic sentence? 1 The fair was a great success and there were several reasons for this. 2 I think, of the people who attended, only a small percentage will return next year.

5 Work in pairs and check your ideas.

11

Improve it encourages students to reflect on their work and make improvements.

Write your report in 220–260 words. Remember to use formal language.

3 One student sold ten-minute sessions of football coaching.

7 Write a topic sentence for this paragraph.

Recommendations Due to its success, it would definitely be sensible to run this fair again, but there are a couple of improvements that could be made. We should start organising the fair earlier so that students have time to produce more of the popular handmade goods. In this way we may make even more money. We could also offer more refreshments, to encourage people to stay longer and buy more.

The most successful stalls were those selling food and also those where the students were offering to do something for someone, like clean their car. The less successful ones were craft stands where people were selling items that they had made, like jewellery.

words in these phrases?

1 This report outlines …

4 We should consider … 5 It would be a good idea to …

2 The results show that …

• describing

• thanking

3 In this way we can …

6 In conclusion, …

• recommending

• suggesting

useful language:

4 Do you need to give your own opinion? If so, in which part?

Improve it 12 Read your report and make notes on these assessment points.

Communicative achievement • Did you use formal language? Underline any examples. Content • Did you cover all the points in the task fully?

8 What other words can you use to replace the highlighted

• complaining

• Did you give clear reasons for your recommendations? Language • Did you use formal language? Organisation • Did you organise your information and use headings?

13 Work in pairs. Read your partner’s report and discuss which of the things in Ex 12 you each did better and why. What can you learn from each other?

making recommendations It would be best (+ to-infinitive) You should (+ bare infinitive) It may be a good idea (+ to-infinitive) You might need (+ to-infinitive) You could try/think about (+ -ing form) I would suggest (+ that clause)

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Write on

1 Match the headings in the report in Ex 3 with words in the writing task in Ex 2. What is the relationship between the headings and the task?

• explaining • persuading

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Use headings to make your report easy to read.

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Useful language boxes provide a wide range of language options for a specific function.

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Unit checks provide two pages of practice to review the unit language.

The Switch on video lessons provide authentic clips on a variety of engaging and thought-provoking topics.

UNIT CHECK Review 1

5.10 Listen to two friends discussing adverts on phones and answer the questions. 1 What is the boy’s prediction about the situation with phone ads? 2 How do we know the girl is irritated with the ad companies?

INDEPENDENT LEARNING

UNIT CHECK

2 Think about the listening skills you have

Buying and selling

practised in this unit and answer the questions.

a soft touch (phr) clutter up (phr v) easy prey (for) (phr) go without (phr v) hang onto (phr v) hard sell (phr) insatiable desire (for) (phr) knock-down price (phr) part with our money (phr) pass up an opportunity (phr) push the right buttons (phr) sentimental value (phr) spare cash (phr) splash out (on) (phr v) watch your money (phr)

1 Were they global or specific skills? Why do you think both are important?

SWITCH ON

2 When you listen, which skills do you feel more confident in: listening for global meaning or listening for detail?

The scenic route

3 How do you think you can improve the skill you are less confident in? Think of two ways. Then work in small groups and share yourideas.

1 Work in groups and discuss the questions.

3 Look at the speaking skills you have practised

1 What is more valuable to you, time or money?

so far. How confident are you that you can use these skills? Number the skills 1–4 (1 = the skill you feel most confident in; 4 = the skill you need to improve most).

2 What sort of trade-offs would you be prepared to make?

2

Watch the clip. Jordon was going to take the train home. Why did he change his mind?

3

collaborating in discussion

Watch again. Work in pairs and answer the questions.

making comparisons

1 List the stages in Jordon’s journey home via Berlin. How many were there in total?

justifying choices/decisions

A We haven’t got the ad ready yet. 3 A: B Don’t worry. I B: I

1 How can you get feedback on your speaking?

1

3 Can any of the exam tips you have seen helpyou?

2 Jordon’s story will inspire other people to save money.

Work in groups of three to plan three different journeys to one destination.

wordlist. 2 Work in pairs. Find the following in the B: Yes. In fact, she

Then test your partner: give them a definition or manager in the next month. part of the item. Your partner has to say the item.

5 How can you practise more? What kind of

2 Agree on a specific meeting point at your destination, because you’re each going to travel there in different ways. 3 Pick a different main mode of transport for each person.

2 four idioms 3 four phrasal verbs

• Timing and durations of every journey (and total).

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present tenses

ways of talking about the future

The exam starts at 9.30.

future simple

They’re putting the plan to the shareholders at tomorrow’s meeting.

• facts. Most stores will be closed over the holiday period. • decisions made when speaking. Don’t worry, I’ll ask my dad to pick us up after the film. • an assumption about the present. He’ll be home right now, sitting in front of the TV with a bag of crisps!

future continuous We use the future continuous for: • an activity that will be in progress at or around a point of time in the future. Come round this evening. I’ll be doing my homework, but you can help me! This time next month we’ll be working on a completely new project. • an activity that is part of a normal or organised sequence of events. I’ll be seeing Tom sometime tomorrow, so I’ll tell him to phone you.

future perfect simple and continuous We use the future perfect simple for: • an assumption about the present: The conference will have finished by now. • an activity that will be completed before a point in the future. The storm will have passed by this time tomorrow.

an aptitude

in

provide

the information

investigate

attitudes

the the ethical

mine 5(v)In our business project they innovation. pocket (v) school-leavers pulse6(n)We entering the business world. set the bar (phr) spouse (n) the blog and complete the gaps with one word only. 5 Read stumble (n, v) the rumour’s going round that (idiom) the time is ripe (idiom) tick a box (phr) unparalleled (adj) You think we 0 are just there to serve you, and utopian we(adj) are. But in this blog I’m 1 to tell you what

Sales assistants: what we really think

effect you have 2 us. We want to help you, but sometimes you don’t behave very well 3 understand our role. For instance, we don’t like it when you come into the shop five minutes before when we are 4 to close. It shows a complete disregard for us. Another thing is we can’t change the prices no matter how much you ask. The prices are fixed by the store, 5 us. And please understand we cannot always 6 you a refund. Just because you want one does not mean you are entitled to one. Also, we do not know every single item in the store by heart. We 7 try to help you, but don’t blame us if we don’t know everything. What you can do is ask for our assistance rather than rummaging through everything and making a mess. What we 8 asking is please be considerate of us when you come shopping.

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Independent learning sections build through the units and help students reflect on their own learning.

REFERENCE

I’m positive you’ll get through the exams easily.

play

the reasons create generate (v) get the hang of (idiom) 1 He tried to give a heads up (idiom) slowdown in customers. glass 2ceiling (n) They want to hot property (phr) management of the company. immersive 3 We(adj) need to initial (adj) businesses and see if they are more popular. living4proof (n) you need to I think thecustomers as soon as you can. mind-blowing (adj)

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Wordlists include all the explicitly taught vocabulary from the unit.

GRAMMAR FILE UNIT 5

Pam and Mike won’t arrive before 8.30 – they never do.

towards

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Grammar file at the back of the Student’s Book gives detailed explanations for all grammar topics

• predictions and beliefs (often following I think, I know, I’m sure, etc.).

Preposition for

more opportunities

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We use the future simple for:

Noun a part

demonstrate

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5 Compare the three routes and choose the one you would like to take as a group and present it to the class, explaining why you opted for this route above the others.

Projects involve research, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity, and are flexible, allowing teachers to take a quicker or more in-depth approach.

Verb identify

which have the same form for both noun and verb. Student A, write example sentences for the M05 Gold XP C1 95056.indd 76 verbs. Student B, do the same for nouns. Copy each other’s sentences to keep as a record.

• Prices of every journey (and total). • Any linking moments (do you have to take a bus to the airport, do you have to wait for a train?).

the words in the table. Use one word from each column for each phrase. You may need to use some words more thanonce.

3 Work in pairs. Find five words in the wordlist

1

4 Research and create a real timetable and annotated map for each person, which should include:

(take up) a role as

1 four adjective + noun collocations

things can you listen to in order to hear different skills being used? Write down two things you will do to improve your speakingskills.

1 Brainstorm where it is you want to go. It can be anywhere on Earth.

B No, but they B: (be) before the end of theyear. Choose five nouns formed from phrasal verbs from A Have you A: spoken to the charity we are helping yet? the wordlist and write five gap-fill5sentences. Then B No, B: but I (do) by the end of the day. work in pairs and complete each other’s sentences. 6 A: A She’s very good at her job, isn’t she?

4 What do you want to focus on next time you practise speaking? Is there a specific skill you want to practise?

Project

( just / do) it. (start) now.

A Are the adverts going on the web this month? 4 A:

Practice

2 What do you think are some ways you can improve your pronunciation?

1 Jordon may be able to save money, but the time he spends on doing so simply isn’t worth it.

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of second-hand goods, hold4upOnce I’ve sold / I sell this batch cocooned (adj) buy more upsell. intake I go/ I’ll go online and try tocome in forto (phr v) angry that we’ve sold so few 5 David is being / going to be defining offspring (adj) things. He’ll be / have been working for over three months outcome diagnosis (n) on his new site. outlay dodgy (adj) 6 When will the ad be / is the ad ready? I’ll have to / I’m outsethaving to get it up on the site dole out (phr before the v) weekend. setback downward spiral (phr) Complete the conversations with the(phr correct 3 takeover eat up v) future form of the verbs in brackets. turnover embark upon (phr v) A A: The products we ordered haven’t arrived! 1 upbringing emote (v) B OK, so what B: workout flip(we (v) / do)? A My train might be delayedflooded 2 A: on Saturday. (with) (adj) B I don’t mind. I B: (wait) (adj) for you in the full-blown carpark.

4 Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

4 Discuss in pairs. Report your answers to the class.

Other words and phrases

the sentences. 2 Choose the correct words to complete breakthrough a faint chance (that) (phr) 1 I think as entrepreneurs theyahead will get / get the prize buyout of the game (idiom) because the judges will expect / are expecting to reward cover up aptitude (for) (n) innovation above everything else. crackdown bring in (phr v) 2 My parents are helping / will be helping us at the charity cutbacks event once we’ve opened upbudding / we’re (adj) going to open up. downturn bulk (n) They’re going to / ’re to organise the refreshment stand. drawback buyuse into (phrhave v) used / will 3 I think more entrepreneurs will expect / will fallout pop-ups by the end of the decade checkand sth we outwill (phr v) be expecting to see new products week feedback chuckevery out (phr v) on our streets.

speculating

2 Did Jordon pay the money to offset his carbon footprint? How do you know?

5

Nouns from phrasal verbs

accumulate (v) acquire (v) collect (v) consume (v) hoard (v)

connection is between listening and speaking? Is this important? Why?

Activities move from gist to close watching to general discussion questions.

6 What effect does the boy say the girl’s plan will have?

Owning

1 Work in groups. What do you think the

4 What does the girl predict about how her time will beused? 5 What is the girl’s plan for managing ads?

Wordlist

Listening and speaking

3 What does the boy predict about sales?

4 Complete the sentences with fixed phrases formed from

PRACTICE

We use the present simple for timetabled, organised events.

1 Choose the correct verb forms to complete the sentences.

We use the present continuous for arrangements.

1 In 100 years’ time sea levels will rise / have risen dramatically and we’re all living / we’ll all be living in houses on stilts. 2 What time does the exam finish / is the exam finished? I’ll try / have tried to catch Jenna when she comes out.

We use be to for official plans or obligation. No one is to touch the light switch until it’s been checked. We use present tenses (including the present perfect) after time clauses (e.g. clauses with when, before, as soon as, once, after). When/As soon as they give us the right information, I’ll complete the forms. After/Once we’ve spoken to the teacher, we’ll be able to make a start on the research. We use an infinitive after be due to, be about to, be bound to, be expected to and be hoped to. He’s due to arrive at 6.30. We’re about to break for lunch. They’re bound to be late. The government is expected to make an announcement soon. He’s hoped to make a full recovery.

3 I think the president will win / wins another term in office because people will want / are wanting to see him carry through some of the policies he’s promised during thisterm. 4 Jack and Gary are / will be waiting for us at the Arrivals gate when we’ll land / we land. They are going to / to give us a lift home. 5 When I’m finishing / I’ve finished doing these last exercises, I shut / I’ll shut down the computer and relax for a while. 6 Sue is being / going to be shattered when she gets here. She’ll travel / have been travelling for ten hours non-stop.

2 Complete the blog with the correct form of these verbs.

verb phrases + prepositions

Sometimes more than one answer is possible.

A fixed phrase is often a verb + a noun/an adjective + a preposition that go together.

apply be (x2) get (x2) have head meet say start (x2) try

We want to impose a ban on people copying our products. We can only expand the phrases before the noun. We typically use an adjective or a determiner before the noun. You need to consider the long-term consequences of your actions. He addressed most of his comments to Paula, who seemed to agree with him. We can sometimes substitute the noun in the phrases as long as the meaning does not change. We wanted to explain his effect on employee morale. Many nouns are followed by the same prepositions as their adjective or verb. We get complaints about our prices. People complain about our prices.

We use the future perfect continuous for an activity that will have been in progress up to a certain point in the future.

The book had an influence on his thinking. The book was influential on his thinking.

We need to hurry. Charlie will have been waiting for ages by the time we get there.

Note: There is no rule to explain which prepositions go with which verbs or nouns. It is important to learn and record these as complete phrases.

going to

I just can’t believe that this time next week we all goodbye to each other. We 2 our last lesson together and we 3 ready for the big final party! It 4 at 7.00 and I don’t think I5 home much before midnight. Of course, I 6 to stay in touch with everyone and I’m sure a lot of us 7 up from time to time but some people 8 bound to lose touch. We 9 off in different directions – some, like me, 10 college in September, others, like my friend Val, 11 for jobs. It’s a bit odd not knowing quite where we 12 in six months. 1

3 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar

meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. Use between three and six words. 1 At this time of day there won’t be a table available for a long time, I’m afraid.

We use going to for: • actions that are inevitable or unstoppable.

GOING

It’s going to get dark soon. She’s going to faint.

I’m afraid it table at this time of day.

• intentions or plans made before the time of speaking.

wait for a

3 Consultation with local people over the next few months is part of the process of the council’s plans for the redevelopment.

Each unit has one page of reference and one page of practice, which can be used for remediation, extra practice or in a flipped classroom scenario.

BE The council about the redevelopment plans over the next few months. 4 Without boosting the river defences, there is no doubt that it will flood again. BOUND The river the defences.

they boost

5 They’re holding the French oral exams in Room 7 from 10.00. TO The French oral exams in Room 7 from 10.00. 6 When you land, please call me so that I know all is well. ONCE Please call me know that all is well.

let me

4 Read the article and complete the gaps with one word only.

LEGO DESIGN When thirteen-year-old Shubham Banerjee 0 from Santa Clara, California, discovered Braille printers, he was the high price 1 cheaper alternative determined to find 2 for the visually impaired. And he did, out of an unlikely medium: LEGO. He had read that most Braille printers than $2,000 and was determined to cost 3 reduce that price. Using a LEGO MINDSTORMS EV3 set and parts from a local hardware store, Banerjee built his first prototype of a Braille printer, with a retail cost the of about $350. The product, which 4 capacity to make computing more affordable for millions of visually impaired people, also caught the attention of his idea. companies that wanted to invest 5 Now a new company has formed and they 6 expecting to launch the new printer for commercial sale later this year. It also means that Banerjee has gained a reputation as an innovator, which means his investors be able to come up with many hope he 7 to be working more ideas. Meanwhile, he’s 8 on his next project as soon as schoolends.

2 The company’s plans are to open four new stores in this area by next September.

They’re going to make everyone pay more tax. I’m not going to invite Harry because he doesn’t get on well with Jenny.

OPENED By next September four new stores in this area.

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UN T WALKTHROUGH

WORKBOOK UNIT Wr t ng and Speak ng pages focus on subsk s ana ys s and usefu anguage and nc ude an opt ona product ve task n every un t

Workbook units mirror the Student’s Book with additional practice of all language, skills and exams tasks.

Un t check pages at end of each un t he p students check they understand the core anguage from the un t

5 All or nothing

WRITING

Report on

True (T) or False (F)?

5 All or nothing

UNIT CHECK

4 Read the report and check your answer to Ex 3.

1 Are the statements about writing a report 1 It should be informal.

Art Club Sale

3 Complete the text with the correct prepositions.

1 Complete the sentences with the correct

Trends in shopping

form of the verbs in brackets.

(stay) 1 A month from now I at a campsite with my friends in Italy.

Most people’s attitude 1 online shopping is that in time it will replace the high street. However at certain times of the year the 2 By the end of this month I high street shops are still flooded 2 customers, so I’m not (know) my neighbour for exactly a year. 3 sure whether there enough a decline in high 5.4 Read the examiner's introduction to aislong turn evidence task below and 4 3 I have been told all students are 4 It often contains passive forms. look at the pictures. Listenstreet to a student doing thethink task we andhave answer the information 4 spending. I don’t enough (attend) the interview. 5 It is usually one long piece of textthe with the in bold in The questions. nouns the sentences sale (1–8) to the meanings (A–H). 2 Match spending patterns to be able to make this assumption, and theories dancing. complete the long turnBy the end of this term I 1 Read the clues (1–6) below and 1 Tick (✓) what you should do4 inI love heading ‘Report’. Members of thehas club were asked 5 talk about? Which student 1 I can’t believe what a show-off Daniella become since to she got her bechoose basedto more reliable data than we currently (go) to 1classes forpictures three does theshould the notes about a problem at a college exam task. 6 It should start by outlining its purpose. donate paintings or drawings on the topic of ‘animals’ to be displayed in new job. 2 Which of these questions doesItshe answer? years. using these words. You do not need two have. is true that some of the larger department stores are in financial 1 speak on your own for a minute the town library for a fortnight in June. The artworks were priced by the 7 It sometimes includes a complaint. of the words. 6 2 The recent cutbacks mean there isn’tand enough money for the teachers’ A (see) Whyyou might about money in these ways? 5 The doctor in they be learning difficulty, but the causes this could be many. It could committee the prices indicated beneath each piece. People visiting 2 comment on your partner’s long turn 8 It should include some form of association. ten minutes. Apologies for the 7 B delay. How useful might these waystoofpeople’s learningdissatisfaction about money be? the library could contact the Art Club to buy a piece. Posters advertising 3 discuss issues raised in the long be due the current offer on turn with recommendation. breakthrough cover-up crackdown drawback 3 It’s important that we keep details to ourselves so there 6 The shop (close) 19.00,the people thethese sale were displayed by local shops.isn’t an C Howatmight behigh feeling? the street or it could be that their relationship 8 the your partner fallout intake setbacks turnover Choose the correct to complete the text. of panic. so I don’t 3 think I’m going to makewords it in time. are 2 Read the extracts (1–5). Whichoutbreak D How memorable might these situations customer needs tobe? change. Theabout results 4 choose two out of three pictures to talk her abilities contributed her percent of the artwork on 7 This time next week I (fly) inappropriate for a report? 4 Unfortunately, her arrogance The sale proved very successful andto seventy about Here at Shopping Hub we asked you about your attitudes downfall. Examiner: Your pictures show people learning about money in different over the Alps. display was sold, raising over £2,000 for the Art The money will be with in which people are talking about beginning start-up Complete the sentences the correct form of these 1 You are going to listen to five short extracts 1 Club. 1 5 describe the pictures you choose in detail impose / identify a to e-shopping. We decided not to Choose the correct words to complete the text. 1 ways. 4 5 No matter what happens,invested Mark continues have a for positive outlook Problem: staff 1 key Wewords reallyin enjoyed the fashion show and 8 In April I (live) here for in paint to supplies members and on visits to art exhibitions in companies. Look at the two tasks and underline the the options (A–H) in both tasks. verbs. time limit on thetime survey, but to keep it open for as long as 6 answer one question about three the pictures would like to congratulate the life. organisers years exactly. Doesn’t fly! London. Buyers were very impressed by the standard of the artwork, and College head’s solutions: Task 1 Task 2 needed. What aAresponse! So far, more than 1,000 people on their efficient planning. 6 Negotiations stopped after use wordsinvestigate and phrasestake to9talk about is concert many commented the art sale had attracted them to theexamine library have7 impose B a breakdown in that communication. Don’t be what late. The establish 2 For questions 1–5, choose from the list (A–H) theproblem reason and For questions 6–10, choose from the list (A–H) thethey advice each of the have taken part and have 2let / made comments on our similar and different about the pictures then discovered other library services. So, it appears (start) at 21.00. Is it true that women are where expected tohad wear make-up to work in some each speaker gives for starting their3company. speaker gives to 7new entrepreneurs. blog. You only have to 3provide / examine the evidence, that the sale benefitted both the library and the Art Club. 8 choose your favourite picture highlight of students companies? 10 Don’t worry about forgetting your lines your to see that Shopping Hub is a1 hit! 2 I1feel future eventoverreact such this would A encouragement from friends and family Speaker 1 (A, don’t to embarrassing situations Speaker 1 6 second-hand Choose the best answer B oraC) toA complete theas sentences. 5.1 Listen to thecomments, conversations and check 2Reaction 4 tonight. Nobody (notice). Recommendations I had accumulated / consumed so much stuff that it was almost 8 Although the college set-up was a little unusual, most of the students We all 4 or B?answers to t from Our play / make an essential part in shaping B reassessing priorities Speaker 2 benefi 2 B more don’t effective shut out advertising, the people around you Speaker 7 sale would indicate that we should definitely repeat 2 Which student is correct, Ayour Excustomers 3. The success2of this preferred it to a traditional one. #welovemarkets impossible to get into my bedroom. It didn’t help that I would 2hoard / such as From anxious about thebetter placement of posters and the future ofto Shopping Hub and your responses have Choosebecause the correct words complete TOPthe teachers: A: Listen carefully to the 2questions it next year 3and 8we could consider extending the two-week display to C experience living abroad Speaker 3 3 C don’t get too comfortable Speaker 4 5 even short radio advertisem*nts. acquire text. 5.2 Listen again and answer questions. provided / given the us with essential feedback. Weanything will use at all that people passed onto me, rather than throwing you’ll need to remember them and they’re ways of talking aboutDthe future buying and that selling A something that causes loss or failure it my imagination second-hand? If5 the a full month.4 I would also suggest we haveIsadditional paintingsor are we loving listening to an expert Speaker 4 4 D don’t expect to still have a social life Speaker 9 sometimes quite long. You always ask your feedback to 6create deliver away. So, even I decided that I had 3acquired / consumed far too many and drawings to replace those that are sold. It may1 also be a good the ideaevidence 1 can Why isn’t it the man’s favourite shop?/ play new waysit to B something you put on your face to enhance your appearance head: no55 5 of flea markets and junk the money for charityFrom the college Speaker the crossword. 1 Match the examples (1–7) with E raising E don’t worry too much about mistakes Speaker 5 101 Use the clues to completewe the examiner to repeat them though. higher quality products. to others offer toadmire draw orthem paint library visitors’ pets. In this way, we would things. I’ve thrown away over ten pairs of shoes, but I did keep my first 6 1 Itthe is clear that social media consumption in 2030. 2 What does the woman want to buy? C a person who tries to make descriptions (A–G). shops, it seems we do. From college board: F meeting people with the same problems don’t everywill piece of advice you’re given maximise the amount of money raised for the 1club. B: Don’t only talk about what’s happening 3 It is hopedFthat the accept next show be equally ever running shoes for their 4sensitive / sentimental value! I’m keeping Tiny 3 Where does the woman want to go? A will be driving B will have driven C drives D the failure of a system or relationship in the pictures, you’ve got to use your Here are just a few things you told us … G talking with a foreign friend G don’t lose your enthusiasm as successful as this one. I wanted to 22 attitudes towards buying away from the shops, because I’m easy 5prey / ploy when it comes to a What istoo! the present for? E reductions in expenses imagination and do some4guessing Influenceradvice marketing promotes products and servicessecond-hand and here’s what you H getting advice from peers Hthe don’t listen to your careers department’s ‘Commerce is evolving and I think that Shopping told me. 12More teachers have upon left the college inanalytics. advanced Marketeers 3 bargain. I’m such a 6soft / gentle touch, I can’t say no! It doesn’t even Where istoheget going to put the Irose bush? F a general attitude towards I’m5desperate my own place. knew that using peoplesomething that consumers admire and respect. Called last previousBfive years. Hub 7takes / has an aptitude for creative thinking.’ 7 with these synonyms.3a Complete A year willthan havethe relied will rely C will have been relying phrases fornever speculation with 3 5 Replace the highlighted words in the sentences chance onthe markets. You have to be hard- / soft- sell marketing to tempt me. I think it’s the knock41. The auction got off the ground at way about 6 Has she eaten takeaway thisaweek? I 1will / would neverabe able to get mortgage, G the something is arranged or organised ‘influencers’, these people are usually prominent users‘It’s worth 5.3 Listen and complete two tasks 2 2 Thethe college head in hasExdecided not to tell the these words. 8 8 2 4.30 which was way too late as loads of ‘ Take / Create a chance on shopping at Shopping know what you’ll find.’ down / up prices that are so irresistible for me. But I am determined so I’ve been looking for a rented flat. I am / was ofhappens social media platforms as Facebook, Instagram It’s official! We are spending less money on H something suddenly an outthat 3college Salesboard indicate by why 2030 the majority of us time the that reasons and instead by doing thissuch consider indicate might outlines purpose 4 Complete the text with theseCwords / phrases. 6going visitors had got fed up and left by then. the definitions withhas these 3 Complete Hub. Sally You won’t regret to ask my friend if I could stay it! with her, luxury goods and our consumer behaviour and YouTube, impressive audiences. Social media not fall back on bad habits and 9consume / collect things that essentially saidwords that he/ phrases. is going to implement a new The UK TV show Dragon’s Den iswith a very recommend to sum up highly likelihood may electric car. ‘I 4 an aptitudeallfor faint findinggather a bargain. I always Look at the phrasal verbs in bold in theassentences (1–8). Dotrusted they have a 3 popular is changing. Here are some examples. organisational structure. then I heard about ‘tiny dwellings’. Just in time, influencers arebeen seen an authentic and source business format that has pure right well would just take up space. I’m also going to take a long hard look at what I bought overwhelmed B will buy C are going to buy find knock down prices!’ a soft touch buy up easy prey go without similar (S) or different (D) meaning to the nouns in Ex 2? cliché embrace intuition Aonwill thehave backburner replicated in many– countries overaim the world. abouthoard to / would neverdesire give up because I 3wasonto and using can be an effective In5a It may 1allthem The of strategy. this be a good 3 There have been record number of 10 5 hanging insatiable consume / acquire in terms of food each week because I am sure that I 1 We holiday in other people’s houses. prototype retreat seek out 1 and Theevaluate organiserssomewhat spend all day setting the hall preparation for theidea ‘Itto is … important to 5 the 5 This report aims describe report is up to twist, … 1 It’sa relationship with likely that … and stay to the this year, so the toglasses the search with my parents. paradoxical theinmost forward-thinking virtual reality as 4applications Expertsaudience say thatcollege we sentimental value Predictions say that this will have Even if an influencer’s never grows above the buy far more than I need. Enough is enough! Below are some business ideas, some are real ceremony. the success of the recent charity event held head will emphasis this in his reports. seller, it makes parting with 2money The report describes 6 In conclusion brands are2 relying on the simplest, most traditional It’s a easier!’ guess my part,are these cheap micro apartments ‘Tinyon dwellings’ gifts. completely changed the1way we holiday. tens of thousands, : notcommonplace dealing something a while ideas thatnobody appeared on the show and some that with doesn’t automatically mean atfor Barton School. 2 Sadly, believed Fern because she is … known for making up stories I should say that … but … 4 The teachers areconsidered concerned that there will ofbox advertising: word-of-mouth. designed for single people like me. I am so it’s not priority fake. Write ‘R’form in the for the ones you Down A will beimpact seeing going to see C are seeabout that they will havebecause less of an than B oneaare with hundreds ‘I don’t have to watch my money! I 6 a limit 2 We hail taxis by smartphone apps and A year without her life. be negative consequences to the college would Theyou results show 1 To use something7or Iuse 3 In probability …because by the end of this month I the sentences with the correct prepositions. pleased 5 Complete think are real and ‘F’ for the3ones think Complete the text with thesepeople wordssay / phrases. 2 business the first examplecan or production something upmyself /suggest finishand something (7)over.’ of thousands as :larger followings sometimesofresult in that on-demand Read the text and complete the gaps with one word only. 4 on I never go plan of action.shopping 3 Everyone is tired of Dan showing 4 that …off about his talents and that … online for thirty-five years. 5head’s By 2030 we are fake. There is one word / phrase you do not need. willhavebeen 4 There’s a chance that … looking / will have looked clothes, because they always 1 It’s not a good idea hanging models will become more 3 common.reduced engagement. : ask or look for something in particular 2 To bring or gather things together from different places and sources, accomplishments. 5 According to have the college however, Read the How many sections do you 3 head, 4 We should bear in mind 8 In(7)this wayon your comments, we I’d Based for aall flat… for nearly six months! And by then I A will be shopped B task. will be shopping go out of fashion. 5 say I second-hand bepushes wrong, but 1 Umbrella vending machine over a period of time : know something because of thethe way you feel, 3 We choose to buy online4over the high he has experienced no obstacles in 4 She let the issue fall down her list of priorities and will address it as soon think report should contain: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 would … 5 It may sound amazing, but buy into bulk defining generated initial This type of attitude from influencer may be frustrating will have the … right buttons! Cbased will have been shopping 2 Try not to clutter your room with too many things. 6 As far as I can … seen / will have been seeing more 2 Money mouse trap not onan athe fact street, and in 2020 and beyond we are to implementing new structure. as possible. or 6? prospective spouses Across Michelle McGagh decided to and even surprising to company executives who are used thanfifty! 3 Don’t pass the opportunity to try rafting. It’s a great Read task Ex 3 to again andthat write your own report for another 7 I think I’m in saying that … 35 Egg 6 that has been said sorealise, often that it’s see global e-commerce 5 conferences. 6 : something What the college head doesn’t is that We boiling should machine break the session downthe into twoinparts ensure people 1 Streetthe markets around the world are being forced to to focusing on thenot bottom line. However, the freedom to choose 3 To store something away out of sight, typically in a secretive way (5) I have a meeting with agency on Monday and experience. club. Make notes about what you will include. Think about: useful An art club you belong to recently 8 It could be that … the considered college board has anymore decided to investigate 4 Collapsible water bottle This could also be indicative of a certain level of cynicism from don’torganised get bored. 4 We like niche advertising and Berlin will 1 luxuries a year. what they will3endorse in in athe level of authenticity that issentences. as the4pressures from evolve reinvent theresults words toto form 4 Toproducts getthe antask increasing number I 6am to seefor / will see She a and flatrealised the same day. I am I splashed on the gorgeous sandals for the summer. I just an activity raise money for the You all the colleges thecorrect area toorder learn more consumers, get tired of having pushed on them or quantity of things (10) 6 this next spring. :Put accept an idea,inopinion or event willingly 1 who including allcosts the points be hosting a trade fair on 9 I say that … 56 Dog grooming vacuum We club. need to cut back on administrative as far in as possible. Time to get away from stereotypes 7 thatexcited she had ahypermarkets tendency tosure important in ensuring the marketing campaign isisbeen successful, e-commerce being felt. Itthe would seemfrom Ex 3 that the will be /are and really about it and I’m itListen couldn’t resist. 5 use, To obtain something by buying it or being given it (7) asked a report for the about ng rates it determined Thinkstyle about it this way: are will you morethe likely to was /staffi the / about /because investhave /or intelligence / into/ write artificial / company / to /by . companies. 5.5 again tick (✓) phrases 5 andthat :1move away from something someone, you who read report 10 There’s a strong that … 67 Storytelling teddy bear The company prides itself2onwhich looking out forwill its’ teachers’ well-being. 5 We shop with our mobile7and tracking 2 in the resolve long run. the clubcurrent organiser outlining the event, evaluatingbuy something that your friend recommended or something to identify is to be the one for So, vendors friends, stay tuned, student thefact challenge thatme. street are uses. rising 2 5 In I could have bought the whole shop. I loved it all. From the 1 scenemeans of the we are going to see more making it more worthwhile usually afterand a negative all experience 3 being objective, using passive Insert one offorms these words to complete the sentences. 8 Despite the security measures, of the2suspects managed tothat break the outcomes and making One recommendations problems. recommended bysome the company making money off product? things, including that she adidn’t be having / ’m going to have flat I 8’ll of these businesses ideas received grandmother’s sadness as she peeled andthings a more creative vision of trading 3 6 I’ve decided to go a summer holiday because I want to get knew / something society / impact a / weor / too that /It’s technology / would mobile / on station. / :2feel that is too /much tailor-made advertising. 8 Knowing who and what you are working key.time out /of the police 4 dividing your report into sections with clear headings 5.6 Look at the pictures again. Listen to the instructions for a forwith theisnext the activity takes place. 6 need, and so she decided to give them warming party in no time! £140,000 in investment on the show. away in November. potatoes in the kitchen to the closing shot have /to massive / . a history of interaction with cult deal with before is evident. The regeneration of urban city important fordiffi the brand to have out onto up (x3) without different task and record yourinner response. 6 We love second-hand shopping apps and 5 using phrases from Ex 5 Write your report in 220–260 words. Which one do you think it was? away. She made a selection of items, only of the men laughing around the table as more In addition to freedom over who they work3 with, most areas has created the opportunity 4 the for influencer in order to understand factors such as how they by 2020 we will have been using them things served them dinner, their 2 Listen to your people recording and check. Celine Leroy, a fashion and lifestyle blogger, claims to only 7 1 I could have gone mad in that shop. It was so me, I could have bought influencers prefer to have freedom over how they work. One of 3 by / big data / become / have / will / key / a company’s / 2030 / success / respond to negative feedback, how often they post new content vibrant market stalls. Young are also rising to the over ten years. which wereinfluencers either valuable or that had a accept offers from companies whose products have something your latest advertising campaign reinforced the shop. the crucial mistakes brands make when approaching to / . 54 55 Did youorganised talk for a and minute? challenge with1markets run 5 7 Don’t take your eye off the ball. The and nextwhether it is of consistent quality. 4 to do with her brand identity, saying, ‘For example, I recently . is to assume know best. to forget that stereotypes and didn’t reflect modern family 2 My mum is a bit low so I’m going to splash and buythat her they something nice. It’s easyspecial 2 Did you use language for comparing? future consumer global conference starts teenagers. Giving young nail varnishes on my vlog. although an influencer may have limited tools their disposal, She at decided that for a whole year she people the opportunity to exhibit structures. It seems foolish that you really So, why this These pop / robotics / month / a / . reviewed some rainbow-coloured 3 I’d love some new clothes, but I’ll have to go until I get my allowance. 4 return take /to in the / topromotional / I’m / next /basics? advanced / course 3 Did you for speculating? 6 on 6 September. It made sense because my logo has a rainbow in it. On the tools were enough to enable them towould become theirmoney entrepreneurial skillsuse as language either a trader onlypowerful spend on the mortgage, customers would believed that 3 culture personalities are so effective precisely because highlighted word in eachthat sentence. 2 Correct the those 4 lucrative I’m goingoffers for the I’ll throw away anything other hand, I turned down some tominimalist advertise look andmarketing 4 Did you avoid giving detailed force. M01 Gold XP C1 95162.indd 54 19/12/2017 16:37 M01 Gold XP C1 95162.indd 55 19/12/2017 4 performer; offering locals an eclectic range ofdescriptions? products the ideas presented in your of how much influence they have over their audience; they are utility bills anda food. Her friends were clutters my fl at. the 1 The article provides information of products because they had nothing to with what I stand for. I’m 5 years / have / here / five / September / will / working / by / I / been / for / . A something 7 second-hand ad. Having long considered your company’sthat is inevitable or unstoppable so engaged and responsive to the people that follow them sceptical saying that she had always been clothes, food products and growth of hang second-hand not just going to push any old product followers.’ 5 Thoseonto jeansmy don’t fit anymore, but I’ll them in shopping. case I lose some B offensive, something a 5 campaigns to be outdated and I that will be completed before that these followers are more likely to trust something that when it of music, magic or theatre. crafts through to performances weight. 2 People who sell second-hand goods usually develop a certain time limit was pleased to see the discontent that this As of with most in business, timing is everything. While they endorse. 6 everyone / used / will / by / banking / soon / online / be / very / . relationship their customers. came to luxury goods and that she wouldn’t An incredibly successful scheme with clear benefits for all. 6 I love a bargain and I never pass the opportunity tothings go sales shopping. C online something bidding on for a well-known influencer to represent product and that will have been in progress up campaign has 5 be ableyour to resist temptation. Michelle also 3 There is evidence an increasing tendency Whilst these are still challenging times for market vendors, 53 52 successful blogger is Daniella Barbosa, who Eric Woodward, a video game YouTuber, need to a timea limit One such might get aasbrand immediate coverage, building a relationship the confirms sentencethis halves. 3 Match in the press. I hope that this represents to buy second-hand opposed to new. thought that at the end of the year she would correct to complete these initiatives are having a positive impact 8 4 Choose for caution. ‘A lot of my followers have been watching my with someone with fewer followers could bring bigger returns in writes about healthythe eating. Shewords says that, the mostthe text. 6 something moment forDyour companythat is considered or believed to 1 The design of Ithe shop pushes all theberight buttonsto identify the cause on 4 bad It would interesting have an 6 videos since they were the poorly-edited ones made with the long run. the health of market commerce. be aapproach. future fact effective campaigns she has worked on were those that and that you use it to change your second-hand markets. to spend money as fast as possible and that salesman was some insistent putboom me offinbuying it; lighting in my university halls,’ 2he The says. ‘They helped get that it reallythe her determine the content. ‘I once worked M01 Gold XPto C1 help 95162.indd 52 19/12/2017 16:37 M01 Gold XP C1 95162.indd 53 19/12/2017 16:37 E something that is arranged officially allowed to where I am now, by liking and my videos, so I of don’t 5 my One way of obtaining information would be to investigate 3 sharing I’ve already spent most allowance this month, she would want to go on a shopping spree with a supermarket chain who turned had up with a list of F something that is organised or timetabled The economic recession an impact onrecipes people’s attitude to money, but feel it’s fair to exploit that to make some quick cash. There isattitudes of buying used goods. and 7 4 My sister is really mean when it comes to spending, 1 me to cook; I felt they me /for mygoing skills / will lead to minimalistic so much competition nowadays perhaps we just neverwanted realisedtoit use would was that I feel protecting my brand So, should at the same timewith as brands are moving into a future of social an article, action in progress, repeated in thefor future, 6 The be based data Read the first paragraph ofGthe then the shops. But it didn’t happen. Whilst 5 I just couldn’t resist it findings On the other another whole food brand people will justbuying unfollow media-based strategies, Younghand, people now buy ‘green’ and it is predicted that we 2are to / is the most important thing. Otherwise or part of the anticipated programmeand audience.lifestyles. about people’s attitudesadvertising and shopping habits. they are also leaning on the read paragraphs (A–G). Underline information before the experiment she had been me and follow someone else.’ 6 I have this insatiable desire age-old adage of quality over quantity. told me whichgoing products wanted asked to / they will see more to of promote this in theand future. Tendencies to recycle and in the paragraphs that is similar to the first 8 51 50 for most 3 me to use them in the way I though It was a much repurpose mean that inbest. the future people aremore to live / are going to be living / paragraph in the article to help you decide A for a pepperoni pizza. salespeople, she now felt indifferent to their enjoyable experience.’ will have been living well for less. Hopefully this mindset 4will have created / which option goes in the first gap. B I hate it when they give you the hard sell. hard sell. will have been creating / is to create a more conscientious approach to The key isspending to find someone is ‘on brand’, own C because it’sM01 such a lovely place to wander around. Read the text. Six paragraphs have been for future who generations, and wewhose can say with confidence that in the M01 Gold XP C1 95162.indd 50 19/12/2017 16:37 Gold XP C1 95162.indd 51 19/12/2017 16:37 Match the highlighted words and phrases in these price. comments from social media influencers to the words in bold in the text. personal brand and5will audience aligns with target market removed. Choose from the paragraphs (A–G) D at such a knock-down future we be spending / willthe have spent / are to spend less on luxury 4 the one which best fits each gap (1–6). There 6 of the company’s products. readily 1 ‘I have to admit, it was aEgood feeling toto know severalmy money. 5 ‘Building my follower base has been slow going, but in the goods. It looks Many like theinfluencers concept ofwill living ‘light’turn will be / will have been / so I’m going havethat to watch is one extra paragraph which you do not need well-known companies were competing to offer me more future I know I’ll appreciate having had this time to perfect down an offer is that fit stay. with their ideology, even if it means to doesn’t be here to F and never wants to part with money. to use. money to be part of their campaign.’ my editing skills.’ rejecting a large fee.

The aim of this report is to describe an event the art club organised to raise money for the club and to offer recommendations should the event be repeated in the future.

2 It should be objective.

3 It is usually for someone official or in authority.

USE OF ENGLISH 2

Extend

SPEAKING

Extend sect ons g ve pract ce of add t ona Extend vocabu ary tems Enough is enough! from the back of the Student s Book

5 All or nothing

LISTENING

USE OF ENGLISH 1

5 All or nothing

GRAMMAR

5

dwellings

All or nothing Global luxury slowdown A

READING 1

VOCABULARY

5 CONSUMER TRENDS FOR 2030

B

1

C

2

luxuries The revival of markets

4

D E

Minimalism. A trend to stay?

2

3

G

There are so many social media personalities and bloggers nowadays that it’s hard to stand out from the crowd. Influencers have to believe in their own potential to sell a product or a brand.

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Exam tasks are flagged w th the con e

2 ‘I don’t prepare a script before recording videos and I only edit them lightly; I want my followers to get to know the real me.’

6 ‘Allowing you to make decisions about the direction of a campaign is usually a sign that the company respects your voice.’

3 ‘It’s a misconception to think that all advertising deals make M01 Gold XP C1 95162.indd 49 bloggers a lot of money.’

7 ‘I’m always wary of companies who only want to use my name for their own advantage.’

4 ‘Being in direct contact and involved with my followers is what I love most about making these videos.’

8 ‘I try to promote only products that I would use myself.’

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USE OF ENGLISH UNITS 1–9 PART 1

PART 2

For questions 1–8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap.

For questions 9–16, read the text below and complete the gaps with one word only.

USE OF ENGLISH UNITS 1–6

PART 3

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PART 1

PART 2

magic

The power of

Living the

dream

PART 3

PART 4

For questions 17–24, read the text. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.

For questions 25–30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. Use between three and six words, including the word given.

A well-paid job that no one wants

Amazing under-water vision PART 3

0 The organisation wants to make people aware that these social issues exist.

Standing out from the crowd

PART 2

AUD OSCR P

Small changes make a big difference

of sugar

10

PART 4

PP ac ac ce ce e e

AD NG AND U

B challenging

C mitigating

7 A eternal

B lukewarm

C futile

D dismal

8 A failings

B losses 66

C damages

D casualties

Audioscript for all Workbook audio in the back of the book.

Silence please!

PART 4

6 A resounding

Vocabu ary from the text tasks he p students expand the r range even further

19/12/2017 16:37

RAISE Most employers advertising a job with an The organisation wants For questions 17–24, read the text. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form annual salary of almost half a million dollars to raise awareness of these a word that fits in the gap in the same line. According to Darwin, all smiles are a universal human setting would and a beautiful 0 SET social issues. understandably expect that the advert would attract expression and the cause and the 0result of smiling 25 I was too afraid to let him know that I crashed 17 interest from potential CONSIDER the car. doesn’t vary from culture to culture. However, there are candidates. Unfortunately for one doctor who owns For questions 1–8, read the text and decide answer (A,all B,are C orwhat D) best For questions 9–16, read the text and complete DARED different types ofwhich smiles and not they seem. fits each gap. the gaps with one word only. a practice in rural New Zealand he has so far been I him that The easiest way for a company to separate itself from its 0 competitors COMPETE , is a First there is the genuine smile of happiness, which when words 1 of unsuccessful in his 18 PURSUE I crashed the car. is to have something unique. Simple factors such as providing excellent way of transmitting your happiness, joy or gratitude. Then there is a ‘grin a 17second doctor to work alongside him. Despite 26 I can’t think of any word to describe the about the capabilities customer service, speaking TRUTH For questions 17–24, read the text below. Use the word given capitals at the beinginoffered more than twice the average wage it’ smile, which means things are not alright, but you are going to and 2 documentary other than appalling. Some years 0 it to form of your product and demonstrating a anda 18 LIMIT end ofa*go some of the lines word that fits in the gap the same line.area, for in a doctor in the the job advert is still to Technology dependence, social media and put on a brave face. There is the smile which is not really a smile, which WANT 19 was reported by various media sources to social responsibility can build a good reputation COMMIT applicants. attract 19 ENTHUSE up precious use 0 . When we feel obliged to smile,mobile wherephones we haven’t shows contempt, a 3 9 For word, the children of the dominated by among consumers. In a world 20 INCREASE Prospective candidates may be put off by the 9 4 time. Recent theories show that the documentary was appalling. up any trust with the other person, we offer a fake smile. competition, some companies prefer to rely on gimmicks to grab consumers’ Moken tribe, living on an island off the West 20 of the practice’s remote ISOLATE Read the text and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. For questions 9–16, read thewe text andtocomplete 27 People in many cultures say that the key to a were limit our screen time and to coast of Thailand, had exceptional vision when attention and0 turn it into cash. an atmospherethe of goodwill and if word all those around you are Smiling 5 andit’s its related lack of atohigh-speed internet gaps with one only. healthy body is a healthy mind. Deciding to make a change in your life, regardless location of whether your REGARD dedicate less time to technology, then we 1.1 21 swimming under water. A Swedish scientist, of connection. This 21 to many be Gimmicks largely depend on natural human WILLING CURIOUS looking straight-faced and gloomy, then go ahead and flash them a10smile. BELIEVED Miranda time to daydream. fitness, career or personal life, usually comes after months, and maybe years, of growing would free 0 We all love magic. We only have reflectwhether on the runaway 6 professionals to Zoo accept less than ideal working Copenhagen wanted to increase its visitor Anna Gislen, heard about the tribe and insisted effective. For example, when the to initiative it be for success friends, family, colleague or strangers When I look back on my childhood, I think now that my In many cultures, 17 Yes, daydream! You heard it correctly. It may 22 longer. until you declare that you can’t go on any SATISFY 10 The dangers parents were really quite unconventional. They were, conditions in exchange for excellent financial of Harry Potter to see this. The haunted mansion of Hogwarts and of passers-by stopping numbers, it counted on the PROBABLE going to see their seat and don’t be shy. It doesn’t matter if on the street. Don’t take a 7 that the key We didn’t have a TV because and still are, both writers. madness, but it is sound 11 compensation another interesting to look atwhat buses that had been painted soadds that they looked like theydimension were being the tales of power and corruption created a classic to a healthy body is a healthy they mind. didn’t believe in TVs and so it was actually quite amazing ability for herself. Annathis was delighted affecting your happiness and Although can help you to address is 18 NEGATIVE by example. you are thehave firstall one; it’s good to 8 which boring. I used to plead with them to get a ‘normal’ job, becoming clear that whilst daydreaming our controversial debate crushed by a huge snake. the 22 TYPE from the rest when it comes to fantasy. The Harry really does 1 28 Sam’s boss recommended herbut forthey thehad promotion she found that doesn’t 19 with 11 been writing all their lives so I wasn’t mean that will finally 23push you into needs to be changed, NECESSARY . As on money versus HAPPY minds are creatively active. In 12 going to change them. I guess they have always been because she works really well in groups. all the right buttons with young Potter books and films really did 2 However, things don’t always go to plan. One company made the on the island; a group of young children who a bit hippyish in their thinking. You know, no rules making any real changes. 23 for the doctor’s practice in New Zealand, the only 0 A reflection B end C result D final words, by limiting the time we spend in front PLAYER and we were able to express our feelings and all that. decision to build the world’s largest ice and old alike and we were transported to a wizard school where DISASTER spent their days playing and hunting for fish 24 they have is to extend OPT Looking back, it seems that most of my childhood 20 1 A fail B leave C crumble D depart of a screen we give our minds the opportunity over aday. longIt was SUSTAIN Too many people fall into the trap and of making that arecity Sam is a cream displaychanges it in New York on a hot summers’ a supernatural powers. Why did we love it? Perhaps children 3 consisted of chilling on the sofa while my parents were and seemingly 12 the campaign online in the hope of finally securing 13 24 so her boss recommended herworking for a promotion. 0 away writing. From a six-year-old’s viewpoint, 2 A support B have C bear D that accept from the constant to switch mistake that the company will always be remembered FOOL are sugar is changes to someone your lifestyle, most life coaches period. Rather than make 21 because for a few minutes the idea seemed real and notWe just a 4all aware to swim with their eyes fully open. Anna their work seemed awesome, and my parents used to occupy their vacant post. DRAMA To most people the idea of living on a 0desert island instantlyB smirk 29 In the end, we weren’t allowedtoto 3 A sounds sob C laugh D giggle for, rather than for their range of drinks. barrage and to be truly creative. be enter very laidthe back about stuff. What was there not badfrom news for our health, yet most of of information us are onto memories our of our imagination. Or perhaps, we all 5 to your daily routine that you can advise thathave you should aim to make small 22 assumed that the children must ADJUST to like! executive lounge at the airport. your life4byAexchanging appealing. Just imagine, you could 1 built B constructed C caught D got 9 a little bit of sugar 13 childhood of bewitching adventures into the unknown. addicted Sally bornbuild with up a different ones. gradually into more 23 SIGNIFY PERMISSION Recent social experiments confirm, not your dull flat for white sands and crystalline waters. of us at B warms a day, Cwhether 5 AMost constructs createsit be added D opens to coffee or an I guess that as a child I always took it for granted that vision, but what was challenging for her I believe our fascination with magic is understandable. Why would In the end, we were surprisingly, that the peopletype canofboost their we would always be a large family. Having two older quitting your job because you’ve decided you An example of this might be 24 some point in our lives have roughed it on camping but B Hold 6 Aexpeditions, Take C of Hand Deal IMPULSE illicit bit chocolate.DHowever, are we really 14 sisters was fun even with was toto come enter thethough I would complain about up the opportunity of escaping from our day-to-day lives anyone 6 creativity by limiting their access social A front the best B middle awareCjust side D back memories, we only 7remember because we have quite 2 them most of the time. When Beth left home I didn’t 10 need a career change rather than switching careers gradually by dedicating some time in harmful sugar can executive lounge at the airport. 7 a scientific explanation for the phenomenon. really think about it. I felt fine I think. But it was only world? to that of a media. Statistics currently suggest that in five 8 A not lead B stand be? Figures C show guide bits. The moments of cold and hunger are generally the ones after by Charlotte from lastDyear show that whilst For questions each day with to studying new. 25–30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence 30 The interviewers were impressed Joan’shad left that it really hit home and She carried out an experiment a groupsomething of 8 I realised just how lonely I was going to feel. After 3 interesting spending years’ time we will 14 on is why magic intrigues us is that believing in fate the most, which perhaps why which we are most likely toAn using the word given. Do not change the word given. Use between three and six words, including the word given. performance in the group task. we were consuming less sugar than we both of them had left home it dawned on me that European even more screen time than now. So,children perhapsin the same location. The superstition makes us feel that we have a greater control over the youngest gets a raw deal. I had been sharing a their lives around by moving to remote some people decide to 4 and 11 IMPRESSION 0 The garage is full of old newspapers that my grandma has 28 Fred didn’t want to clean the car so he decided to do it later. been doing the previous year, bedroom with my sister Charlotte for years and then children needed to 15 it’s time to reflect. I, for one, don’t want to look our lives. Perhaps. Who knows. collected over the years. the next locations. Joan’s performance in the group taskthing I knew it was just me. Charlotte and I OFF sadly obesity in the Western world is still supported in the task, but findings revealed would talk about our plans for the future for hours. 15 with regret in five years’ time, AWAY 12 Mum andthe Dad were great and they did tell me that I Fred the car until later. the increase. According to real-life accounts of people who, driven by some 5 interviewers. was going to feel a bit lonely for a while. But I don’t used my vision did improve. and think that I could 16 that their underwater The garage is full of old newspapers that my grandma 29 ‘I’ll leave the office very soon,’ said Jenny. think I really listened to them and it all just seemed to Recently we have seen a sugar Elsa concluded that ability might ambition, have actually exchanged their comfy lives for island life, it put away years. time more inventively. change so quickly. Forthis questions 25–30, complete thehas second sentence soover thatthe it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, 0 A reflect B recall C remember D remind ABOUT using the word 16 tax introduced on most soft drinks due to years Lucas given. Dobeen not change the25 word given. Useabout between three and six words, including the word given. can be tough, very tough. There are some accounts of idyllic lives Just thinking flying made Peter break out in a sweat. 1 A stand out B stand up C stand over D stand away Jenny said that she the office. 13 Our family is from another culture and I think that as I a way of encouraging of practice and familiarity with the success, but there are also stories which have clearly been a 6 THOUGHT 28 The doctor’s suggestion was that we eat less fatty foods. 0 Recording mywater. notes is something that I used to do after was growing up I noticed the cultural difference more 2 A touch B pull C push D bang 30 To make a complaint fill out this form. people to take the issue seriously and to cut each lesson. and more. You know, when friends came round and failures. Sadly, some of these which can be only classified as 7 Just flying made Peter break out ADVISED 3 A possess B collect C own D hoard SHOULD we used to eat different food from them. Sometimes 14 in a sweat. on the amount of sugar we WOULD my mates would comment on it. Now I look back and andB return home. C creation people end up having4 toAcut their 8 The doctor so many piece fabrication D figment You need to fill out this form, make think that’s really positive because the more you look 26 notes Erin sees life in aeach very lesson. different way tofatty other people. all consume. Doctors say that the sooner that I foods. would record my after around you and see how other people live, the better a complaint. 5 A suspend B hang C keep D clutch you understand your own background. Our parents ONover in front of the whole 29 How much effort to do you need to make to become an 25 William tried to forget falling this is extended to other items, the better. moved here when I was eight years old, but I think my 6 A give C lonely B breakD single C let D leave 0 A solitary B desert Olympic athlete? school. Erin’s is very different to that parents had been considering the move for ages. Our the If you are concerned 15 7 A fantasy D fallacy parents were special. They took the time to talk to us 1 A transform B swap C adjustB illusion D alter C delusion of other people’s. INTO BLOCK 98 and see how we were99 getting on and if we had been amount of sugar that you are eating, then 8 A look C discerning B take D discriminating C vision D stand 2 A choice B selective 27 I can’t concentrate on my of work if there is too much noise. having a tough time at school they would give us a How much effort do you have William tried to you should visit your doctor. Put your health special treat. They didn’t spoil us though! Quality time falling over in front of the whole an Olympic athlete? 3 A remind B memorise C recognise D recall HARDschool. with us mattered to them. That felt good. the sugary first and don’t 16 26 I have to say that I found your behaviour at the event 30myDespite of her hard work, she got a poor grade on her 4 A make B get C turn D move I find on work ifall there is too M01 Gold XP C1 95162.indd 98 16:38 M01 Gold XP C1 95162.indd 99 19/12/2017 16:38 1.2 temptation get the better of you. extremely embarrassing. 19/12/2017 essay. much noise. 5 A endearing B burning C colossal D eternal

WHAT’S IN A SMILE?

USE OF ENGLISH UNITS 1–3

49

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PART 1

Recorded aud o of ma n read ng texts for a more nc us ve earn ng env ronment

6

F

48

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5

3

D running

BY

ENDED

I have to say that I your behaviour at the event.

Despite all of her hard work, she

w

essay.

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H

m

m

C: Do you know I think that I’ve got a really bad memory. At least a bad long-term memory. I can remember the stuff I need to remember on a day-to-day basis, but when it comes to remembering my childhood … it’s another matter. J: But I understood that we can all remember back as far as three and a half, or at least that’s what I’ve read anyway. Is that not your case? C: Well, to be honest, I can’t remember anything from before I was six. I think I blocked out some memories from early childhood, perhaps because my mum was quite ill and she was in and out of hospital. She did get better, in fact she recovered fully, and now she’s fine. But I think that I had a hard time of it seeing her ill and I just wante

We checked our bank account

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NG

C = Carla J = Jim

a poor grade on her

27 When we checked our bank account, we found that all the money had been spent.

O

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all the money had

been spent.

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Use of Eng sh sect ons every three un ts g ve students rea st c Use of Eng sh pract ce focus ng on key anguage taught to date

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Un t 10 takes the format of a comp ete pract ce exam

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CLASSROOM TEACHING IDEAS HOW TO TEACH FOR EXAMS What do teachers need to consider? 1 What do you do when not all students in a class are taking the exam?

Teachers should make sure that students who are not taking the exam are still engaged with the work done in class and feel they can benefit from the specific practice that exam students need. This means explaining clearly exactly what is being tested in exam tasks and how these skills also benefit students outside the classroom. Cambridge exams test skills that are transferable to the real world, and this should be explained to students. Once an exam task has been completed, it could be followed by general discussion on the topic or extended vocabulary practice so that non-exam students feel the benefit.

2 How is teaching for exams different from teaching general English classes?

• Exam classes often place more emphasis on reading, writing and grammar. General courses often include more speaking activities and general listening tasks that aim to develop communicative skills and fluency. • An exam course is fixed, with an exam syllabus that must be completed. This means the teacher may feel there’s little time to do many extension activities from the Student’s Book that are either optional or not in exam format, even though these are clearly useful. When doing these activities, it’s important that teachers explain their value clearly to the students so that they understand how they relate to the exam. • Exam students may not be interested in learning English for its own sake – they may simply want to pass the exam. This means they may be keen to do exam practice but may not see the value of spending time on communicative or fluency activities. Non-exam students, on the other hand, will want to do fluency work that improves their communicative ability. • Students may feel under pressure to succeed. This could come from parents, teachers or from the students themselves, and leads to a feeling of frustration if they’re not doing well.

Teachers should find out about student’s priorities and how many students intend to take the exam. They should then find out about individual student’s respective strengths and weaknesses in order to focus as much time as possible on those areas students have trouble with. Information they need includes: a) The format and content of the exam. • How many papers are there, and what skills does each one test? • How many different parts are there in each paper? Are they all compulsory or is there a choice? • What is the grammar syllabus for the exam? • How are the skills tested – multiple choice questions, gap-fill … ? What techniques are required for dealing with each one? b) The practicalities of taking the exam. • How much time is allowed for each part of the exam? How should students balance their time? • Where do students write their answers? Is there transfer time? c) Marking the exam. • What is the weighting of different papers? • How many marks are there for each question? • What are the assessment criteria for each part where there is no ‘right ‘ answer, especially when testing the productive skills of writing and speaking? d) What happens after the exam? • How are the results presented? Do students receive feedback? Are the grades linked to the CEFR? What level are they linked to? • What can your students do with the qualification? Is it recognised internationally? • What is the next exam that your students should progress to?

4 What makes a successful exam teacher? Teaching for an exam is very rewarding, but it is also challenging. A good exam teacher:

• There can be problems if students are not at the level of the exam they’re studying for. Students can become demotivated, and teachers can feel frustrated.

• knows and understands the exam well, including the testing focus of each part and what techniques students need to deal with each one

• There is a very clear end goal which creates a shared bond among exam students. It also means that non-exam students can see a progression through the course, and gain a sense of progress and achievement in their overall ability.

• understands how to achieve a balance between developing skills and doing exam practice in lessons so as to engage all students in the work

3 What do exam teachers need to know at the start of a course?

It’s vital that teachers know about the exam before they start the course, so they can make crucial decisions about how much time to spend on the different aspects of the exam, when to start exam practice and so on. They also need to know the balance of exam and non-exam students.

• enjoys teaching towards a goal • manages their own and their students’ time effectively and efficiently • listens to students’ concerns and worries • gives honest and direct feedback on students’ performance • motivates students and fosters confidence and independent learning

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CLASSROOM TEACHING IDEAS 5 How important is balancing teaching and testing? Students enrolled on an exam course will expect to go through a lot of practice tests and exam practice. However, if this is all you do you will produce excellent test takers but poor language users! You may also risk losing the interest of non-exam students. When time is restricted you need to make the most of the time you choose to teach, and the time you need to be testing. This balance is different with every class. • A class below the level The priority is teaching. Students may lack both test taking skills and language knowledge, so you need to identify their needs and try to fill in the gaps. Testing too often might de-motivate them, although you may want to set progress tests for your own assessment of what they need to study more. Make sure that they have realistic aims and that they maintain a sense of progress. You may decide not to mark their work using exam criteria, but to mark constructively which will also benefit non-exam students. • A class at the level Students have the basic test-taking and language skills, but they need to consolidate and review these as well as extend the range of structures and language they can use productively. Regular testing can give these students a sense of progress. However, you need to consider how you mark their work in order to provide positive feedback and foster improvement, possibly by not marking to the level of the exam too early. • A class above the level The emphasis is on enabling students to achieve the highest mark they can. Their language and test-taking skills should be good, and the problem may be to keep them motivated. Challenge them by setting them tasks above the level of the exam, and involve them in understanding what they have to do to get a higher than average mark in the exam. They should be aiming high, extending their range of language and not settling for ‘good enough’.

6 Helping exam students help themselves Encouraging a collaborative approach to developing exam skills will improve students’ confidence, enable them to help each other and make each task seem more familiar and achievable. By involving students in understanding what exam tasks involve, teachers can foster confidence and facilitate success. It is really crucial that students feel comfortable with the tasks, and that there are no surprises when they enter the exam room.

How does Gold Experience second edition help with exam teaching? Gold Experience works in a graded and supportive way, and provides a number of resources that help to develop the technical skills students need to deal with exam tasks, while also improving and extending their general language skills. The course is beneficial for both exam and non-exam students, and provides supportive and extended practice in real-life skills. The topics are engaging and give students the opportunity to read about and discuss interesting and relevant topics.

Development of language Exam tasks require students to demonstrate a range of language at the appropriate level. Gold Experience has grammar and vocabulary sections that develop this range in topic related units, which makes it easy for students to apply them to exam tasks and to the real world.

Focus on the process as well as the goal Learners are helped to understand not just the point of what they are doing but also how to be successful. Understanding the point of each task type, and the process they need to follow in order to complete it, enables student to reach the overall goal.

Graded exam tasks Exam tasks are introduced to students early in the course, but in a graded way. This may mean that a task has fewer questions or a simpler text, or that it tests a more limited range of structures. This helps them to understand the exam task, and therefore deal with it more effectively.

Developing confidence with exam tasks The clear learning goals for each skill established at the start of each unit, plus the frequent models throughout the book for the productive skills, show students what they need to do in each task and how to do it. Students are often nervous about certain parts of the exam, such as the speaking and listening papers. There are often specific reasons for this: • Speaking – students may be embarrassed about speaking in front of an examiner, or may be nervous so that their mind goes blank and they say too little. • Listening – students often feel that they are not in control as they can’t stop the tape to play it again, and this can cause them to panic if they are unsure of an answer. Gold Experience provides plenty of practice in these two skills, and clear advice on how to deal with the problems students find with them. In this way students develop confidence.

Regular exam tips There are exam tips in every unit which deal with specific exam tasks. The tips focus on aspects of the task that will help students deal with it effectively. These often precede practice in that particular task, so that students can see the tip in action. These tips build throughout the Students’ Book and help students to understand exactly what is being tested, what to look out for, and develop a bank of appropriate exam techniques that they can refer to. As they work through the Students’ Book and become familiar with the tips the tasks will become easier.

Focus on the process of writing To help students identify good practice in writing tasks, lessons in the Students’ Book provide model answers. There are also tasks that encourage students to analyse the model answers which gives them greater understanding of how to complete the tasks themselves. These analytical tasks focus on the approach, content and language required by the different writing genres. There is a task at the end of each writing section which mirrors the model so that students can practise writing an answer themselves. There is also an Improve it section which guides students and helps them review and improve their work. In these sections, students are encouraged to work together to review and analyse each other’s writing tasks, and to cooperate in understanding where improvement is required. There is a Writing file with further tips on how to approach the tasks, with further models.

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Focus on speaking Throughout the Student’s Book there are discussion questions that encourage students to talk about ideas related to topics they have been reading or writing about. This is particularly beneficial for non-exam students. In sections specifically devoted to exam tasks, there are model answers for students to analyse. These answers give clear models for long turns and give examples of the best ways to interact with a partner.

Explanatory answer keys There are clear keys provided for the exam tasks. In the reading and listening tasks the lines where the answers can be found are quoted. In the Use of English tasks there are explanations for the answers.

Student A 1 Arrive stressed. 2 Say

  – don’t be late or you will be and make yourself comfortable.

3 Listen carefully to the instructions. Ask the examiner if you aren’t sure. 4 If you’re taking the exam with a partner, 5 Give 6 Try to use a 7 Smile!.

structures and

Student B 1 Arrive in good time – don’t be late 2 Say hallo to the examiner and

As well as working through regular unit tests, students complete the course by doing a full exam practice test in the Workbook, which they can check against the answer key.

3 Listen carefully repeat if you aren’t sure.

There are a number of resources which provide opportunities for self-study, and also give supplementary information and further practice. These can be used in class or at home. They include: • A Wordlist at the end of each unit in the Student’s Book • An Extended Vocabulary section at the back of the Student’s Book • A Speaking file section in the back of the Student’s Book • A Writing file section in the back of the Student’s Book • A Grammar file section in the back of the Student’s Book • A full practice test in the Workbook • An Exam Practice booklet • Audioscripts for the listening tasks • The Workbook • Online practice activities

Extra activities Here are five activities that might help your students with their studies for exams.

1 Developing confidence with the Speaking test If students feel comfortable with the practicalities of taking the Speaking test they only have to think about the language they need, and an activity like this will help them relax. 1 Put students into pairs (A and B). Give out the appropriate worksheets. 2 They read through their own sentences and predict the missing information. 3 They dictate the sentences to each other and complete the gaps.

.

  , you’ll do better.

Practice test

Resources for self-study

.

answers. Don’t just say yes or no.

. .

  Ask the examiner to

4 If you’re taking the exam them.

  , interact with

5 Give interesting answers. Don’t 6 Try to use a range of

. and vocabulary.

7 Smile! If you enjoy it, you’ll

.

2 Remind students of the exam tips Ask students to work in pairs and write down as many exam tips as they can remember. Discuss which tips they have found most useful, and why. You could do this regularly through the course so that students become very familiar with them.

3 Use the marking criteria The writing tasks are marked under criteria which include organisation, style, language and content. Share these criteria with students early in the course and explain what they mean. Give examples from the models in the Writing file. Ask students to check their own work against these criteria before they hand anything in. This will develop good habits as well as foster understanding of what the tasks require. Use them yourself when you mark students’ written work.

4 Share students’ experiences Ask students to share things that they find easy, and anything they have found helpful when they do exam tasks. This will also boost their confidence as they realise how much they do actually know, and will give both exam students and nonexam students a lift!

5 Help students understand what is best for them Write the incomplete sentences about doing exam tasks on the board. Students should complete them for themselves. Then discuss their answers with the whole class. This activity will also help non-exam students to see the value of exam practice for them. 1 I prefer it when the teacher tasks. 2 I understand most when

with exam .

3 I like/don’t like doing speaking activities in class because . 4 When we do practice tests in class I feel because . 5 I feel confident about the exam because

.

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CLASSROOM TEACHING IDEAS

HOW TO FLIP THE CLASSROOM What is it and why is it important? The flipped classroom is an approach where classroom instruction is given to students at home via a video, and application usually given for homework is completed in class with the teacher’s support. Teachers began flipping their classrooms in subjects such as science when they became frustrated that many of their lessons were taken up with giving students information. Students who struggled to complete their homework without the teacher there to support them were unable to master the topic. The teachers exploited new technologies by creating short videos that provided classroom instruction. Students watched these in their own time before a lesson and then class time was spent on applying that information with the teacher there to support them. The teacher could differentiate tasks for different learners to ensure that everyone was challenged and supported at an appropriate level. In language learning terms, flipping the classroom means students listening to or reading information about language at home before a lesson, leaving more time for practice of that language in the classroom. Alternatively, it could be information about an exam technique or how to write an informal letter. Lessons then provide more opportunities for practice of language and skills development with the teacher there to support, correct and challenge the students as they complete tasks. Students can work on the same tasks, or work in groups on different tasks to ensure they work at a level suitable for them. The flipped classroom is still a fairly new approach and so research on its efficacy is ongoing. Anecdotally, teachers who flip their classrooms believe that the approach allows students to become more independent in their learning. They learn how to learn. Rather than receive information in the classroom, they have to take more control and ensure they learn it outside the classroom, watching the video or re-reading written material several times if necessary. In class, they have time to ask the teacher questions if they still don’t understand and choose when they need support. This autonomy motivates students and results in a higher level of engagement according to teachers. In terms of language learning, students can gain more practice time and receive more feedback from the teacher on performance.

Current best practices and methods The following are the typical stages of a lesson when flipping the classroom.

1 Preparing the homework Teachers can provide instruction through video or written material. These can be created by the teacher or sourced from an alternative source, e.g. their coursebook or online. If teachers make videos, they are usually five to ten minutes long and comprise the teacher recording themselves with their device, standing at the board and explaining the language. Alternatively, a video can be made using screencasting software which allows voice recording over slides.

2 Students watch the video for homework In the previous lesson, the teacher sets the classroom instruction task as homework, usually with an accompanying activity to check understanding. Students do the tasks at home. The task that checks understanding might be completed online as this allows the teacher to check understanding before the lesson and make adjustments to their lesson plan if students have found the language particularly easy or difficult. Alternatively students may bring the completed task on paper to discuss at the beginning of the lesson.

3 In class review In the lesson, the teacher begins by checking students’ understanding of the content of the video. It could be through checking answers to the homework task, oral questioning or a quick paired quiz. Students are given the opportunity to ask questions.

4 Practice, practice, practice Students are then given several practice tasks to complete for the rest of the lesson while the teacher monitors and offers support. This practice might be individual at first as they complete written exercises. It can then be communicative as students work in pairs or groups to complete oral tasks. Fast finishers can move onto new tasks so that they are challenged. Weaker students can receive extra support such as prompts.

5 Reflection on performance Finally, at the end of the lesson, students reflect on what they have learnt to help them identify progress and areas where they still need to improve. These reflections allow students to gain a greater understanding of their strengths and weaknesses, and encourage them to set achievable learning goals for future lessons.

Efficacy Keeping track of learner progress is one way of finding out whether flipping the classroom is effective or not. This can be through progress tests – or speaking and writing tasks – to assess whether students are improving their use of language. It can also be through self-reflection. For example, you could ask students to feed back using questions such as the following, offering a ranking of 1–5 (1 = not at all, 5 = very/definitely). This can be via a questionnaire or orally in class. • How useful are the materials you do at home in learning new language? • How easy is this material to work with? • How helpful is the extra time for practice in class? • How helpful is the teacher’s support when doing tasks? • How much do you prefer this approach? • Are you making more progress using this approach?

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How does Gold Experience second edition help me with that?

To take it further …

Gold Experience provides the following resources that will help you to flip your classroom. Teacher's Online Resources include:

Tip 1: If you create your own videos, personalise them

Grammar presentations The Powerpoint presentation slides contain step-by-step walkthroughs of the grammar points taught in each lesson. These can be used by the teacher in class, when explaining language, but they can also be emailed or printed out for students to read at home when flipping the classroom. The slides contain detailed information about the meaning, function and form of the target language with examples. There is a final task that checks students’ understanding.

Here are some tips to help you to flip your classroom effectively: Just as we would try to personalise language in class when we clarify it for students, try to personalise it in videos too. For example, give a short anecdote about yourself using the target language. You can then use sentences from that anecdote to explain how the language is used, formed and pronounced. Tip 2: Motivate students to want to complete the homework It’s important that students complete the homework because if they don’t, they’ll find it difficult to complete the practice tasks in class. Pose a question and elicit answers but don’t give the correct answer. Tell students that they have to do the homework task to find out. For example, before a lesson on comparatives, write the following sentence on the board: The better/more/most I practise, the better I get. Ask students to choose the correct option and say why. If you make your own videos, engage students by teasing the context so that they want to know more and have to watch the video to find it out. Let’s imagine that you tell a short anecdote in the video using the target language before explaining it. You could show a photo that represents the anecdote or tell the beginning of an anecdote but not the end. Elicit what the anecdote is but don’t tell the students the correct answer. They do their homework to find out. Tip 3: What to do when students don’t do the homework

Workbook support The workbook contains exercises on the grammar points taught in each unit. These can be used as homework prior to the Grammar lesson in order to check what learners already know. With students at this level, the grammar is unlikely to be completely new to them and so a test, teach, test approach can be used. Alternatively, the workbook exercises can be completed in class to provide as much practice as possible while the teacher is available to offer support and clarify any confusing aspects of the language.

If possible, arrange for students who haven’t done their homework to go to the back of the class and do it while the other students start to practise using it. Make technology available there if the homework is a video. Once students get into the habit of a flipped classroom, they tend to do the homework but even the best students sometimes forget or are unable to. Tip 4: What to do when students don’t have the technology Try to arrange for all students to have access to any online material they need do the homework after school or before school if not everyone in the class has a device or internet access at home. Alternatively, create study pairs or groups where at least one student has a device and can watch the video with someone who does not. Tip 5: Help learners to become more independent in their learning As discussed in the section Independent learning, students often need to be trained to work independently. To help them do this, make learning goals clear so they know why they are doing the homework before the language lessons and how it will help them. At the end of the lesson, encourage students to reflect on their performance in the lesson so they can identify progress and recognise strengths and weaknesses. This can help them to set personalised learning goals and progress more quickly.

Teacher’s Book support In the Teacher’s Book, prior to a Grammar lesson, there are notes for the teacher on what materials are available when flipping the classroom.

GRAMMAR

extra: mixed ability

SBp66

Tostart If you haven’t already asked students to do so in preparation for class, refer students to the ways of talking about the future section in the Grammar file on page 150 and read through it with students, asking questions to check they understand the main points. Ask students to complete Ex 1 on page 151 in class and go through the answers. Set Exs 2–3 for homework or for fast finishers to complete in theclass.

explore grammar

SB p150

1 Go through the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation.

Students complete the example sentences in the explore grammar box, then compare in pairs. (Do not worry about the future in the past sectionyet.)

A willmove B is going tohappen F02 GoldXP TB C1 Global 39842 Prelims.indd 17 D will havedeveloped

This activity is suitable to extend stronger classes. Read out the following pair of sentences twice or write on theboard: 1 I’ll wait for you at the busstop. 2 I’ll be waiting for you at the busstop. Tell students that the meaning is similar but not identical. Read the sentences one more time. Students discuss the difference in meaning in pairs then elicit someideas. (Suggested answer: In 1, the future simple indicated that the speaker is making the decision now, whereas in 2, use of the future continuous implies that this is part of an original plan or normal sequence ofevents.) Repeat with the following sentencepairs. 1 We’re to arrive at 9.30 and to check in with security before going to the conferenceroom. 2 We arrive at 9.30, check in with security, and go to the conferenceroom. (In sentence 1, the use of the verb be + infinitive shows they’ve been officially requested to carry out a sequence

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CLASSROOM TEACHING IDEAS

HOW TO ENCOURAGE INDEPENDENT LEARNING What is it and why is it important?

Focus on the process as well as the goal

Independent learning is 'a process, a method and a philosophy of education whereby a learner acquires knowledge by his or her own efforts and develops the ability for enquiry and critical evaluation' (Philip Candy, 1991). In a language learning context, independent learners are those who are able to recognise their learning needs, locate relevant information about language and develop relevant language skills on their own or with other learners. The responsibility for learning is no longer with the teacher but with the learner, who is more actively involved in decision-making.

Learners understand not just what their learning goal is but also how to achieve it. Understanding what success looks like and the process they need to follow in order to be successful will provide them with a greater ability to achieve the goal.

Reviews of both literature and research suggest that independent learning can result in the following: • Increased recognition of strengths, weaknesses and progress • Increased levels of confidence • Increased motivation • Better management of learning • Improved performance It therefore appears that being an independent learner can be extremely beneficial for students, both at school and beyond. Learning is, of course, lifelong. All of us can identify students in our classes who are already quite independent. They have a good understanding of what they are doing in their lessons and why, what their needs are and how to meet those needs. They build on what they learn in class by working independently outside the classroom and are able to achieve appropriate goals. However, many students lack the skills they need to be able to do this and need the opportunity to learn them with the support and encouragement of their teacher. These skills include cognitive skills (i.e. thinking skills), meta-cognitive skills (i.e. an ability to describe how they learn) and affective skills (i.e. management of their feelings) (Meyer et al, 2008).

Current best practices and methods To help students become more independent, teachers can support them in a number of ways.

Make intended learning goals clear to learners Sharing intended learning goals with a class helps students to see what they are trying to achieve and then later assess whether they have achieved it. Sharing goals can be done at the beginning of a lesson or series of lessons, or as a lesson progresses. They can be given by the teacher or, if mid-lesson, elicited from the students. Note that they are described as intended learning goals. This is because teachers cannot fully determine what students will actually learn in a lesson. However, an intended learning goal can help students to understand what their desired goals should be when working towards an advanced level of English.

Help learners to personalise learning goals This does not mean that every learner will be working on a different goal in each lesson but instead that they are given the opportunity to set goals relevant to their own needs before working outside the classroom or when doing tasks in the classroom. For example, before completing an exam task in a speaking lesson, students could set their own goal in relation to an area of weakness e.g. In this task, my goal is to speak more fluently/use a wider range of vocabulary/use the third conditional accurately.

Provide opportunities for reflection on learning Self- and peer assessment of performance, as well as reflection on whether learning goals have been met, all help students to become more aware of their strengths, weaknesses and progress. Recognition of progress helps to build confidence and motivation. Opportunities for assessment and reflection need not take too much time. Just two minutes after a task or at the end of a lesson answering the question ‘What can you do better now that you couldn’t at the start of the task/lesson?’ can give students time to develop important meta-cognitive skills.

Provide feedback on learning 'Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement' (Hattie & Timperley, 2007) and it is certainly something considered to be important in helping learners to develop the skills they need to become independent. Feedback does not only have to come from the teacher though. Peers can often provide useful feedback and suggestions when encouraged to do so in a supportive and sensitive manner. Hattie & Timperley suggest that for feedback to be effective, it must help learners to understand where they are now in their learning, where they are going and how to get there.

Gradually transfer learning decisions to students Students cannot become independent learners if all of their learning decisions are made for them. Allowing students in a class the opportunity to make some decisions about how they learn gives them a greater level of autonomy. Start with small decisions at first, for example asking students to decide whether to: • do a task alone or in pairs; • use a set of useful phrases for support or not in a speaking task; • discuss questions about one topic or a different topic. This devolvement of responsibility built up over time will help learners to become more independent. Of course, as with any approach or strategy that you introduce, it is always beneficial to receive some feedback from learners during and at the end of a course to find out if they have been helpful. We could ask our students to rate the following according to how useful they have been (1 = not useful, 5 = very useful) or rank them according to which they have found the most useful (1 = most helpful). • Clarity of learning goals • Self-reflection opportunities • Ability to personalise learning goals • Feedback on learning from the teacher • Ability to make some decisions about the learning process. Their ratings/rankings can then be a springboard for further discussion.

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button for my memories.

INDEPENDENT LEARNING Resources for self-study

How does Gold Experience second edition help me with that?

There are a number of resources to help learners to achieve their Listening and speaking

Gold Experience provides a number of resources that will help you to develop more independent learners.

1

Look at the picture and discuss the questions.

1 What kinds of things do you regularly photograph or video?

the content of a recording?

longer recordings? • An Extended Vocabulary section at the back of the Student’s 3 Book Do you find formal or informal content

3 Do you think some people Learning goals forovershare eachtheirskill are outlined at the beginning of photos and videos? Why/Why not? each unit in both the Student’s Book and Teacher’s Book. These describe what the student will be able or better able to do at the Look ahead, look back end of the lesson.

SWITCH ON READING

VOCABULARY

USE OF ENGLISH

WRITING

topic: memory and recall skill: using content clues to establish coherence task: gapped text

memory: verbs and collocations affixation

open cloze word formation

topic: biopics skill: writing persuasively task: review

GRAMMAR

topic: using social media skill: understanding the main points task: multiple matching

Frozen lands LISTENING 1

SPEAKING topic: learning about the past skill: collaborating in discussion task: collaborative task

Work in groups. Think about the food that you eat.

review of past tenses participle adjectives and dependent prepositions

An

more challenging? Why? How can you help

• Speaking, Writing and Grammar yourself improve your listening skills to file sections at the back of the approach those challenges? Student’s Book over previous units to remind Theback Workbook 2 •Look

yourself of Listening tips. Which ones do you

•find MyEnglishLab/Online activities most useful? Write two World tips to practise. • Flipped classroom tasks in the Teacher’s Book

SWITCH ON

1

video: life through film project: recording your life

1 How important is food to you? How important is it compared to: your home, your interests, leisure activities, your education? 2 Are you vegetarian, vegan or meat eating? What are the pros and independent learning section cons of each eating choice?

At2the end of the each unit is makes a dedicated that Watch clip. What survival section possible for thehelps Dolganstudents people in such extreme cold? learners. The tasks help students to become more independent to understand the benefit of self-reflection and encourage them Watch again. Work in pairs to answer the questions. 3 to give better feedback to peers. They help students – and you 1 What do the reindeers eat? – to better understand themselves as learners. They also prompt 2 How do the Dolgan people keep their food fresh? a greater understanding of strengths and weaknesses which then 3 How do the small children avoid frostbite? helps4students to set realistic, useful, personalised goals. Why do they move their houses so often? 4 Work in pairs. Discuss and finish the sentences. 1 The Dolgan eat to live because … 2 In the West, we live to eat because …

5 In groups, discuss: what can we learn from the Dolgan culture?

Would it benefit us to experience that way of life for a while? A focus on process

To help students identify good practice in speaking and writing Project tasks, lessons in the Student’s Book provide model answers. There are6 also tasks that encourage students to analyse those answers Work in groups. Find out about other cultures with an integral and gain a better of how to complete them relationship withunderstanding their animals. successfully. Analysis focuses on approach, content and language. 1 Research groups of people living in remote locations. The Speaking le focus and Writing filerelationship give further theaff process 2 Pick one fi and on how their with tips their on animals ects their lives: whatin they eat, where theywriting live. and how today-to-day achieve success speaking and exam tasks. 3 Prepare a short presentation either on slides or on a poster.

4 Presentitit sections to the class. Each of the lesson group presents a different Improve inmember Writing aspect (e.g. food, location, work, animals).

In each Writing lesson, the Improve it section helps students 5 Vote for the best presentation. to review work and make improvements. Scaffolded tasks help students to develop the skills they need to do this effectively. 116

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Project work In each unit students can work on a project in groups. These projects help the students to develop creative skills, to make decisions about the learning process and how they complete that project.

1 What can you do to help yourself prepare for include:

•2 ADoWordlist at the end of each unit in the Student’s Book you find it easier to listen to shorter or

Clear learning goals and models for success 2 Do you share the photos or videos you take? How?

goals. These can be used in class if the teacher wants to allocate

Thinkof about these to questions. 1 part a lesson self-study or they can be used at home. They

To take it further … 7

Try these activities to help your students become independent 2 learners.

1 Confidence scale Write the intended learning goal of the lesson on the board (e.g. understand implied meanings in an academic article) 3 Work in pairs. Make a specific plan for how and draw confi scale like to improve youraskills in dence global listening andthe one below. Ask students listening for detail, what you willreflects how confident to note downincluding the number that listen to and you will work on each area. they arehow that they can achieve that goal now. Monitor and assess the confi dence levels of one class. At the end of the 4 Number these speaking skills 1–7 (1 = the the you lesson, feel mostask confi dent in, 7to = the one you students assess their confidence levels again, feelwriting you needthe to improve at the most). new number next to the old one. Again, monitor collaborating in discussions confidence levels. In some cases they might go down! Finally, making askcomparisons students to work in pairs and discuss how they can gain justifying choices/decisions further confidence. speculating

structuring answers Not confi dent

Very confident

using appropriate language

1

2

understanding paraphrases

3

4

5

Work in pairs. Give each other advice on how Selecting the feedback focus 5 2 to improve in your weaker areas.

Before students complete a writing task, ask them to identify

the sentences. 6 Complete a personal learning goal, e.g. I’d like to write an essay that is 1 I structured would like to improve my speaking becausethem to look back at your effectively. Encourage .

feedback on previous written work to help them identify this.

2 Next time I do a speaking activity, I will try to Tell them to write this goal at the top of their work when they .

and that you willskills provide feedback specifically on 3 I submit think I canitimprove my speaking by that goal when you mark it. .

3 Record and reflect Ask students to use their mobile phone to record themselves completing a speaking task so they can listen back and 09/11/2017 13:14 compare their performance to a model answer. Recording apps are usually free to download or are pre-loaded onto a smartphone.

4 Written feedback When marking a student's work, provide one comment under each of these headings to help learners identify where they are in their learning now, where they need to go next and how to get there, as well as recognise that they have made progress to boost students’ confidence. A key strength

An area to work on

An area of progress

How you can work on it

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3 Is it ethical for this to be done without your consent?

2 3

CLASSROOM TEACHING IDEAS

3 Complete

Watch the clip. What was the aim of the TV show?

1 Self-asse

Watch again and make notes. What do Nick and Suzy say about the scenes that have been chosen to represent their lives?

4 Work in groups and discuss the questions.

HOW TO TEACH WITH PROJECTS

1 How might Nick and Suzy have edited the programme differently themselves?

2 I think it assess

2 How do you and your friends edit, post and share your lives online? Why do you do it in this way? 3 Would you want to be part of a similar television series?

The benefits

Below is the project task from Unit 1.

Projects involve students working together to produce something in English. They can require students to research and present information, create something or design something. Students might do two or all of these things. For example, students research a sub-culture in music, lifestyle, sport, etc. and then create the premise of a film on that topic and design a poster to advertise it. Projects in the English language classroom provide several benefits:

1 Authentic use of language Students work on an authentic task which requires them to use English authentically. Projects also often develop all four skills: reading, writing, listening and speaking.

2 Development of personal skills Projects require learners to collaborate, enabling them to develop skills such as the ability to cooperate, solve problems and communicate.

3 Development of autonomy As project work involves students making decisions about how to achieve their learning objective, they are able to develop learner autonomy with support and guidance from their teacher.

4 Development of thinking skills Students can develop information literacy and media literacy when doing research online, determining what information is useful, biased, misinformed, etc. They can also develop critical thinking skills when analysing that information, evaluating it and deciding how to use it.

5 Development of creativity Many projects require learners to be creative in some way. Creativity, along with collaboration, communication and critical thinking skills are considered to be key skills for 21st century learning.

6 Increased motivation Project work can provide a break from lessons which have a very specific language or skills focus. In addition to that, all of the other benefits mentioned here can make project work motivating for students. It is important to note that while project work provides many development opportunities, students are likely to need support in exploiting those opportunities, such as advice from their teacher on how to work independently or feedback on their communication skills.

How to extend Gold Experience projects At the end of each unit in Gold Experience, there is a Switch on lesson which provides video input and listening tasks followed by a project. These can be completed in one lesson, or students can work on them over a longer period of time, e.g. one lesson a week over a month plus homework. By extending the project, students can more fully benefit from it.

3 I can wo by

Project 5 Work in pairs. Plan a way to record your own life. 1 Research different ways people have done this (e.g. a photo each day/year, written journals, blogs, vlogs, posting on social media). 2 Choose one of these methods or create a new way of recording your life. 3 Plan your work, e.g. What aspect of your life would you record? How you would record it? How often? How you would present it? Who would your audience be, and why?

6 Make your first entry and add others if you have time. Present your To expand the project a longer period of time, you could do idea and include howover you see your work growing over time. the following:

Week 1 18 In class Students watch the video and complete the listening tasks. M01 Gold XP C1 95056.indd 18

Students are put into groups and allocate one or two methods of recording lives to each member, e.g. journal, blog, vlog, etc. Homework Each student goes away and researches examples of people who have recorded their lives using the method allocated to them.

Week 2 In class Students work in their groups and share their research. They discuss the benefits of each method and rank them in order of most to least useful. They try to think of a new method of recording their lives. Finally, each group then chooses one method and plans how they could use it, i.e. what aspect of their life they would record etc. Homework Each student follows their plan and records an entry.

Week 3 In class Students share their entry with their group (and their teacher). They discuss the benefits and drawbacks of the method they had chosen. They try to solve any problems they have come across. They discuss their next entry, revising their original plan where necessary. Homework Students follow their revised plan and create a second entry.

Week 4 In class Students share their entry with the group (and their teacher) and discuss whether the method was more effective the second time. They discuss how they might see their work develop over time. Groups prepare and present a short summary of their experience to the class, outlining their method, how they used it and how successful or not it was. Homework Students could be encouraged to continue to record their lives using their chosen method for the rest of the term and then share it with the whole class.

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HOW TO TEACH WITH READERS The benefits

How to exploit Readers

Readers are books based on well-known stories which are designed for language learners. They allow learners to read at a level appropriate for them, whether that is A1 or C1. Stories include modern classics, contemporary fiction, short stories and plays. Readers allow learners to read extensively, in contrast to the intensive reading usually done in class. There are questions which help learners to check their comprehension as they read. There is also a wordlist and additional teacher support materials to help teachers create interesting lessons based around readers. Readers come with or without an audio CD.

There are many ways that readers can be exploited in class. Here are a few of those ideas:

There are many benefits to students using readers in the English language classroom.

1 Authenticity Although readers are simplified for different levels of learners, the stories remain authentic as they are based on existing books or films.

2 Skills development No matter what their level, students can develop all four skills. Students predominantly develop reading skills but they can also develop their listening skills through the use of the audio CD. They can develop speaking and writing skills through classroom or homework tasks and activities.

3 Language input Students receive language input at a level appropriate to them. They consolidate their existing knowledge of language by seeing it in action. They can also develop their vocabularies by seeing new language. Extra practice materials in the books can help students to notice new vocabulary.

4 Development of autonomy Students can be encouraged to make decisions about their learning by selecting the book they want to read, deciding when to read it, how often to read it, what kind of vocabulary to note down, etc. When reading takes place outside the classroom learners develop independence.

5 Motivation

• Students read and summarise a chapter for another student in the class. • Students note down useful vocabulary and teach it to another student. • Students write a social media feed from the perspective of one of the characters in the book. • Students roleplay an interview with one of the characters in the book. • Students make predictions about what will happen as they read. • Students write the dialogue for and act out the scene from a book. • Students write a review of the book. • Students write a comparison of the book and the film.

Selecting Readers There are benefits and drawbacks to asking a class to read the same book and encouraging students to choose a book for themselves. With the former, the class can participate more easily in activities based on that book as everyone is reading the same thing. The teacher can create wonderful lessons that encourage analysis, discussion and creation based on that book. However, encouraging students to select a book of their choice may result in more motivation to read that book, as not everyone in the class will have the same interests. Pearson readers can be found at https://readers.english.com/. On this page you can find access to the catalogue of books as well as sample teaching resources which accompany readers. Level 6 books are those appropriate for C1 level learners. The Moonstone by Wilkie Collins is one of the first and best detective stories and may be appropriate for the core of the class. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou is a story about growing up as a young black girl in the segregated south of the USA. It is likely to stretch those learners who are already at a solid C1 level.

When readers have the right book, they are motivated to spend time developing their language skills, whether that is in or outside the classroom. Learners can enjoy using their English skills to experience another time and place, or see the world from a different perspective. The sense of accomplishment when finishing a book in English can help to recognise their progress in English, as well as motivate them to continue their studies.

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1 Look ahead, lookback

Lead-in SBp7 The lead-in page is an opportunity for you to see what students know about the topic of the unit, both conceptually andlinguistically. Write the unit title Look ahead, look back on the board. Ask the class: What do you associate with ‘looking back’? Elicit some ideas, such as remembering things that have happened, learning from your mistakes, finding out about history, etc. Ask: What do you associate with ‘looking ahead’? Elicit more ideas, such as planning for the future, setting goals, or predicting what life might be like in thefuture.

Look ahead, lookback

X 1

READING

USE OFENGLISH

topic: memory andrecall skill: using content clues to establishcoherence task: gappedtext

opencloze wordformation

GRAMMAR review of pasttenses participle adjectives and dependentprepositions

VOCABULARY memory: verbs andcollocations affixation

LISTENING topic: using socialmedia skill: understanding the mainpoints task: multiplematching

SPEAKING topic: learning about thepast skill: collaborating indiscussion task: collaborativetask

WRITING topic:biopics skill: writingpersuasively task:review

SWITCH ON video: life throughfilm project: recording yourlife

Focus students’ attention on the photo and quotation on page 7 (My phone is the save button for my memories). Askstudents to discuss in pairs whether the quote is true forthem. Write My phone is … on the board, and ask students to note down a few other ways they could complete the sentence that would be true for them. Askstudents to share their ideas with their partner. Ask a few students to share something their partnersaid. Organise pairs into small groups of three or four to discuss questions 1–3 on page 7. If it is appropriate at your school, invite students with smartphones to show a few pictures they have taken recently and to talk about them with their group. Asksomeone from each group to reportback to theclass. Circulate to listen during the discussion to get to know the learners and what they already know. This will help you to identify students who may require extension and any students who mayrequire extra encouragement andsupport. Point out that the unit summary at thebottom of page 7 gives an overviewof the unit. For students focused on the exam, point out that the items labelled ‘task’ provide specificexam-stylepractice.

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READING

SBpp8–9

Tostart Ask students to work in pairs to think of something good thathappened to them yesterday, a week ago, a year ago, and ten years ago. Ask a few students to share a memory thatis particularly vivid (or clear) with theclass. Elicit some answers to the following questions: Why are some memories clearer than others? Are your most recent memories the most vivid? Have you watched any films or TVprogrammes which focus onmemory? Tell students that the topic of this lesson is memory and theaim of the lesson is to complete an exam-style gapped texttask.

Powerup 1 Give students a couple of minutes to think about and

choose a memory for A–D. Encourage weaker classes to make a few notes and/or look up any necessary vocabulary in a dictionary. Put students into pairs to take turns to share their memories. Encourage fast finishers to continue the conversation by asking their partner questions about their memories. Ask a few students to share a memory with theclass. Possibleanswers 1 A My earliest memory would probably be my first day at school. I was so proud to be able to write my name and was very excited to play on the junglegym. B My happiest memory? Well, maybe it would be my tenth birthday. I was allowed to have a party with ten friends and we made a sort of disco in the living room with coloured lights and loud music. It’s funny to think about it now, but at the time, I was inheaven. C One time, I got a huge fright when I was at home alone and I heard a strange tapping noise on my window. Ilooked up and found myself face to face with a huge man. I was convinced he was a burglar. As it turned out, he was actually my neighbour’s brother who had got the wrongaddress. D I guess the most exciting thing that has ever happened to me was when I travelled abroad last summer to visit my cousin in Scotland. As well as having a great time when I got over there, it was also my first time on aplane. 2 Students’ ownanswers.

2 Share something you find easy and difficult to remember, for example: I always remember faces, but I find names really difficult to recall, especially if I haven’t seen someone for a while. Ask students to discuss what they find easy and difficult to remember with their partner. Then elicit some responses from theclass.

Ask students to read the quote. Elicit a few ideas about what itmeans. Possibleanswers • I think this quote means that our brain couldn’t possibly remember absolutely everything, so it has to select and discard certain memories, making sure it doesn’t forget anything tooimportant. • My guess is that this quote is about how forgetting is good for us. If you can’t forget bad things that have happened, it could hold you back from enjoyinglife.

Readon 3 Point out that it is a good strategy to start by reading an

article quickly for gist (to understand the main points). Give students a few minutes to read the article then elicit why the documentary is called MemoryHackers. The documentary is about how memories can be changed or erased. It says that the way the brain stores memories is analogous to a computer system. A hacker is someone who breaks into a computer system to change or erasedata.

exam task: gappedtext In the Cambridge exam no words, phrases or sentences in the texts for reading tasks are ever highlighted. Remind students that the gapped text task is Part 7 of the Reading and Use of English Paper. Students will be given an article with numbered gaps and a list of paragraphs. Students will need to select the best paragraph for each gap. Ask a student to read the first sentence of the exam tip aloud. Point out that content clues could include discourse markers, demonstratives or vocabulary. Read the second part of the exam tip and give students time to find the clues/connections between the first paragraph of the article and paragraph G. Elicit the answers. Point out that the content clues have similartopics. clues: science fiction, memorymanipulation

4

Give students about ten minutes to read the article again and decide which paragraphs (A–G) fit in the gaps (1–6). Students compare their answers in pairs, explaining to each other the clues they used. Go through the answers with the class, eliciting the clues for eachone. 1 G (according to recent research, the era of memory manipulation is not very far off at all in paragraph i and scientific breakthroughs in paragraph ii link with sweeping advances in technology, neurochemistry and cognitive science in paragraphG) 2 D (where and how long-term memories are formed, stored and recalled in paragraph ii links with It has always been thought that memory is a recording device in paragraphD) 3 A (The parallel would be more like bringing up a file on the computer, modifying it slightly and then saving it to the hard drive in paragraph iii links with This understanding has been crucial in paragraphA) 4 F (rodents that have been genetically modified for this purpose, and manipulate them with lasers in paragraphiv links with a mouse is put into a totally new, barren environment in paragraphF) 5 C (was to focus on the people behind some of the most provocative discoveries, both researchers and subjects in paragraph v links with Three people who feature in it are Jake Hausler Merel Kindt and Julia Shaw in paragraphC) 6 B (Merel, a professor from the University of Amsterdam, succeeded in in paragraph vi links with What is perhaps more unnerving is London South Bank professor Julia Shaw’s study, in paragraph B; she persuaded them that they had committed crimes in the past in paragraph B links with Implanting false memories is clearly now possible in paragraphvii)

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1 Look ahead, lookback READING (Continued)

extra: fast finishers Ask fast finishers to check their answers carefully and to underline the clues they used to work out eachanswer.

5 Write the word flawed on the board, which is from

paragraph iii. Elicit which of the meanings 1–8 it has (3imperfect). Students match the remaining words andphrases. 1 realm 2 current 3 flawed 4 modifying 5 advent 6facilitating 7 paving the way for 8cutting-edge

extra: whole class

extra: whole class Ask students to write their own short post about the article. Invite students to take turns to read their post to the class or post in a private class onlinespace. If possible, set up a private online space for your class to use throughout the course, for example, on Google Docs, a Facebook group or within your school’s online learning management system. Set some expectations of appropriate online behaviour. For example, discuss the importance of keeping comments positive. Make sure you moderate your class online arearegularly. If you have a large class, you could set up groups within the online area of about six to ten students for online discussionactivities.

Write the following questions on the board. Ask students to complete the questions with one of the words in bold from the article (they may need to change the form of the word). Put students into pairs or small groups to discuss theiranswers.

Funfooter

1 How has the of the smart phone changed how we remember things?(advent) 2 What other technology have you heard about?(cutting-edge) 3 What less invasive methods could someone try in order to someone’s memory?(modify)

Tofinish

Sumup 6 In pairs, ask students to make notes on each topic,

re-reading the article as required. If time allows, ask students to swap partners to compare theirsummaries. Possibleanswers 1 People used to think there was a central memory bank where memories were filed away like a books in a library. It was also thought that memories were permanent andunchangeable. 2 Nowadays, we know that memories are stored in separate areas of the brain, that they are not always accurate, and that they can bealtered. 3 Forgetting bad things that have happened to us helps us to get over the experiences and moveon.

Speakup 7 Ask students to read the posts and discuss the questions inpairs.

Read through the fun footer with the class and ask them todiscuss it in pairs. Then elicit any interesting points from thestudents.

Ask students to close their books. Tell them that they are going to do a memory quiz on the vocabulary in the article. Ask students to write the numbers 1–8 on a new piece of paper. Say: Number 1: can you remember the word in the article which meant ‘a special area or field’? Students should write down the word realm. Continue reading the remaining meanings from Ex 5. Then elicit theanswers. Ask and elicit answers to the following questions: Did you findit easy or difficult to remember the newvocabulary? Do you have any system for recording new vocabulary? If so,what? Encourage students to adopt a system that works for them for recording new vocabulary, such as a vocabulary notebook, making lists on their smartphones,etc. In preparation for the Grammar lesson, consider using the technique of flipping the classroom by asking students to complete Ex 1 of the Grammar lesson on page 10, thenreading the Grammar file review of past tenses on page 142 or looking at the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation before class, allowing more time for discussion and questions duringclass. Presentationtool:

Unit 1, Reading

Workbook / Online Practice:

pp4–5

Extra Practice App

Possibleanswer I agree with Pushko3 that memory manipulation is quite frightening. What if these sorts of technologies were to fall into the wrong hands? I’m sceptical of what BaileyBoy says about it being a good application of science. In my view, there are far more important things that scientists could be dedicating their time to, like trying to tackle diseases or climatechange.

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GRAMMAR

Possibleanswers 1 Could you help me with this homework? / I was wondering if you could help me with thishomework? 2 Did you want to tell me what’s wrong? / I was wondering if you wanted to tell me what’swrong? 3 I was hoping you might have enough time to come shopping with me. / Did you have enough time to come shopping withme? 4 I was thinking we might put our heads together to brainstorm some ideas. / My idea was that we could put our heads together to brainstorm someideas. 5 I was wondering if I could borrow ten pounds from you. / Could I (possibly) borrow ten pounds fromyou?

SBp10

Tostart Use the start of this lesson to assess students’ existing knowledge of the target grammar point. Write the following on theboard: 1 something you remember from the previouslesson 2 something you hadn’t heard of untilrecently 3 something you used to like but have changed your mindabout 4 something you hadn’t done before coming to the lessontoday Put students into pairs to think of something in each category. Circulate, listening to their use of past forms, andnoting down any errors to spend more time on later. Aska few students to share what they talkedabout.

explore grammar

SB p142

1 Go through the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation

and give students time to read the review of past tenses in the explore grammar box. Ask students to discuss in pairs why each bolded past form has been used. Focus students’ attention on each pair ofsentences, eliciting the reason for the past form in each sentence. Elicit the names for each form (A: past simple, past continuous; B: past perfect, pastperfect continuous; C: usedto/would).

Read through the section on creating distance. Pointout that the past forms to indicate politeness are widely used in the workplace and in social situations, especially in Britain. Point out the phrases I was thinking, I was hoping and add that another common one is I was wondering. Point out that tone of voice is also very important in conveying politeness inEnglish. For more detailed notes on past forms, ask students to read the Grammar file on page 142 for homework and complete practice activities 1–3 on page143. A took = completed period; was touching = focus on experience/activity inprogress B action before the simple past of‘remembered’ C emphasis on something true in the past but not now; repetition of single action in the past;descriptive

watch out for Would is only used for habits in the past, not states. Weuse used to to talk about states (or habits): A few years ago, I used to belong to a film club (NOT A few years ago, I would belong to a filmclub). Would is often used after used to to avoid repetition: Iused to belong to a film club and we would watch a new film everyweek.

2 Write an example on the board: Can you give me a hand

with this? Elicit how it could be made more polite with the past tense (Could you give me a hand … ?). Ask students to rewrite the sentences to show politeness. Elicit the answers. Ask students to practise asking the questions in pairs. Their partner can make up ananswer.

extra: fast finishers Give fast finishers a few more questions to make more polite using the past. Write the following on theboard. 6 Can you remind me what time the showstarts? 7 Are you able to change theplan? 8 Do you want to cometomorrow?

3

1.1 Tell students they are going to listen to an interview with a woman talking about some of her memories. Play the recording while students answer the questions. Then elicit theanswers. 1 When she was younger, it wasbetter. 2 She could remember all the details of theirappearance. 3 She remembered a list of verbs (she has a photographicmemory).

4 Ask students to choose the correct forms, then compare

their answers in pairs. Go through the answers as a class. Point out that both alternatives are possible in 2 because used to/would can often be used interchangeably, although used to places more emphasis on something which is no longer true now. In 3, the continuous tense emphasises that the action wasongoing. 1 used to ​​2 would/used to ​​3 ‘d been following/ ’d followed ​​4 was watching ​​5 had been pouring ​​ 6 started ​​7ordered ​​8 found ​​9 was actuallystaying

5 Ask students to read the text quickly to find out what

happened to Ethan. Ask students to choose the correct forms. Students compare their answers inpairs. 1 would/used to check ​​2 faded ​​3 started ​​4 recorded ​ ​5 had never experienced ​​6 began ​​ 7 hadn’t been watching ​​8 hadn’t been drinking ​​ 9 had warned ​​10 arrived ​​11 used to start/started ​ ​12 was lying ​​13 woke up ​​14 haddisturbed

6 Ask students to talk about their ideas for Ethan’s

recurring nightmare before writing their paragraph. Elicit and write on the board a list of narrative tenses for students to include: past simple, past perfect, pastperfect continuous, used to,would. Possibleanswer In his dream, he was lying in bed and he woke up because some noise had disturbed him. When he looked up, he saw that his cat had transformed into a giant spider which was crawling up over his bedspread. It climbed over his face. Hetried to scream but no sound came out…

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1 Look ahead, lookback

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR (Continued)

Speakup 7 Consider sharing the possible answers in the answer key

or your own personal answer as a model. Give students a moment to think about their ideas before sharing in pairs. Remind students to think about using the appropriate narrative tense during the discussion. Ask a few students to share a response to one of the questions with the class. It may be helpful to keep a note of who you have called on to share to ensure every student gets invited to shareregularly. Possibleanswers 1 Once, I had this awful nightmare about sitting an exam I had been studying for. In the dream, I got to the exam room, but then I found that I had forgotten a pen. I kept rummaging in my bag, trying to find one, but it was empty. I tried to get the attention of the examiner and the other candidates, but everyone just ignored me, Iwas waving my hands and even called out but no one did anything. It was like I was completely invisible! I was so relieved when I woke up and discovered it was all only a dream! When I sat the real exam, I took at least a dozen pens. A few people looked at me strangely, but I wasn’t taking any chances after my baddream! 2 When I was four, I got separated from my dad at an open market. Apparently, I had wandered off while he was buying something from a stall. Anyway, after a few minutes, I was getting pretty upset, so one of the other stallholders asked if I was OK. Here’s where the memory bit comes in: even though I was only four, I had memorised my dad’s mobile number. He had been looking for me everywhere and was very relieved to get a call saying I was all right. It’s just lucky that I was able to remember the number when it mattered, Iguess!

memory: verbs andcollocations Tostart Tell students that the aim of this lesson is to revise and learnverbs and collocations (words that go together) related tomemory. Put students into groups of three and give them two minutes to write down as many verbs or phrases related to memory as they can. Elicit the words and write them on theboard. Write these topics on the board: memorise song lyrics, remind yourself what you have to do, remember birthdays and special events. Ask students to discuss the best strategies they could use to do these things. Ask each group to report back with a couple of strategies, especially any unusualideas.

1 Ask students to look at the photograph for eight seconds and then cover it or close their books. Elicit any people that students can remember and what they lookedlike. Possibleanswers • young man at the front with light brown hair and two thumbsup • tanned man with short hair,smiling • young man with blue hair and a paintedface • blond young man with black t-shirt, arm inair • four slightly older men in fluorescent orange tops, two withwigs • young man with heart-shapedsunglasses • woman with dark hair and dark glasses with two arms raised, dark glasses,fringe

2 Put students into pairs to discuss the questions. They

might consider looks or personality for question 1. Ask a few pairs to share theirideas.

Funfooter

Possibleanswers 1 I’m really into fashion, so I tend to notice and remember what people wear. / I tend to notice how people are feeling, did they have a happy vibe or were they stressed? / I often remember faces orhair. 2 People always seem to remember my name because it’s unique. / People probably remember my glasses and that I’m quite tall. / I’ve been told that people remember my sense of humour because I make so manyjokes.

Ask students to read the footer. Ask students to think of three things they would like to know about dreaming. If students have the internet, they can research this information, then share it with the class. Otherwise, askstudents to find out forhomework.

Tofinish Ask students to work in pairs and discuss the following question: Do you think the content of our dreams comes from memories of recent events, events from a long time ago or justour imagination? Elicit someideas. Presentationtool:

Unit 1, Grammar

Workbook / Online Practice:

p6

Photocopiable activities:

1A,1B

Grammar reference and practice:

SBp142

Audioscript:

SBp175

SBp11

3

1.2 Ask students to predict what a ‘super recogniser’ might be and what kind of work they could do for the police. Play the recording for students to check their ideas. Elicit theanswers. 1 someone with an extraordinary memory for faces (it’swhat we call people who have an extraordinary memory forfaces) 2 They can spot criminals in crowd scenes. (The police use people like me to scan photos of individuals and groups to spot people, like petty criminals in potential riot situations and soon.)

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4 Ask students to turn to audioscript 1.2 on page 175 of

theStudent’s Book. Ask students to find and underline the verbs listed in Ex 4. Then discuss their meaning and use. Elicit answers as aclass. memorise: used to actively remember things like lists forexaminations realise: used when we become aware of something and understandclearly recall and remember: used in the same way because they have similar meanings. Remember is more common than recall, and we tend to use recall more for bringing back experiences rather than specific facts e.g. phonenumbers. recognise: used when we see something or someone and remember that we have seen thisbefore remind: used to make someone remember something that they mustdo

extra: fast finishers Ask students to underline the stress in each verb: memorise, realise, recall (note that the noun has its stress on the first syllable), remember, recognise,remind.

explorelanguage Read through the explore language box with the class. In the example sentences, compare the difference in meaning of remind (remind someone to) = help someone to remember something that needs to be done; (remind someone of) = trigger amemory. Point out that using collocations correctly will help studentssound more natural and help them get a higher mark in theexam.

5 Students match the phrases in bold with their meanings. Elicit the answers. Point out the stress on the second syllable incommit. 1 C ​​2 E ​​3 D ​​4 A ​​5 F ​​6B

6 Students complete the sentences, then compare answers inpairs.

1 commit ​​2 blocked ​​3 jog ​​4 word for word ​​5 triggers ​​ 6selective

7 Create a challenge for your class of how many gaps in

theblog they can complete in two minutes. Allow some extra time ifneeded. 1 selective ​​2 remembers/recalls ​​3 remember/recall ​​ 4 remind ​​5 word for word ​​6trigger

Speakup 8 Give students a few minutes to think about who they will talk about and how they might incorporate the collocations from thelesson.

Possibleanswers • My elder sister has a really good memory. She’s able to remember things she’s read almost word forword. • My brother has a selective memory. He never lets me forget about times when I’ve embarrassed myself but he seems to have blocked out all ofhis! • I have a couple of friends who are lovely people, but have poor memories, especially for plans, which has led to a few issues. Now, if we’re meeting somewhere, I always send a quick text to jog their memorybeforehand!

extra: whole class Students work in pairs or groups of three. Students use a timer (they can use their phones for this). Ask students to take turns to give their partner a word from the lesson. He/She must make a sentence relating to memory and containing the word given in as short a time as possible. Students can set the timer for five or ten seconds depending on the ability of the class. Suggested words: block, commit, jog, memorise, realise, recall, recognise, remind, selective,trigger.

extra: mixed-ability classes For stronger classes, refer students to the Extend vocabulary list on page 160. Assign pairs one of the phrases from the list of Memory idioms. Ask them to look the phrase up in a dictionary, write an example and then teach the phrase to the rest of theclass.

Tofinish Write the following activity on the board then ask students to work in pairs. Finish by asking each student to share their answer from one of thecategories. Tell your partnerabout: 1 a person you recognised or didn’trecognise. 2 some information you have memorised in the lastweek. 3 someone that reminded you of someone else youknow. 4 a story you recall your parents reading to you when you were achild. Presentationtool:

Unit 1, Vocabulary

Workbook / Online Practice:

p7

Photocopiable activity:

1C

Extend vocabulary:

SBp160

Audioscript: SBp175 Extra Practice App

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1 Look ahead, lookback

LISTENING

SBp12

Tostart Write the following questions on the board for students to discuss in pairs: How do you like to record memories? How does the way we record memories differ from previous generations? Elicit a fewideas.

exam tip 3

1.3 Read the exam tip aloud and the exam tip questions. Play the recording while students make a noteof things that may help. Elicit the answer to the exam tipquestions. Speaker 2 mentions the movies, witty captions. He likes the fact that it’s something his parents aren’t on, it’s immediate and can share banter as if he is with hisfriends.

Powerup 1 Put students into groups of three or four for the

discussion. Ask a volunteer from one group to share their ideas about one type of record they came up with. Ask a volunteer from the next group to share their ideas about another type of record they came up with. Rotate around the groups until all the types of records have been shared (or until all the groups have had aturn). Possibleanswers Types of records: social media, photo sharing sites, blog, vlog, paper diary,scrapbook • social media/photo sharing sites/blog/vlog: can get comments/likes from other users; may be permanent, i.e.by uploading to the internet you create digital footprint, which may be hard to delete later if you wanted to; on the other hand, there may be a risk of losing content depending on the website and whether you have backed up content; sharing can be done publicly or with aselectgroup. • diary/scrapbook: it could last a long time, and be easy to get rid of if you wanted to; it may also be easy to lose and no back up, usually private to you, or to people you physically share itwith.

2 Focus students’ attention on the listening tasks in Ex4. Put students into pairs to discuss questions 1–3 in relation to Tasks 1 and 2 in Ex 4. Elicit someideas.

1 Task 1 – reason; Task 2 –challenge 2 There are three extra options per task; this makes finding the key harder because three options are‘distractors’. 3 It helps you focus on what to listenfor. Task 1: the reason each speaker gives for using their chosenmedia A to build betterrelationships B to create somethingunique C to replicate face-to-facecommunication D to compareexperiences E to make funnystories F to engage a wideaudience G to remember specialmoments H to be the same asfriends Task 2: the problem each speakerexperienced A keeping informationprivate B understandingsoftware C technicalchallenges D lack ofexposure E criticism fromothers F inappropriatepostings G missing reallife H losingdata

exam task: multiple matching 4

1.4 Play the recording again while students complete bothtasks.

5

1.5 Play the recording, pausing after each speaker toelicit the relevantanswer. Task1 1 A (sharing visuals of what I’m doing actually makes me closer to my friends … we actually communicatemore) 2 C (I can share the same kind of banter I have when I’m actually with myfriends) 3 F (I’m inspired by the likes and comments I get … my real interest is in buildingfollowers) 4 D (I enjoy looking back at what I was doing at the same time lastyear) 5 B (I enjoy making something that is a complete one-off) Task2 6 B (too many people could see my posts but it was because I didn’t understand how to set itup) 7 H (I was upset by having no record of a school trip because itdisappeared) 8 F (then regretted it as it was toopersonal) 9 A (I was angry about one of my friends reading itonce) 10 C (I used to get very frustrated with how to drawproperly)

extra: whole class Ask students to look at audioscript 1.3 on page 175 and find and underline the followingwords: witty, banter, mundane, therapeutic, hang around, got into. Ask students to try to deduce the meaning of these words from context and then use a dictionary tocheck.

Speakup 6 Organise students into groups of three or four. Students

could present their ideas orally, by writing a paragraph or creating a poster. Giving students options may help them to engage with the learning exercise. This could be set for homework with students presenting their work at the beginning of the nextlesson.

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extra: whole class In your online private class area, make a forum or area for students to share a record of something they have done recently or an aspect of their lives outside class, for example, a photo of an interest they have and a few sentences. Start by posting an aspect of your life (even a photo of you doing work after class or doing a hobby or on holiday) and a model short paragraph. As this is one of the first online activities in the course, write a short comment on each person’s post, responding to content rather than accuracy, for example: Thanks for sharing this, Jasmine. It looks like a beautiful place to visit. This activity is a useful online icebreaker and a good opportunity for you to learn more about your students’ interests, and for them to learn about each other and buildrapport.

Tofinish Put students into small groups. Write some of the following scenarios on separate piece of paper – one scenario per group. Distribute a scenario to each group. Give groups two minutes to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of posting their photos to social media based on their given scenario. After the allocated time, ask each group to pass their piece of paper to the nextgroup. Scenariosuggestions:

SBp13

Tostart Write What are you inspired by? on the board. Tell students about some things that inspire you, such as: I am inspired by reading autobiographies of famous people who have overcome significant adversity to achieve great things. I’malso very inspired by entrepreneurs who create a successful business from scratch. Ask students to discuss the question in pairs, expanding their answers with reasons to show how the inspiration has played out in their lives. Then ask each student to share something that inspires them with theclass. After the discussion, point out that inspired by is an example of a participle adjective + a dependent preposition. Tell students that the aim of this lesson is to use a range of these kinds of participle adjectives + dependent prepositions accurately and to practise an exam-style open clozetask.

1 Nominate a student to read sentence 1 aloud. Ask:Isthe main focus on an action, how someone is affected by an action, or the cause of an action? (how someone is affected by an action). Put students into pairs to decide what the main focus is in sentences 2 and 3. Elicittheanswers. All are ‘how someone is affected by an action orevent’.

You are on holiday on a tropicalisland. You are feeling really down at themoment. You have a newhaircut. You have bought a cutting-edgetablet. You can’t stand yourboss. You want to show your support for a politicalparty. You and a friend have had a fallingout. You think an article a friend has posted is a load ofrubbish. In preparation for the Grammar lesson, ask students to read the notes and examples on participle adjectives and dependent prepositions in the Grammar file on page 142 orlook at the PowerPoint GrammarPresentation. Presentationtool:

Unit 1, Listening

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Audioscript: SBp175 Extra Practice App

USE OF ENGLISH 1

explore language

SB p142

Give students a few minutes to read the explore language box. For part C (1–3), give the following examples: I get encouraged by people liking my post. (nounphrase) I get encouraged by listening to uplifting podcasts. (-ingclause). I get encouraged by what other people share. (a wh- clause). Note: how counts as a wh-word.

2 Elicit the participle adjectives in Ex 1 (upset, angry,

frustrated). Go through each participle adjective in turn, eliciting which explanations A–C apply, and eliciting which prepositions pair with each adjective and what theymean. 1 upset A by B also pairs withat/with/about C 2 2 angry A about B also pairs withwith/at/over C 1 3 frustrated A with B also pairs withat/by C 3

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1 Look ahead, lookback USE OF ENGLISH 1 (Continued)

3 Write about on the board, and elicit participle adjectives

which can be used before about. Then ask students to work in pairs to add at least four participle adjectives to each list. Elicit student ideas, writing these on theboard. Possibleanswers 1 pleased, undecided, excited,worried 2 encouraged, impressed, influenced,overwhelmed 3 alienated, separated, exhausted,prevented 4 dedicated, committed, devoted,accustomed 5 delighted, frustrated, satisfied,disappointed 6 annoyed, astonished, alarmed,accomplished

watch out for Participle adjectives that take by and from often have achange in meaning depending on thepreposition. • protected by (a person/thing); protected from (something harmful/doingsomething) • alienated by (a person/thing); alienated from (agroup) • prevented by (a person/thing); prevented from (doingsomething) However, there are exceptions where either preposition may be used without a meaning change, e.g. I was exhausted from/by thejourney.

4 Share a personal example. For example, say: I used to

be accomplished at writing poetry. Encourage stronger students to extend their answers by using a range of noun phrases, -ing clauses and wh-clauses in their sentences. Give students a few minutes to complete the sentences individually. Then ask students to share their sentences with apartner. 2 from 3 about 4 with 5 by 6by

extra: fast finishers Ask students to write some additional sentences which are true for them using some of the participle adjectives that were brainstormed in Ex 3. Challenge stronger students to include a coordinating expression (see the bottom of the Grammar file on page 142 for notes andexamples).

5 Focus students’ attention on the picture at the top of the page and elicit some ideas about what visual note-taking is. Ask for a show of hands for if anyone has ever tried visual note-taking. Ask: What might the benefits be of taking notesvisually? It’s a way of taking notes that involves drawing and diagrams, as well aswords.

exam task: opencloze In the Cambridge exam items will test a variety of grammatical words. Here the focus is on dependent prepositions which reflects the focus of the lesson. This exercise is practice for the open cloze task in the Reading and Use of English paper. Ask students to read the exam tip, and write the following strategies on the board: 1 Read for gist; 2 Look for clues before and after the gap; 3 Decide what kind of word goes in the gap; 4 Fill in the gap; 5 Checkagain. We know that the new way of note-taking was developed to address problems shown in the research, so it must have happened after theresearch.

6

Give students up to 10 minutes to complete the exercise. Setting a time limit can add an aspect of challenge and is good practice for the exam. Ask fast finishers to check their answers and make sure they will be able to explain why they chose each one. Elicit the answers and reasons for choosing the answer for eachgap. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

at (participle adjective and dependentpreposition) with (participle adjective and dependentpreposition) on (participle adjective and dependentpreposition) were (past form of to be betterat) after (timephrase) of (participle adjective and dependentpreposition) in (participle adjective and dependentpreposition) to (participle adjective and dependentpreposition)

Speakup 7 Ask students to discuss the questions inpairs.

extra: whole class Ask students to find out about more about visual note-taking on the internet for homework. They should focus on the followingquestions. 1 What are the importantelements? 2 Decide which aspects of this type of note-taking are helpful for your studies andwhy.

Funfooter Read the fun footer with the class and ask them to discuss in pairs whether this has been their experience. Then elicit any interesting points from thestudents.

Tofinish Give students a chance to try some visual note-taking. Selecta short text to read aloud, e.g. a news article or blog post. Ask students to take notes in a visual way. Askstudents to get together in a group to compare their notes and see how much they can remember. Ask students to rate how effective it was to take visual notes, what benefits and barriers there were and whether they would do so again in thefuture. Presentationtool:

Unit 1, Use of English 1

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Grammar reference and practice: SBp142 Extra Practice App

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USE OF ENGLISH 2

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Tostart Tell students that the aim of this lesson is to practise changing the form of words (word formation) and to complete an exam-style word formationexercise. Remind students that adding prefixes is one way to form a new word. Write on the board in- and brainstorm words that students know which this prefix can be added to, e.g.expensive, animate, operable,attention/attentive. Divide your class into small groups and assign each group one of the following prefixes im-, un-, mis- ir-, dis-. If you have asmall class, you could assign each group more than oneprefix. Give each group three minutes to brainstorm as many words beginning with their assigned prefix as possible. Students could use (online) dictionaries to help if necessary. Askeach group to read their list and see if anyone else can add anywords.

1 Write memory on the board and ask: Is this a noun,

an adjective, verb or adverb? (noun). Ask: What is the adjective form of memory? (memorable). Elicit the adverb (memorably) and verb (memorise). Ask students to work in pairs to name the part of speech and make as many words as they can from the other words in Ex 1. Elicit ideas, writing them on the board so that students can check theirspelling.

explorelanguage Read through the explore language box as a class. For pointA, elicit some other prefixes e.g. un-, dis-, mis-. For point B, elicit some other suffixes e.g. -less, -ful, -ion. For point D, pointout that adding a suffix is likely to change the word class (and may change the meaning as well), whereas adding a prefix is likely to change only the meaning of the word, notthe wordclass. memory – noun (memorise, memorable, unmemorable,memorably) recollection – noun (collection, collect,recollect) repeatedly – adverb (repeat, repetition,repetitive) substantial – adjective (insubstantial, substantially, insubstantially,substance) temporary – adjective(temporarily) transfer – noun or verb (transferable,transformation)

2 Focus students’ attention on the logo (the heading) and

ask what students think the website does. Ask students to read the text quickly for gist to check theirpredictions. Possibleanswer Perhaps Futureme allows you to upload photos and they will alter them to show what you might look like in thefuture. It might be some sort of advice website that helps you create plans to become the person you want tobe.

3 Draw a table on the board with columns headed noun,

adjective, adverb and verb. Place the bolded words in the relevant column. (If you have a very able class, do not fill in the bolded words). Ask students to copy and complete thetable. nouns: increase, difference, inspiration, advice, description,reassurance adjectives: increasing, different, inspirational/inspiring, advisable, advisory, descriptive,reassuring adverb: increasingly, differently, inspirationally, advisedly, descriptively,reassuringly verb: increase, differ, inspire, advise, describe,reassure

4 Students complete the sentences then compare in pairs before you conduct a classcheck.

1 increase ​​2 inspirational/inspiring ​​3 differently ​​ 4reassurance ​​5advisable

exam task: wordformation 5

Read the exam tip aloud before students do the exercise. Encourage students to quickly read the email for gist before they attempt the gaps. Set a time limit of eight minutes. Fast finishers should check their answers carefully and think about reasons for theirchoice. 1 glorious (adjective – subject complement toit) 2 pleasure (noun – head of noun phrase pleasure we got from walking across London in the earlyhours) 3 inspiration (noun – following articlean) 4 substantially (adverb – modifying verbearning) 5 reminder (noun – following articlea) 6 disappointment (noun – following article/adjective the big, direct object of get over; negative form – collocation get over adisappointment) 7 sensible (adjective – part of comparative more sensible, subject complement ofyou) 8 advice (noun – subject required for is, follows possessive determinermy)

Speakup 6 Ask students to discuss the question in pairs. Then ask

students to report their ideas back to the class. Giving students an opportunity to report back after a pair discussion means they are more likely to have something to say and answerfluently.

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Ask students to work in pairs to explain this in their own words, e.g. What this means is that the Earth would take 25 hours to spin rather than 24. Askstudents to discuss this question: What would be the positive or negative aspects of a 25-hourday?

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1 Look ahead, lookback

SPEAKING

USE OF ENGLISH 2 (Continued)

Tofinish Ask students to form pairs for a quiz. Ask them to listen to the following statements, one at a time, and write down the answer (pause for about 10 seconds for students toconfer): 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

the verb form of ‘description’(describe) the noun form of ‘inspire’(inspiration) the adverb form of ‘substance’(substantially) the noun form of ‘glorious’(glory) the verb form of ‘advice’(advise) the noun form of ‘reassure’(reassurance) the adverb form of ‘partial’(partially) the adjective form of ‘fortune’(fortunate)

Elicit theanswers.

Tostart Elicit subjects which are (or were) offered at the students’ high school(s). Put students into pairs. Write on the board: Which subjects are the most/least effective preparation for the future? Ask students to discuss the question. Ask a few students to share the subject they chose and whether they had any trouble agreeing with eachother. Tell students that the aims of this lesson are to use a wide range of language to agree/disagree and to complete an exam-style collaborativetask.

Powerup 1 Write History on the board. Ask students for a show

extra: whole class

ofhands of who likes studying history and who doesn’t. Tell students that a blog has been written by someone who dislikes history and these are the responses. Askstudents to read the blog responses individually. Say: Choose the comment which is closest to your point of view then compare with yourpartner.

Ask students to write a short email to their future self, but let them know they will be sharing it with a partner. Students could swap their email with a partner to read and provide feedback, or you could collect it to provide feedback on the correct use of affixation and appropriate wordforms. Presentationtool:

Unit 1, Use of English 2

Workbook / Online Practice:

p10

Extend vocabulary:

SBp160

Extra Practice App

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Ask students to find and underline the informal phrases for agreeing and disagreeing in the posts (Totally agree! Rubbish! You are joking!) Emphasise that these are suitable for informal settings, such as betweenfriends.

Speakup 2 Ask the question to the class and elicit some responses.

Ask some follow-up questions, e.g. What other ways are there to learn abouthistory?

exam tip 3

1.6 Remind students of what is expected in the collaborative task exercise as outlined in the Speaking File on page 163. Play the recording and elicit which pair students think performed best and why. Read the exam tipaloud. Pair 2 are better because they interact, rather than giving a sequence of longturns.

useful language: asking for an opinion; showing agreement; partially agreeing/ disagreeing 4 Ask students to read the useful language box and

refer them to the audioscript on page 175 to find additional phrases. Point out that using a range of more sophisticated phrases will help them get a higher mark in theexam. asking for an opinion: Got any thoughts onthat? showing agreement: You’re soright. partially agreeing/disagreeing: I agree up to apoint.

5 Consider reversing the order of Exs 5 and 6 so that

students practise intonation before using the phrases. Students discuss the statements in pairs, ensuring that they use thephrases.

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extra: fast finishers Write an additional statement on the board for extra practice: 3 Historical films should not be made entertaining at the expense ofaccuracy.

extra: whole class Put students into small groups to find and research a story or myth. Tell them to add in some information that is not true. Groups narrate the story to students in another group, who try to determine which facts are real and which arenot.

6 Demonstrate the pronunciation of the phrases in Ex 5 for

students to listen and notice the stress and intonation. Invite students (especially stronger students) to also listen for the way the words connect together rather than being pronounced as individualunits. Give students a few minutes to practise saying the phrases while you circulate and repeat any asnecessary.

(Stressed syllables underlined. The suggested tone is in brackets, although this will depend on individual speakers and what they wish toconvey.) Don’t you agree? (risingtone) My thinking exactly. (fallingtone) That’s an excellent way of putting it! (rising on excellent, falling on puttingit) That’s true, but on the other hand … (high on that’s true, falling on otherhand

exam task: collaborative task

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In the Speaking test Part 3 candidates also need to answer a decision question after the main discussion. Here there is no decision question as the focus of the lesson is on the main discussion.

7

Give students a couple of minutes to read the task and make notes. Set a time limit of two minutes for students to discuss each method, reminding students to try to include phrases from Exs 4 and 5. Then say: You now have one minute to make a decision on which is the most effectivemethod.

Possibleanswer A: How do you feel about personal letters, diaries and memoirs? Are theyeffective? B: I’d say they are excellent sources because you have the opportunity to really get inside someone’s head and understand what life was like for them at thattime. A: That’s true, but on the other hand, these sources are very subjective so might give quite a narrow view of a time period orevent. B: You could be right, but it probably depends why you want to learn about the past. For example, if it was to find out about ancestors, these sources would give you personal insight. Now, let’s see, how about oral histories…

Speakingextra 8 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs. Remind students to use the phrases from the lesson. Ask for feedback from individualpairs.

Tofinish Put students into pairs. Say: I’m going to write two items on the boardand I’d like you to discuss in your pairs which isbetter. Write on the board kittens or puppies? Allow students about one minute to discuss this, then without stopping the class, rub out kittens or puppies and write another pair of items from the suggested list: Apple or Android? summer or winter? beach or snow? night owl or earlybird? In preparation for the Writing lesson, consider asking students to complete Ex 4 on page 16 and think aboutafilm, book, game or TV series they would like to review. Inaddition, you could ask students to research reviews of their chosen topic and bring examples in foranalysis. Presentationtool:

Unit 1, Speaking

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Speaking file:

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Audioscript: SBp175

When students have finished, ask them to look back at the phrases in Exs 4 and 5 and tick which ones they used. Ask them to repeat the task again with a new partner andtry to use some of the phrases they didn’t use. As well as practising the target language, repeating a speaking task with a new partner helps students gain confidence andfluency.

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1 Look ahead, lookback

WRITING

SBpp16–17

Tostart Write the following categories on the board: film, TV programme, game,book. Say: Write down one item from each category that you have watched, read or played recently. Give students a minute to do this. Say: Give each item you have written down a rating of between one and five stars, with five stars being the highest. Give students a minute to dothis. Share an example, for example, e.g. I recently binge-watched two seasons of Doctor Who. You’ve probably heard of it, it’s a British TV show about a time traveller. I’ve opted to give it five stars because of its brilliant script, memorable characters and great specialeffects. Put students into pairs to compare their lists and explain their ratings. Ask a few students to share their rating for an item andtheir reasons. Tell students that the aim of this lesson is to write a review which includes the conventions of the genre and uses emphatic adjectivecombinations.

Powerup 1 Give students a few minutes to discuss the questions in pairs then elicit a few ideas for eachquestion.

Possibleanswers 1 • Yes, I always look up online reviews before buying any of these things. It saves me both time and money, and helps me decide which product is most suitable forme. • I don’t usually read reviews because I find they often contain spoilers even if they say they don’t! I’ve also found that reviews aren’t that helpful unless you find a reviewer that has very similartaste. 2 The purpose of a review is to evaluate something and make arecommendation. 3 • I definitely trust my friends because they know what my taste is and are more likely to recommend things I’ll actuallyenjoy. • I prefer online reviews because they are convenient and quick to look up. That said, you do have to be careful of fake reviewers who aren’tgenuine.

Planon 2 This is an opportunity to check and generate vocabulary.

Askstudents to form small groups. Give them ten minutes to follow the instructions. It may help students to start the task if you distribute a piece of paper for the list to eachgroup. Suggestedanswers a film – title, brief description of plot, evaluation of key features e.g. acting, direction, photography, costumes, music, sets; how it compares to other films,etc. a TV programme or series – title, brief description of plot, evaluation of key features e.g. acting, direction, storyline; howit compares to other series,etc. a book – title, brief description of plot, evaluation of key features e.g. characters, storyline, style of writing; how it compares to other books,etc. a performance in the theatre – title, brief description of plot, evaluation of key features e.g. acting, direction, script, costumes, music, sets; how it compares to other plays/ operas,etc. a video game – title, brief description, evaluation of key features, e.g. characters, challenges, graphics, levels, how it compares to othergames, etc.

extra: fast finishers Groups that finish early could choose another form of entertainment from Ex 2 todiscuss.

3 Ask students to read the task, then elicit answers to the

questions. Ask: Have you seen any films or TV series about a real personrecently? The audience would include other students in the college. They need to know the four points to include in the task (i.e. briefly describe the person, the aspects of their life or character, how authentic it seemed, whether it helped the audience understand the personbetter).

4 Focus students’ attention on the photo and ask: Has

anyone seen this film about Steve Jobs? Ask students to read the review and answer the questions. Elicit the answers. 1 2 3 4

Yes, itdoes. The review mentions plot, actors, scenes anddirection. Informal – it’s for a peeraudience. It mentions all of these – they make the writer’s opinion morepersuasive. 5 Students’ ownanswers.

exam tip You may want to save this box until Ex 9 when students are writing their review. Read through the exam tip with the class. Give students time to read the exam tip question, then elicit the answer. Direct students to the Writing file on page 169 for more information and useful language for reviews. Read through the phrases in the box and discuss the questions as aclass. Five: Michael Fassbender, the scriptwriter, Winslet, Rogen, thedirector

useful language: emphatic adjectives 5 Tell students to underline the examples they find

of words/phrases that connect ideas and positive, emotive language. Elicit theanswers. Ask students to read through the useful language box and see if any of the phrases could be used to describe the items they rated in the ‘To start’exercise. (Underlined = words/phrases which connect ideas; bold = examples of positive, emotivelanguage) It is always hard to make a film about a real person, especially one who is in living memory. Danny Boyle’s film Steve Jobs is a fantastic character study which both dispels and reinforces some of the myths that have built up around someone who many consider to be agenius. The film offers a new narrative framework – it has three separate sequences, each of which captures Jobs at public points in his career just before a product launch, with a few brief flashbacks to earlier episodes in his life. Michael Fassbender gives a towering performance as this difficult man who famously betrayed his friends, alienated his allies and mistreated his loved ones. The scriptwriter has worked on real life characters before, notably in The Social Network, and just like that, Steve Jobs doesn’t pull anypunches.

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Winslet and Rogen provide a superb supporting cast as Job’s right-hand woman and his more tedious co-founder Wozniak respectively. In fact, it may be Winslet’s best performance to date. But how the events unfold is not necessarily representative of real life as the writer takes liberties with both facts and characters in order to create a movie that hurtles along at breath-taking speed. Having said that, film bios were never intended to be documentaries – they are allegories that illustrate meanings and morals we can apply to our everydaylives. The film is also driven by the director’s kinetic pace, making it fresh and absorbing. For all the darker side we see of his personality, ultimately, the film showcases the sheer brilliance of the man at the heart of thefilm.

6 Talk through an example for Ex 6. You could use the

possible answers in the key. Give students about five minutes to write theirsentences. Possibleanswer 1 The latest Star Wars film has a fast-moving plot and brilliant script which other recent blockbusters havelacked. 2 It has superb CGI, which is far superior to the originalfilms. 3 I found it surprising and refreshing, to see diversity among the charactersrepresented. 4 This is a must-see, especially for fans of the Star Warsfranchise.

7 Students share their sentences in pairs. Ask students

to reflect on how persuasive they have been. Ask: Have you used emphatic adjectives? Encourage students to work together to edit their sentences to make them morepersuasive.

8

Tell students to find the bolded words in the review text to help deduce their meaning. Ask the class the questions and elicitanswers. 1 biographies, psychological thrillers,etc. 2 A 3 they explain information that has happened in the past that may motivate current events/feelings,etc. 4 chapter, instalment,part 5 you don’t tell thetruth 6 A

Writeon 9 Tell students that the review task is one of the options

for Writing Part 2. Ask students to re-read the task and decide what to write about. Point out that they don’t have to write about something they like, but it may make the task easier to show emphatic language if they choose an item they feel stronglyabout.

10 Students work through the steps independently while you circulate providing support as required. Early finishers may start writing theirreview.

exam task: review

SBp169

11 12

Students do the writing task in class, or you can set it for homework. Remind students to check their workcarefully. Modelanswer There is a certain fascination among many people around the world with the British royalty. If you want to indulge your passion and get a royal fix, the Netflix biographical drama series about the reign of Queen Elizabeth II, The Crown, is amust-see. In Season 1, we follow the Queen in her early years, including her marriage to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and her coronation. It showcases the Queen in her duties, but also as a sister, daughter, wife andmother. While there is no shortage of small-screen drama featuring kings and queens, I would rate this much better than previous series, with a brilliant script, incredibly good acting, and magnificent sets and costumes. What really sets it apart is how the royal family have been portrayed as human which helped me understand the incredible fortitude the Queen has shown during herreign. It’s hard to say exactly how historically accurate a drama like this is. Apparently, it is based on real events and even diaries. It seems that many of the scenes were painstakingly researched and recreated. However, I would definitely guess that liberties were taken around the detail in other areas to create extra tension and drama. But, whoknows? What I am sure of is that royal-watchers would be mad to miss this. Even if you’re not a fan, I still suggest you give this drama about an extraordinary family achance.

Improveit 13 Ask students to swap reviews with a partner. Point out

that the ‘Communicative achievement’ checklist features all focus on and are part of the Cambridge Advanced Task Fulfilment criteria. Ask students to read each other’s reviews and discuss what has been done well and what could be improved in relation to the criteria. Give students an opportunity to make changes to their review before you collect in for individualised feedback. Rather than commenting on every aspect of the review, concentrate on the items in the Communicative checklist. You may also want to discuss accuracy, range, etc., but be careful not to overwhelm or distract from the in-depth analysis of the main focus criteria in thechecklist.

Tofinish Put students into new pairs with someone they have not worked with yet in the lesson. Ask students to discuss the items they each reviewed, and decide whether they would enjoy the item their partner reviewed. Encourage stronger students to have this discussion without using notes, whereas weaker students could use their essay as aprompt. Presentationtool:

Unit 1, Writing

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Writing file:

SBp169

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1 Look ahead, lookback

SWITCH ON

SBp18

Life throughfilm 1 Put students into small groups to discuss the questions. Ask each group to summarise their discussion for questions 2 and 3 and share with theclass.

Possibleanswers 1 Students’ ownanswers. 2 Our group had mixed feelings about our childhoods being broadcast on television. On the one hand, there would be excitement and a feeling of being a bit special. On the other hand, there might be embarrassment and a feeling of invasion ofprivacy. 3 We thought that it would generally be fine as long as nothing too embarrassing or personal was shown, it isn’t that different to parents posting things on the internet, is it? / I think it is unfair and unethical to film children’s personal lives for a show, I’m not sure they can really understand consent anyway. Once information about your life is in the public domain, you can’t eraseit.

2

Play the clip then elicit what the aim of the TV show was. Note, the video in the original programme was called 7UP and aimed to film these children every seven years throughout theirlives. Suggestedanswer To film a group of seven year olds as a social experiment, then film them at intervals throughout theirlives.

3

Play the video for students to make notes on what Nick and Suzy say about how their lives have been portrayed. Encourage them to consider using visual note-taking, as featured on page 13. Then play the clip. Students compare theirnotes. Possibleanswers Nick felt that the programme showed only tiny snippets selected from a lot of footage of his life. He expressed disappointment as he felt that the programme did not give a full representation of the essence of hischaracter. Nick felt that the footage didn’t give an accurate picture of himself but just‘somebody’. Suzy said that the time restraints of the programme didn’t allow it to give a rounded picture or accurate image of the participants’ truecharacters.

extra: whole class

4 Students work in the same groups as Ex 1, and discuss the questions. Elicit a fewideas.

Possibleanswers 1 If Nick and Suzy had edited each episode, perhaps they would have chosen footage that gave a truer and more heartfelt representation of their experience of life, as opposed to what the producers thought should be filmed and addressed at certain ages. They might have avoided answering leading questions from producers that they did not want to answer or did not feel were relevant at thetime. Nick and Suzy might have chosen to avoid showing personal or extremely emotional situations out of respect for their privacy. Or they might have wanted to eliminate documentation of their professionallife. 2 A common trend for our generation is to post and edit images of things we have purchased. This could be because society places a lot of value on material possessions, especially new clothes, but also other items. Thus, people start to express their personalities and identities through material possessions. The pictures they post become symbolic of a lifestyle choice that they are trying toconvey. I tend to pose in my photos for various reasons, from flattering my appearance to creating a comic effect. I think there is sometimes a competitive element to posting on social media. People like to give the impression that their lives are happy and successful and that they have a very large group offriends. 3 I would be interested to watch footage of myself taken from my childhood until now because it would be interesting to see the ways in which I’ve stayed the same and the ways in which I’ve changed. However, I wouldn’t like it to be broadcast on television or the internet for the world to see. I think that’s too intrusive and Iwould be worried that I would be unhappy about how Iwaspresented.

extra: whole class Say: Nick says in the video that the programme is less about his specific life and more about the changes anybody goes through in their life. Ask students to work in pairs, and give each pair one of the following ages: 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 77. Students speculate about the kinds of things that might be happening at that age, what they might care about, and problems they might face. Each pair shares their ideas with the class. Alternatively, ask students to speculate about what they would like to be doing with their life at their allocatedage.

Ask students to listen for the following words and phrases in the clip. They should discuss their meanings in pairs, and write personalisedexamples. snippet: a small piece of news, information, or conversation, e.g. I only heard a few snippets of theconversation. rounded: having a wide range of qualities that make someone or something pleasant, balanced, and complete, e.g. The company is looking for candidates who have roundedinterests. time constraints: the limited amount of time that is available, e.g. Exams are always done under strict timeconstraints. walk of life: the position in society someone has, especially the type of job they have e.g. Our volunteers include people from all walks oflife. 36

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Project 5 For 1, if students do not have access to the internet for research, they could discuss what they already know about each of the methods listed with their partner. Encourage students to choose a method that involves English in some way. They should discuss the other questions. Ask each pair to briefly share with the class what they havedecided.

6 This could be set as a homework activity over the course of a week. Give students the opportunity to share their entry by posting it to your online space or discussing inclass.

extra: project This project can be ongoing throughout the year. Decidehow many times, or at what intervals you will catch up with the students’ records and timetable a lesson or period during which students can present their projects to theclass. Ideas on how students can present their lives include thefollowing. • Set up a class online page onto which they can post photos, videos or pieces ofwriting. • Encourage students (in teams of at least three) to take it in turns to be the subject, director or producer/ interviewer to create their own documentaries of their lives up to now, using the video function on their phones. Set a date when all those who wish to can present theirdocumentaries. Presentationtool:

Unit 1, Switch on

Switch on videoscript:

TBp179

INDEPENDENT LEARNING SBp18

Self-assessment 1 Say: Self-assessment is the process of reflecting on your

own performance and progress, and identifying ways you can improve. Point out that educational research indicates that self-assessment is a helpful learning strategy. Askstudents to answer the questionsindividually. Possibleanswers 1 It can help you decide what to concentrate on; help you learn from mistakes; motivate you as you recognise areas of progress; it increases self-responsibility and independence; it’s good practice for university/ theworkplace. 2 Students should tick the first twopoints.

2 Organise students into pairs and ask them to first compare their answers to Ex 1, then discuss the questions. Elicit ideas from theclass.

Possibleanswers 1 You can assessany. 2 Make a note of what you noticed and make a plan of what to do next, e.g. revise an area, ask for help, practiseagain. 3 Being self-aware can help you improve your performance. After a task, consider – what did I do well? What do I need to work on? Don’t be too hard on yourself. Try to be a positive, encouraging voice rather than a self-criticalone.

3 Tell students that completing these three questions is

an example of self-assessment. When students have completed their answers, invite students to share their ideas. Encourage students to jot down any particularly good suggestions from theirclassmates. Possibleanswers 1 … I want to be the best I can … it will help me know what to ask for help with… 2 … my speaking. For example, am I speaking at a good pace, clearly and fluently, using a range oflanguage? 3 … doing my homework and taking extra opportunities to practise English (e.g. using mobile apps, watching TV, joining a conversation club, identifying what I need to work on and making aplan.)

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1 Look ahead, lookback

UNITCHECK

SBp19

Note on core language: The Unit Check tests past tenses, adjectives and dependent prepositions and wordformation. If possible, complete listening Ex 1 in the Review section in class. Note that Ex 1 in the Practice section can be done as homework, then students can check their answers using the audio in class. The other activities may be completed in class or set forhomework.

extra: using the wordlist • Ask students to put an asterisk (*) next to words which were new to them before they had completed theUnit. • Challenge students to choose several words to write sentenceswith. • Ask students to work in pairs and to test each other’sspelling. • Make an online wordfind or crossword for students with some of thesewords. • Create a glossary in your online space. Divide the words among the class and ask every student to find and post a definition and example for their allocatedwords.

Practice 1

1.7 1 remember/recall 2 charismatic/inspirational 3 commit 4 stick 5 recognise 6 inspirational 7 reassuring 8 marked 9 memorise 10paved

2 Students’ ownanswers. 3 1 reassuring 2 flashbacks 3 allegory 4 awareness 5mundane

4 Students’ ownanswers.

Review 1

1.8 1 F 2 D 3 A 4 B 5 G 6 E 7 C 8H Events happening at the same time: G andE.

2 1 was wondering if you wouldmind

2 was thinking we/youcould 3 Would itbe 4 was hoping you might/wouldhave

3 1 had been studying 2 had deleted 3 were giving

4 had already been 5 had been filming 6 were allplaying

4 The task here is very similar to the sentence

transformation in the Cambridge exam apart from a few items not requiring candidates to make two changes. 1 2 3 4 5 6

had gone/been sold by thetime no sooner had heposted after havingtold realised my account had beenhacked did was close myaccount am worriedabout

5 1 A about 2 A for 3 A by 4 A from

Bwith Bwith Bfor Bwith

6 Suggestedanswer Your review was really helpful, thanks. It was a good idea to introduce all the characters in the film and I was impressed by your descriptions of the sets and costumes. Also, I thought it was very good because you made it sound exciting but you did not give any of the critical parts of the story away. I was disappointed with what you said about the plot being boring, but I’d still like to see it based on your review. If you write any more reviews, it would be really useful if you could mention how the film compares to other similar films you’ve seen. Keepposting!

GRAMMARFILE

SBp143

1 1 did you spend 2 was doing, went 3 never usedto enjoy 4 been playing, hadn’t washed 5 Did you reply,got 6 caught up, hadn’tseen

2 1 met, wasworking 2 3 4 5 6

came up, had neverseen called, realised, had been staring, had completely run outof Did youwant waswondering Were youthinking

3 1 he had beenwatching the 2 3 4 5 6

was wondering if/whether you couldgive didn’t use to drinkas the sandwiches had gone bythe took me four hours (towrite) after they had/they’ddone

4 1 I was worried and annoyed about the phonecall. 2 We were interested in and amused by the video sheposted. 3 My sister was interested in and pleased with her newphone. 4 My classmate was devoted and connected to all hisfollowers. 5 My parents were horrified and shocked by my friend’s Facebookpost. 6 The audience was amazed by and engaged with the brilliant movie theysaw.

5 1 was 2 when 3 by 4 in 5 been 6 on 7 at 8had Presentationtool:

Unit 1, Unit check

Workbook / Online Practice:

p13

Audioscript:

SBp175

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Lead-in SBp21 Introduce the title of the unit, Winnersand losers. Ask: Can you think of some situations where there are clear winners and losers? Elicit some ideas e.g.sports, board games, politics, award ceremonies, reality TVshows.

X 2

Winners andlosers READING

USE OFENGLISH

topic: head-to-headcontests skill: identifying paraphrasing andsynonyms task: multiplematching

opencloze multiple-choicecloze

GRAMMAR verbpatterns determiners andpronouns

VOCABULARY adjective + nouncollocations idioms adverbs andadjectives

LISTENING topic: factors contributing to success insports skill: understanding attitude and detailedinformation task: sentencecompletion

SPEAKING topic:disagreements skill: comparingvisuals task: longturn

WRITING topic: sports competitions and youngpeople skill: using opinions and examples to support an argument;hedging task:essay

SWITCH ON video: trying toimpress project: coming back fromfailure

Focus students’ attention on the photo and ask students to describe what they see (someone playing a game of virtual soccer/football on a tablet). AskOn a scale of one to ten, one being the lowest and ten being the highest, how much of a fan of computer games are you? Tellyour partner what number you chose andwhy. Read questions 1–2 with the class. Point out the expression help or hinder in Question 2 and check students understand that the verb to hinder means to make it more difficult for something to develop or succeed. Ask:Do you think computer games help or hinder learners of English? Elicita fewresponses. Give students a few minutes to discuss Questions 1 and 2 in pairs, then ask a few students each question e.g. Thomas, why do you think people have become so fascinated with computer games? Would you tend to agree with that,Emma? Read the quote aloud: Your greatest opponent is yourself. Ask: In what ways might that be true in sport? Elicitsome ideas, e.g. motivating yourself to train or persevere when the going gets tough, reaching a personal best, not letting negative self-talk get the better of you. Elicit the verb, adjective and general noun form of opponent and the syllable stress in each form (to oppose, opposing, opposition). Then ask students to discuss Question 3 in small groups. Elicit a fewresponses. 39

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2 Winners andlosers

READING

SBpp22–23

Tostart Ask: Who thinks they have a competitive streak? Ask students to rate themselves (from 1 being the least competitive to 5 being extremely competitive), then explain their choice to apartner.

extra: wholeclass Tell students you are going to have a spelling quiz and the pair with the most words will be crowned spelling champion of the day. Put students into pairs and ask them to write the numbers 1–10 on a piece of paper. Call out the following words from Unit 1 for students to write down, giving them a chance to discuss the spelling among themselves: partially, reassuring, substantial, sequence, current, exclusively, realm, ripple effect, therapeutic,witty. Ask students to check their words on page 19 of the Student’s Book. Ask students to check each other’s spelling. Ask: Who got the spelling of all ten words correct? Nine? Eight? Stop as soon as a pair puts up their hand. That pair are thewinners. Ask: How did the competitive aspect to the spelling quiz affect how you felt about the task? Elicit a fewresponses.

Powerup 1 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit a few responses to eachquestion.

Possibleanswers 1 • I entered a talent show last year as part of a hip-hop dance group. Although I was quite nervous, it was exciting to perform with lights and costumes. We didn’t come anywhere but that didn’t matter because we only entered forfun. • I suppose you could say my weekly football game is a competition. It can feel quite tense at times because our school has a good chance of winning so we put a lot of pressure on ourselves to play well. That said, if I didn’t enjoy the competitive aspect on some level, I wouldn’t beplaying. 2 • I went to cheer on my friend at a karaoke competition the other day. Even though I was only in the audience, Ifelt quite nervous on herbehalf! • I was lucky enough to see our national basketball team play recently. There was a great atmosphere, with so much energy from the crowd. However, in the end, we lost and I must say I was bitterlydisappointed.

Readon 2 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs using

phrases for speculation such as It looks like … ; I would say … ; I think … ; I’d guess … ; they might … . Elicit a fewideas. Possibleanswers 1 It looks like this is a singing or speaking competition. Iwould say contestants would have rehearsed extensively before the show. They might feel nervous, excited or exhilarated during theshow. 2 This looks like a chess tournament. The players have probably played a lot of games to practise, against real people or maybe computers. They also might have read some books or websites with chess tips. I would say they are concentrating intensely, maybe blocking everything else out including theirnerves! 3 I would say this is some sort of video-game championship, although it is possible it’s a coding competition or something else online. I think the players look like they are having a greattime. 4 I think this is a breakdancing competition. I’d guess it takes a lot of training to be able to perform moves like that. They might have to choreograph or learn a certain routine for the competition, or perhaps it is improvised. I’d guess the performer is enjoying the buzz ofperforming.

3 Give students two minutes to read the text and match the contributions to photos1–4.

1 A The poetry slam involves poets performing their poems, often to a background beat, to compete for votes from selected audience members. The preparation involves writing your own original poem and lots of practice. Performers likely feel excited because of the fun buzz ofperforming. 2 B A Blitz Chess Tournament is a speeded-up game of chess with only a short time to make each move. It involves playing to improve speed and make fast decisions, and you also need to keep fit. During the game, players feel focused and underpressure. 3 C A gaming tournament involves physically attending an event, sometimes for a few days. Practice involves playing online. Players may feel a buzz (excitement) and/ or performanceanxiety. 4 D A dance battle is a head-to-head contest between two dancers competing for spectator votes. It involves many hours of hard training and practice. It feels very exciting and intense to compete, thrilling to win, and there may be moments of triumph and doubt along theway.

exam tip Read through the exam tip with the class and ask them to find phrases in paragraph B that have a similar meaning to need … physical fitness. Point out that students need to find specific clues in the text rather than just guessing, e.g.paragraph D might seem to be the obvious choice for a need for physical fitness, but it is a distractor to see if you have read the question and the paragraph carefully. Ask students to underline key words in the remaining prompts in Ex4. In paragraph B, students should underline: (It’s essential to) practise to improve speed … keep your body in good shape,too.

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exam task: multiplematching

extra: fast finishers

In the Cambridge exam the reading texts will not have as detailed lead-ins as this. Here the lead-in is to interest students and prepare them for the content of the texts.

Write these prompts on the board and ask students to find the phrases in the corresponding paragraphs which have the samemeanings.

4

Remind students that the multiple matching task is Part 7 of the Reading and Use of English Paper. There are 10 questions which students need to match to short texts/parts of a text. Set a time limit of seven minutes for students to complete Ex 4. Then give students a few minutes to compare their answers and reasoning in pairs. Comparing answers in pairs gives students an opportunity to reflect on their answers, learn from each other and also to get spokenpractice.

1 See examtip. 2 C (basic mistakes start to creep in. The secret is: try not to dwell on them, otherwise you’ll lose focus and be constantly playingcatch-up.) 3 A (but I’m betting that none of them have really experienced the pulsing excitement of a real, hardfought head-to-head slambattle.) 4 D (The audience turn their cards – red for him, blue for you – and it’s a sea of blue. You’ve won your first major dance battle.) 5 B (you’ll be playing mind games with your opponent, and trying to distract eachother.) 6 D (‘Beat that!’ his eyes and hand gesture say. He turns, triumphant, and for a fleeting moment a sneaking doubt catches yourheart.) 7 A (For those not in the know, slams are not sedate affairs where poets dramatically declaim their poetry to a captivated audience…) 8 B (It’s one thing playing a calm and quiet game of chess with your family or even someone online. The atmosphere is relaxed, you have thinking time and there’s no real pressure on you to win. Enter a tournament and that all changes…) 9 A (need to create a sense of immediacy that touches everyone in theroom.) 10 C (the prospect of playing in front of people watching can be daunting. Performance anxiety can affect a player both physically and mentally … but be careful because the buzz can beaddictive.)

5 Organise students into A/B pairs. Ask each student A to find words and phrases 1–5, and each student B to find 6–10. Ask students to share their answers with their partner. Conduct classfeedback.

1 those not in theknow 2 hanging on everyword 3 rise to theoccasion 4 bigtime 5 playing mindgames 6 playcatch-up 7 throwing (some awesome)moves 8 for a fleetingmoment 9 not for thefaint-hearted 10 not downto

A not care if people criticise you or do not like you (grow a thickskin) B stay fit (keep your body in goodshape) C something good that doesn’t usually happen in real life (the stuff dreams are madeof) D accept the consequence of something (face themusic)

Sumup 6 Write on the board the following prompt headings:

Resources, Time, Skills, Help. Ask: If you were entering one of the competitions from the text, what resources, time, skills, and help would you need? Ask students to work in pairs and choose one of the competitions. Give them five minutes to discuss what they would need to consider, using the prompts. Ask students to swap partners, and tell their new partner what the considerationswere.

Speakup 7 Remind students to practise giving full answers, using

a range of language. Review the useful language box on page 15 of the Student’s Book for useful phrases for agreeing/disagreeing. Invite a few students to share what theydiscussed. Possibleanswers 1 • I think the most appealing would probably be the dance competition. To me, it seems like the competition with the most visible action that you can see easily. I like the idea of being able to cast a vote as well, it would make me feel moreinvolved. • The competition I’d least enjoy going to would be the gaming tournament. The text said the atmosphere is electric, but to me, it still sounds a little boring to watch other people playing games when I’d much rather be playing themmyself! 2 • In my view, the audience is the best judge. It makes the show more engaging for the spectators and spreads the decision over lots of varied perspectives rather than a small panel ofexperts. • I have to say I think it’s unfair when audiences judge competitions. It often comes down to a popularity contest instead of who actually performed the best. It would also depend on where the contestants were from, giving an advantage to a local over someone playing away, forexample.

extra: whole class Before class, find a short clip of a teenager performing a poetry slam. Show it to the class in the lesson. In pairs, students select a point they would like to make to the world, e.g. it’s necessary to act on climate change, what doesn’t kill you makes you stronger, etc. It can be a serious or light-hearted topic. Then, they write a short freestyle poem. Students can either perform it for the class, record it to share on your private class online space, or publish the textonline.

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2 Winners andlosers

GRAMMAR

READING (Continued)

Funfooter Read the footer aloud. Ask: Have you ever played chess or any other kind of strategy game? How has the advent of the internet changed strategygames? Possibleanswer People can play an opponent who is geographically far away, perhaps even someone they don’t know. There is a huge range of games available these days. People can seek gaming advice online. You no longer need a physical board toplay.

Tofinish Write the following words and phrases on the board, omitting the word inbrackets: hanging on every(word) rise to the(occasion) big-(time) play catch(up) fleeting(moment) not for thefaint-(hearted)

Tostart Write the following phrases on the board without the verb forms inbrackets. I’m interested in finding out about … (verb + preposition +-ing) I need to go … (verb + infinitive withto) I enjoy seeing … (verb +ing) Put students into pairs. Ask them to discuss ways that they could complete the phrases so that they are true forthem. Elicit the underlined verb forms in the phrases as indicated above. Write up the verb forms next to the example of each type. Point out that the lesson will now continue to explore different verbpatterns.

1 Give students time to choose the correct words, then compare answers in pairs. Conduct classfeedback.

1 to create 2 committing 3 to distract 4prevent

In pairs, students complete the expressions from the article, looking them up if necessary, then think of another sentence using each word or phrase. Elicit a fewanswers. In preparation for the Grammar lesson, ask students to complete Exs 1 and 2 on page 24 of the Student’s Book for homework, and to read the Grammar file section on verb patterns on page 144. Also, share the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation on verb patterns with them. Encourage them to note down any questions they have, so you can go over these in the nextlesson. Presentationtool:

Unit 2, Reading

Workbook / Online Practice:

pp14–15

Extra Practice App

SBp24

explore grammar

SB p144

2 Go through the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation

or ask students to read the explore grammar box and complete the gaps. After checking the answers, point out some of the differences in meaning in the verbs in B. Write this example on the board to illustrate a change in meaning: 1 I regret to inform you that the team was not selected for the final. 2 I regret informing you that the team was not selected for the final. Ask students to discuss in pairs the difference in meaning between the two sentences. (In the first sentence, regret to inform means the speaker is sorry to convey bad news. In the second sentence, regret informing means that the speaker had already told the listener the team was not selected but wishes she/he hadnot. For more detailed notes, refer students to the Grammar file section on verb patterns on page 144 if they haven’t already read it before class, and ask them to read the notes and complete Exs 1–4 on page 145 either in class or forhomework. 1 need 2 let 3 involve 4try

3 On the board, draw a Venn diagram with one side for

verbs followed by -ing, the other for verbs followed by infinitive. The overlapping area should be for verbs which may be followed by both -ing or aninfinitive. Put students into small groups to decide where to place each verb on the diagram. Check students have access to dictionaries or can use an online dictionary, e.g. the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English at www.ldoceonline.com. infinitive: aim, claim, dare, endeavour, pretend, struggle, tempt, tend,vote -ing: avoid, consider, deny, end up, fancy, imagine, recall, risk both:forget

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watch out for The verbs remember and forget both have a change in meaning depending on whether they are followed by toinfinitive or an -ingform. Remember/forget + to-infinitive = to forget/remember something that you must do, get, orbring. e.g. Did you remember/forget to buy something toeat? Remember + -ing = to have a picture or idea in your mind of people, events, places, etc. from thepast e.g. I remember reading about thatsomewhere. Forget + -ing = to stop planning to do something because it is no longer possible orsensible. e.g. Forget going to the match, the tickets have already soldout.

4

2.1 Ask students to take turns to ask and answer the questions in pairs. Then play the recording and ask students to note down what the speakers talked about. Ask: Did any of the speakers mention similar things toyou?

5

2.2 Encourage students to read the sentences then play the recording for students to complete. Refer students to audioscript 2.1 on page 176 for students to check theiranswers. A towatch B to have won, tobe C to havewon D to come andwork E only torealise

6 Write on the board in a speech bubble: What doesn’t

kill you makes you stronger. Ask students what they think it means (that we learn from failure which makes us stronger). Ask students to discuss in pairs the extent to which they agree with this statement and why. Elicit someideas.

Tell students to read the comment about this quote from a website and complete the verb forms. Students compare their answers in pairs. If necessary, clarify glasshalf-empty, which is from the expression that somebody sees the glass as half empty/half full, used to say that a particular person is more likely to notice the good parts or the bad parts of asituation. 1 tofail  2 optingout  3 toget  4 retaking 5 going on todo  6 getting  7 try todo  8 enjoying 9 feeling  10 telling

Speakup 7 Give students a moment to think about their ideas before sharing them in pairs. Remind students to think about using the correct verb form during the discussion. Ask a few students to share a response to one of the questions inclass.

extra: whole class Write on the board or photocopy the sentence pairs below which use verbs that can be followed by toinfinitive or -ing forms. Ask students to read the sentences and discuss in pairs what the differences in meaningare. 1a I tried to copy his dance moves but they were too fast for me. (tried but wasn’t ableto) b I tried copying his dance moves but I still didn’t win. (did something but didn’t get aresult) 2a Stop thinking about that one failure! (stop an activity that is inprogress) b Stop to think for a moment before you commit yourself. (stop an activity in order to do somethingelse). 3a I love dancing, and I’m going to go on competing as long as I can. (continue doingsomething) b I’ve been dancing for fun, but I’m going to go on to compete. (start doingsomething)

Funfooter Ask students to read and discuss the fun footer in pairs. Ask:Does this surprise you? Do you know any other interesting facts about famous people? If there is time, challenge pairs to find one interesting fact about their favourite celebrity’s past before they became famous to share with theclass.

Tofinish Students discuss the following questions in pairs or small groups. Elicit some ideas for eachquestion. • Some schools today do not use the word ‘fail’ with their students. They soften results to make students feel better. Is this a good or badthing? • Some people say that failure is important because it forces us to adapt and find other solutions. What is yourview? Presentationtool:

Unit 2, Grammar

Workbook / Online Practice:

p16

Photocopiable activity:

2A

Grammar reference and practice:

SBp144

Audioscript and explore grammar video

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2 Winners andlosers

VOCABULARY

SBp25

adjective + nouncollocations Tostart Elicit a few answers to the following questions: What is a soap opera? What kinds of techniques do the writers use to try and persuade people to watch the next episode? Whichsoaps are most popular in your country? Have you watched any soaps from English speakingcountries?

background A soap opera or ‘soap’ is a regularly broadcast show which follows the everyday lives of its characters. Their lives are usually very melodramatic. Each episode generally ends in a cliff hanger so that the viewer needs to watch the next episode to find out what happens. The plot continues between episodes. Some soap operas run for many years, e.g. the popular British soap Coronation Street was first broadcast in 1960 and is stillrunning.

1 Ask students to read the quote and discuss the questions inpairs.

Suggestedanswer Don’t boast about your achievements, especially before theyhappen.

2

2.3 Tell students they are going to hear a review of a new soap opera called South Bay. Ask them to read the questions and listen to find theanswers. It has succeeded in spite of having a lot of competition from other soapoperas. It failed and cost a lot of money toproduce.

3

game on Demonstrate the game by asking two students to read parts A and B in theexample. Give students a few minutes to play the game. Then with the whole class, read out the following starters and the whole class should call out the rest of the collocation (inbrackets). stay on top of (thegame). It’s a win-win(situation). resounding(success) vast(amount) burning(ambition) formidable(challenge) It’s back to (squareone). Don’t let it get (the better ofyou). if all else(fails) We need to cut our(losses).

idioms 5 Tell students that the sentences in Ex 5 are from a blog by the producer of South Bay. Students choose the correct words to complete the idioms. Go through the answers as a class. In question 7, point out that as well as win-win situations, we can also talk about lose-lose situations where everyone involved is worse off, and no-win situations where there is no good possibleoutcome. 1 square 2 losses 3 big 4 game 5 getting 7 win-win 8get

6 else

extra: fast finishers

2.4 Ask students to complete the review. Then play the recording again for students to check theiranswers.

Ask students to think of another example situation in which some of the idioms in Ex 5 could be used, e.g.If you were working on a project plan, and then you lost the notes, you would have to go back to square one and startagain.

1 resounding 2 unprecedented 3 vast 4 dismal 5 unmitigated 6 colossal 7 endearing 8 eternal 9 burning 10 lukewarm 11 futile 12formidable

explorelanguage

4 Students complete the exercise in pairs, using dictionaries ifnecessary.

Possibleanswers impressive/fantasticaccomplishment daunting/hugechallenge unmitigated/completedisaster complete/abysmalfailure roaring/resoundingsuccess

alternative Give students five minutes with dictionaries to find as many adjectives that collocate with the nouns in Ex4 as theycan.

Go through the language box with the class. Emphasise the suggestion in the explore language box about learning idioms word for word. Point out to students that using an idiom correctly in an appropriate context can make their speech or writing more interesting and fluent, and help them get a better mark in the exam. Ask students to discuss in pairs whether there are any similar idioms to 1–8 in other languages theyknow.

6 In pairs, students take turns to read the problem and

suggest advice. Circulate, making sure that the idioms are being used correctly, word for word and in an appropriate context. For weaker classes, share the first possible answer as anexample.

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Possibleanswers 1 Don’t let it get the better of you, I’m sure you’ll be fine. Make some notes so you don’t forget what to say, and don’t forget to practise yourpresentation! 2 Don’t worry, just do your best. You’ve studied really hard, so I’m sure you will be fine. And if all else fails, have a guess! What have you got tolose? 3 Definitely! You’ve got all the qualifications and experience they need and they are offering a great package – it’s a win-winsituation. 4 Well, if you’re not making a profit after all this time, then it might be time to cut your losses. I know you’ve put your all into it, but you could end up losing even moremoney. 5 I think the best way to stay on top of your game is just to keep working at it. Think about the big picture – that will get youthrough.

7

LISTENING Tostart

Write the following mottos on the board. Ask students to read the mottos and then discuss with a partner which they like best and why: Never give up; Together everyone achieves more; Do as you would be done by; Work hard, play hard; Beprepared. Ask: What other mottos do you know orlike?

Powerup 1 Students discuss the question in pairs. Elicit a fewresponses.

Possibleanswers 1 to encourage people, to express the aim or belief of a group orinstitution 2 I think it is inspiring because it encourages people to push themselves to perform better. / Personally, I don’t find it that inspiring. I’d rather it was something about coming together or doing yourbest. 3 a challenge, being the best ever, recognition,admiration

2.5 Play the recording and elicit who the advice was for. Ask students to discuss the question inpairs. The advice is for someone going for aninterview

extra: whole class Encourage students to look at the list of words in Extend vocabulary on page 160. Put students into pairs and divide the list of phrases among the pairs. Each pair should look up what their allocated phrase means and prepare an example. Each pair teaches the class their phrase. Alternatively, make an area in your private class online space for students to add definitions and examples to new words and phrases. For example, a collaborative glossary, a wiki or a forum post. Thiscould be used as an ongoing place for students to post definitions throughout thecourse.

2 Go through the question in Ex 2 to the class. Elicit someresponses.

Possibleanswer how to improve your physical training, how to cope with pressure, how to prepare forcompetitions

Listenup 3 Ask students to read the sentences summarising Jed’s talk. Elicit what the talk is likely to focuson.

Speakup

Possibleanswers success, performance, coaching, challenges (students might also guess equipment or tracks, e.g. histrainers)

8 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit some ideas foreach.

4

Tofinish Ask students to discuss in pairs whether they agree with the following statement and why: Everyone loves a good soap opera – some people just don’t like to admitit!

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2.6 Tell students you will play the recording first for them to understand the main gist of the talk. Ask them to listen for the three factors Jed says contributed to his success. Play the recording then elicit the threefactors. new technologies; choosing a sport for his body type; bettertraining

extra: whole class Students work in groups of three to come up with a marketing pitch for a soap opera. They should decide on a setting, a few main characters and some key dramatic events. Groups take turns to give their pitch to the class. The class votes on which soap opera they think would receive the best ratings andwhy.

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exam task: sentencecompletion Point out that the sentence completion task type tests students’ ability to listen for specific information and stated opinions. Ask students to read the exam tip and underline the main verb in each gapped sentence in Ex 5. Then focus students’ attention on question 1 in Ex 5 and elicit the answer to the question in the exam tipbox. A

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2 Winners andlosers LISTENING (Continued)

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2.7 Play the recording again for students to complete each gap. Students compare their answers in pairs and then check as a class. Ask: How close were your predictions? Did making predictions help you to complete the taskbetter? 1 practice (you probably think whether you won or lost was solely down to how much practice you did. Well, I don’t want to disagree with your sports coaches, but you may besurprised to learn that you’d bewrong) 2 boundaries (we never stop trying to push ourselves to extend limitations – what I call my boundaries – and I’m constantly driven by the need to pushthese) 3 track surface (I’ve been amazed at how the track surface has made such a difference to myperformance) 4 latest equipment (Equally, we all want to take advantage of the latest equipment that the big sports brands compete to develop because we believe it enhances ourperformance.) 5 same conditions (Some of the purists said that my time could only count if I had run in the same conditions as the previous record. This seems unrealistic…) 6 body type (… I think you have to think about is whether you are the best body type for the sport you want todo) 7 swimmer (I really wanted to be a swimmer … I felt incredibly let down at thetime) 8 limit (my performance really took off when I had a coach who really pushed me to the limit of my physical endurance – and I have that to thank himfor)

6 Ask: What is a phrasal verb? (a verb with an adverb or

preposition after it (or both), which may have a meaning which is quite distinct from the verb alone, e.g. look after means to care for someone. Remind students that in general, phrasal verbs are used in more informal styles of speech andwriting. Ask students to underline the phrasal verbs in sentences 1–6 and match them with the meanings. Conduct classfeedback. 1 2 3 4 5 6

to go into(C) to be down to(E) to face up to(D) to end up(A) to come back to(F) to switch up(B)

7 Students discuss ideas in pairs. Conduct classfeedback. Possibleanswers down to: familiarity, who youknow face up to: the consequences/the problem/thefact end up: in asituation/place come back to:earth/reality switch up: agear

alternative As an alternative to Ex 7, ask students to complete the following questions with the correct form of phrasal verbs from Ex 6, then discuss each question inpairs. • Is success usually what you know or who you know? (downto) • Is it better to problems or ignore them? (faceupto) • What being a successful student? (goesinto) • Where do you hope to in five years? (endup)

8 Give students a few minutes to discuss their ideas in pairs and then invite a few students to share theirideas.

Possibleanswer It doesn’t seem fair because sports equipment, surfaces and clothing have undergone huge technological improvements which help athletes to performbetter.

Speakup 9 In pairs, students choose a successful person in a field

such as sport, business, science or entertainment. Afterdiscussing reasons for their success, students could present their ideas to the class, by writing a paragraph to read out or creating aposter.

extra Students choose and research a specific sport on the internet and give a one-minute presentation to other students in the class on changes over the years and what difference the changes have made to people’s performance. Students could carry out the research in class and write up their presentation for homework. Theycould use the following plan for theirpresentation. • Introduction (why you chose thissport) • At least three changes (e.g. clothing, rules, equipment, who plays it, where it isplayed) • Conclusion (how have the changes impacted thesport) Tell students to listen to each other’s presentations carefully and take notes. At the end of each presentation, ask students to think of a follow-up question to ask thepresenter.

Funfooter Ask students to read the surprising fact in the footer. Askeach student to choose a sport and ask them to find out a surprising fact about the sport to share with the rest of thegroup.

Tofinish Write the following words/phrases on the board to extend their vocabulary related to competition. Ask students to use dictionaries to check the meanings if necessary, then practise using them in a sentence: disqualification, opposing team, tiebreaker, be in contention for, vie,adversary. Presentationtool:

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USE OF ENGLISH 1

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Tostart

theanswer.

It inspires them to go out and actually dothings.

Write the following sentences on theboard: • Few people were left at the finish line when I finallycrossed. • How did both of you do so well? I’ll have to try your trainingschedule! Ask students if they can translate the sentences into their first language. Put students into pairs to discuss the underlined words, and look for any differences between the way they are used in English and their first language. For example, thinking about the connection between the determiner and mainnoun/pronoun.

1 Ask students to complete the exercise, using the explore

language box to help. For more information, refer students to the Grammar file on page 144. Conduct classfeedback. 1 all, has ​2 are, neither ​3 are, is ​4 is ​5Both

explore language

3 Give students one minute to read the text. Elicit

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Elicit that a determiner is a word that is used before a noun in order to show which thing you mean. In the phrases the car and some cars, the and some aredeterminers. A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase, such as she instead of Martha or thewoman. Here are some further notes on each of the points you might like to go through with yourclass. A Quantifiers like each, every, neither and either can be used with singular nouns. Both, a few, few, many can only be used with plural nouns. Much can only be used with uncountablenouns. B The words every, no and other are not followed byof. C Neither of, either of and none of are used before a plural noun or pronoun, and a singular verb, e.g. Has either of them called yet? However, in informal English, people often use a plural verb: Have either of them calledyet? D Elicit the difference between few (not many), a few (some) and several (more than a few, but not a large number). Number also takes a plural verb, it sounds more formal than several, e.g. A number of recommendations weremade. E Uncountable nouns, such as information, are singular in English (it’s plural in some otherlanguages). F Point out that a quantifier can also go at the beginning of the sentence, e.g. Both (of) my brothers can play tenniswell. G Elicit other determiners which can also be used as pronouns (e.g. some,any).

watch out for Make sure students don’t use each in negative clauses. Instead, we use none, e.g. None of the answers was correct. (not Each of the answers was notcorrect.)

2 Say: You are going to read an interview with the winner of

a science competition. Students complete the interview with the words provided. As you go through the answers with the class, elicit whether each word is being used as a determiner or pronoun (they are alldeterminers). 1 a little ​2 the whole ​3 any ​4 all ​5 much ​6 most ​ 7 none ​8little

exam task: opencloze Point out that the open cloze task tests knowledge of grammar and grammar-related vocabulary. Ask students to read the exam tip, and to discuss the question in pairs. Elicit the answer, pointing out that the clue (amongst many) came after the gap, so students need to make sure they carefully read both before and after thegap. another (because it is one reason ‘amongstmany’)

4

Point out that students have already done the first thing they should do in the exam, which is to quickly read the text for gist to get an idea of what it’s about. Emphasise that each gap has one word only missing. Then give students about ten minutes to complete the open cloze task, encouraging those who finish quickly to read through the text again as a whole to carefully check their answers. Students compare their answers in pairs, giving reasons for their choices. Elicit the answers andreasons. 1 Few (= almostnone) 2 lot (following the worda) 3 much (uncountablenoun) 4 bringing (an -ing form, part of the phrasal verb bringabout) 5 of (the dependent preposition followingcapable) 6 an (the article we use when we first mentionsomething) 7 no (= notany) 8 their (referring back to ‘ordinarypeople’)

Speakup 5 In small groups, students create their own motivational

slogan and write it on a piece of paper. If you wish, give a more focused topic, e.g. a motivational slogan for people to get up earlier, or to save money. Students could present their slogans in groups, explaining the reasons behindit.

Tofinish Play this quick guessing game with the class. Say: I’m going to read some famous company slogans. See if you can guess which companies use them. Read the following list (answers inbrackets) and elicit theanswers. 1 Think different(Apple) 2 I’m lovin’ it(McDonalds) 3 Because you’re worth it(L’Oréal) 4 There are some things money can’t buy. For everything else, there’s …(Mastercard). Presentationtool:

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USE OF ENGLISH 2

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Tostart Tell students you have a friend whose extended family is always getting into arguments when they meet up. Some of the arguments get quite heated. Tell them you are sure it is related to the topic of conversation. Ask students to make two lists of conversation topics. The first list will have topics to steer clear of – those topics which are likely to cause a lot of controversy. The second list is of conversation topics which are generally good safe choices for small talk. Ask students to work in pairs. Give them a couple of minutes to make their lists, then ask the class to agree on a definitivelist.

1 Elicit the difference between a heated debate and a petty argument. Ask students to discuss in pairs when they last had or witnessed each kind ofargument.

heated debate – an exchange of strong opinions about a controversialsubject petty argument – an argument over somethingunimportant

2

2.8 Ask students to read the questions in Ex2, then play the recording. Elicit the girl’s attitude andexample. She hates losing an argument. She cites arguments with her brother as an example. She always comes out on top – a fact that irritateshim.

explorelanguage Read point A and ask: What is a gradable adjective? Ifstudents are not sure, say: If an adjective is gradable, wecan modify it to show to what extent that adjective describes the noun. For example, if we wanted to grade how good someone is at arguing, we could say they are not very good, very good, or extremelygood. Elicit some other gradable adjectives, e.g. enjoyable, nice, cold, early, clean,competitive. Then say: On the other hand, an ungradable adjective cannot be graded. These usually have an extreme meaning already, so are sometimes called ‘extreme adjectives’. However, extra emphasis and intensity can still be added with modifiers. Readthrough point B. Elicit a few more ungradable adjectives, e.g. freezing, awesome,hilarious. Read point C and point out that massively is an informal word in thiscontext. Read point D and give an example, such as heavilyinfluenced.

3 Elicit the meaning of plausible (likely to be true,

e.g.aplausible explanation/plan). Students complete the sentences. Point out that some adverb + adjective collocations from this unit are listed in the Wordlist on page 33 to help students remember to learn them together. Ask students to check their answers in the wordlist.

extra: fast finishers Write two further sentences on the board and see if students can work out which adjective collocates with the adverb to complete the sentence (tell them the adjectives aren’t on the list in Ex3).

1 It’s utterly

to think that we have any hope of winning.(ridiculous)

2 It’s blatantly

that he’s never before competed at this level.(obvious)

exam task: multiple-choicecloze The items here test more intensity adverbs than would happen in the Cambridge exam as that reflects the focus of the lesson. Point out that the multiple-choice cloze is the first exam task in the Reading and Use of English Paper, and tests students’ knowledge of vocabulary items, for example, collocations and differentiating between words with similar meanings. Ask students to read the exam tip. Ask students to cover the options and read the text, seeing if they can guess any of the words before they look at theoptions.

4

Allow around eight minutes to complete the exercise. Go through the answers, eliciting reasons for each answer. Point out that the word keep is the answer in the example, because only this verb can collocate withtemper. 1 C (the other verbs do not collocate withpoints) 2 D (perfectly is the only adverb which collocates withplausible) 3 C (sure collocates with not … entirely but cannot precede by; agreed does not collocate with entirely and cannot precede by; dominated can precede by but does not collocate withentirely) 4 A (right does not collocate with blatantly; probably is an adverb, but the gap requires an adjective to make sense; understandable does not collocate withblatantly) 5 B (the other adverbs do not collocate withimportant) 6 D integrity = moral standard (the other three nouns make grammatical sense but in the context of the whole sentence, integrity is the bestchoice) 7 A (the other adverbs do not collocate withenjoyable) 8 C (the other adjectives do not collocate withhighly)

extra: fast finishers Encourage fast finishers to check their answers to Ex 4 carefully, which is a good habit to develop for the exam, and make sure they can give reasons for theirchoices.

1 influenced 2 exaggerated 3 believed 4 shy 5 limited 6 plausible 7 convinced 8disappointed

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Speakup 5 Read through the questions with the class. Elicit the

meaning of tactics (strategies). Ask students to work in pairs to discuss the questions, then elicit a fewresponses.

extra: whole class Ask students to have an argument in pairs so they can try out the tactics from the article in Ex 4. You could brainstorm some topics to argue about on the board, or provide a suitable topic. Ideally, it should be a topic that creates genuine disagreement. Look for some debate topics online, or ask students to suggest some controversial topics starting with Should we … (e.g. Should we ban sugary drinks or junk food?) Students should decide on their view then find someone with an opposing view to talk with. This could be repeated with a range oftopics.

SPEAKING

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Tostart Play a game with your class. Say: I’m going to name two things we can see, and you need to work in teams to find as many similarities as you can between them. Your team will get a point for eachsimilarity. Call out pairs of unrelated classroom items (avoid pointing out personal things, like what students are wearing, etc.). After calling out each pair of items, give the class about 10 seconds to respond. These could include things like: whiteboard and door (they are approximately the same size and shape); chair and the window frame (they are both made of wood or metal and belong to theschool).

Powerup 1 Put students into pairs to discuss the items. Elicit some

Funfooter

answers for eachcategory.

Go through the footer with the class. Ask them to brainstorm words and phrases they associate with anger, e.g. heated debate, argument, aggression, furious, bitter, grumpy, bad mood, hold a grudge, lose your temper, drive someone up the wall, boil over, have atantrum.

Possibleanswers parents: serious issues – whether to move out, what to study; petty issue – what youwear friends: serious issues – someone sharing a secret, being left out; petty issues – what film to see, why a friend didn’t respond to amessage work colleagues: serious issues – bullying, performance issues; petty issues – uniform not right, beinglate teachers: serious issues – cheating, missing lessons; petty issues – being late, badhandwriting

Write the words/phrases on the board, including any from the list above that students did not think of. Ask students to choose some words they haven’t used before (or haven’t used often) and to use them in a sentence that is true for them, e.g. It really drives me up the wall when I can hear people’s music through their headphones. Students share their sentences in small groups and see whether or not they feel the sameway.

Tofinish

2

Put students in pairs. Either write the following sentences on the board or write them on separate pieces of paper and distribute one to each pair. Explain that each sentence is a response to something else. Students read the responses and write what they imagine was said before each response. Students swap partners and compareideas. 1 Yes, I think that is perfectlyplausible. 2 I’m sorry, they’re strictlylimited. 3 She’s deeply sorry about the wholething. 4 Those comments are wildlyexaggerated. 5 Don’t even consider it. It’s utterlyridiculous. 6 Yes, I agree. It’s blatantlyobvious. Presentationtool:

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2.9 Focus students’ attention on the three photos at the top of page 29. Ask students to work in pairs to think of a few differences and similarities between thepictures. Play the recording of a student talking about the pictures and go through the task with the class. As a follow-up, ask: Did she mention anything that you talkedabout? This is not a good answer because the candidate is describing the pictures, not comparingthem.

exam tip 3 Ask students to read the exam tip. Emphasise that

describing instead of comparing/contrasting is a common mistake. Elicit which piece of advice the student should take. Refer students to the Speaking file on page 162. Askstudents to quickly read the overview and example task to revise what is required. Elicit what the task requires. Student A should compare and contrast two pictures for a minute then student B answers a question about A’s pictures. Then Student B compares and contrasts two pictures for a minute before Student A answers a question about B’spictures.

Audioscript: SBp176 Extra Practice App

Ask students to read the exam help section and put an asterisk next to the pieces of advice they found mostuseful.

Note that when asking teenage learners to read something, suggest a simple task to complete to focus their attention. The task may be to find something out or to react in some way to what they read, e.g. ask students to read the useful language box on page 162 and choose a phrase in each category that they haven’t used before (or haven’t used much before) to try to incorporate into thediscussion. 49

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2 Winners andlosers SPEAKING (Continued) Don’t describe the pictures, but try to give a balanced long turn, comparing and contrasting the pictures. Talk about things that are similar and things that are different before you answer thequestion.

4 Ask students to underline the words and phrases the student uses to compare thepictures.

useful language: comparisons

in bothpictures However, … different ineach in the first one … whereas in the second… unlike in the first picture…

5 Ask students to look at the pictures. Give them time

to complete the statements individually, then to compare ideas in pairs. Elicit a few ways to complete eachstatement. Possibleanswers 1 A major difference between these two pictures is that the mother and daughter look quite sad whereas the players look angry andindignant. 2 Both pictures show people communicating with eachother. 3 The mother and daughter are in a family location, whereas the players and referee are at amatch. 4 Both pictures show people disagreeing. However, the mother and daughter seem to be reflecting on what to say next, whereas the players are arguing with thereferee. 5 The situations are similar in that the people are all probably feeling quitetense. 6 The pictures differ quite dramatically in that the footballers have the referee to arbitrate the situation, whereas the mother and daughter look like they will have to sort it out on theirown.

exam task: longturn

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In the Cambridge exam there is a question for the Listening Candidate to answer after his/her partner’s long turn. Here, as the focus is on the long turn, there is no LCQ.

6

A major difference between the two pictures is that the father and son seem to be having a two-way argument, unlike, I think in the parking picture, where it looks more like the warden is giving a lecture and the woman is desperately trying to think of a way out of the situation without being overly confrontational. Then again, maybe the boy feels like he is getting a lecturetoo!

Put students into pairs and refer them to pages 170 and 171. Encourage students to time each other for the task. For extra practice, ask students to change partner and changerole. Possible answer (page170) I’d like to talk about the bottom two pictures. The situations are similar in that in both pictures people are having an argument. However, the father and son look like they are at home, whereas the traffic warden and woman are out in public. Both men look like they are trying to get a point across but the domestic situation looks more heated with the dad’s finger pointing and the boy scowling. I don’t think it’s possible to work out what they are fighting about, whereas it’s blatantly obvious that the other argument is a disagreement over the parking meter. Perhaps the woman hasn’t put in enough money or has stayed toolong.

Ask students to read through the useful phrases in the box and practise saying the phrases, focusing on connected speech. For example, demonstrate the pronunciation of the first phrase. Ask students to notice the link between the final consonant in situations with the initial vowel in are, and the link between the final consonant in people with the initial vowel in in. Point out the intrusive /r/ at the end of similar because it is followed by avowel. Other intrusive sounds you could elicit or point out in the remaining phrasesare: /r/ I think it’s more_a case of… /j/ The pictures differ quite dramatically _in…

Speakingextra 7 Point out the idioms in question 2: clear the air (to diffuse tension between people) and leave a bad taste in your mouth (leave someone feeling annoyed/resentful). Ask students to discuss the question in pairs, then elicit a fewresponses.

Tofinish Elicit a few phrases that students could use if they are dealing with unfamiliar vocabulary or can’t remember the right word for something,e.g. • I’m not 100% sure what you call this inEnglish. • There’s probably a name for it, it’s used to… • I know the name of this, but it’s gone for a moment… Write the phrases on the board for weakerclasses. Tell students you are going to describe something without using the name, and they have to guess what it is. Say: I’m not 100% sure what you call this in English, but it is the name of an Olympic event where people run a race and have to jump over a series of fences. Elicit guesses. (thehurdles). Ask students to work in groups and take turns to pretend they have forgotten a word and use one of the phrases to describe it. Other students in the groupguess. In preparation for the Writing lesson, consider asking students to complete Exs 2–5 on page 30 for homework. Then during class, ask students to compare their answers with a partner, then check as aclass. Presentationtool:

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WRITING

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Tostart Focus students’ attention on the photo on page 31. Elicitanswers to the following questions: Have you ever had a tug of war? What was it like? What value is there for children participating in an activity like this? (learning to work as a team, being outside, an alternative to screen-time, being active). Ask students to discuss in pairs: What were your feelings about participating in sports when you wereyounger?

background note A tug of war involves teams pulling opposite ends of a rope with a flag in the middle. To win, a team must pull the central flag over a certainpoint.

Powerup 1 Give students a few minutes to discuss the questions in pairs, then elicit a few ideas for eachquestion.

Possibleanswer 1 being competitive, recognition, a sense of satisfaction, monetarygain

Planon 2 Say: Look at the diagram. Each cog represents a key

element to consider when approaching a writing task, whether in the exam or in real life. Focus their attention on the headings style, purpose and organisation. Ask them to think of more points for each heading. Students compare their answers in pairs. Conduct classfeedback. Suggestedanswers style: formal,semi-formal purpose: to convince, explain or inform,persuade organisation: an introduction, two or three paragraphs each with their own argument, and aconclusion

3 Give students a few minutes to read the essay task and

answer the questions. Go through the answers as aclass. 1 yourteacher 2 discuss two of the benefits listed in the box, and choose the one you think is most beneficial. Includereasons. 3 You can use the opinions but you don’t have to. Thediscussion is given to help give youideas. 4 If you use phrases from the box, you miss out on the opportunity to show the examiner your own languageskills.

4 Ask students to close their books. Put students into small groups to generate ideas about why school sports days are a good idea. Ask each group to report back briefly to theclass.

5 Ask students to read the essay individually, then discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit theanswers.

1 general fitness; doing somethingtogether 2 with reasons and anexample 3 to explain which benefit is best and to conclude theessay 4 fitness: physical activity; physicalexercise do something together: feel part of a team; joining intogether do not play enough sport: doing less sport, giving upsports do something together: being part of a team, work together, joining intogether are important: more, not less,essential

6 Ask students to move back into the small groups they were in for Ex 4 to discuss a reason and example for eachidea.

exam tip Read the explanation of hedging in the exam tip aloud. Say: Hedging is about using language with a bit of uncertainty rather than ‘absolute’ language. This can often make an argument seem more reasonable and polite. Other common examples of hedging include using words like maybe or probably. Ask students to see how many examples of hedging they can find in the essay on page 30 in two minutes. Elicit the hedgingexamples. Refer students to the Writing File about essays on page 165 for moreinformation. There has been a lot of discussion recently about whether or not school sports days are fair to all students and some schools have changed the way they run sports days as a result. Some have even abandoned themaltogether. School sports days are, in fact, becoming more, not less essential. There have been many surveys showing that children at school are doing less sport and more academic work, and that they are giving up sports at an earlier age. For example, quite a few children do no physical activity at all due to the prevalence of technology. School sports days are a way of ensuring that everyone gets some physicalexercise. Several people are worried that everything has now become seriously competitive at school and that children should be able to enjoy sports without the competition. However, school sports days can actually help children to feel part of a team and encourage them to work together. For those who dislike sports, the day could include some fun races, like a sack race, which do not require physical ability, but still involve some exercise and the joy of joining intogether. In my view, the issue of promoting physical exercise is the single most important thing, not only for health but also because it teaches children that exercise or sports are a natural part of life and something they should continue doing. Overall, although there are a few concerns, I would say that school sports days are a crucial part of a child’s education and that it is good for children to prepare for and take part in theseevents.

Possibleanswers • It’s good for children to get physical exercise and beoutdoors. • It gives children the chance to try a wider range ofactivities. • It’s a good event to involve the widercommunity. • It fosters values like cooperation andparticipation. • It’sfun.

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2 Winners andlosers WRITING (Continued)

Writeon 7 Give students a few minutes to read the exam

task carefully and answer the questions in Ex 3. Elicittheanswers. 1 yourteacher 2 two of the benefits from the list and say which factor is most beneficial 3 as you wish, but it must be in your ownwords 4 to show you are notcopying

8 Students follow the steps. Point out the point of view of adjectives in the useful language box. Explain that it is useful to have a range of alternative words available to avoid repetition in theexam.

useful language: point of view adjectives Focus student’s attention on the useful language box. Encourage them to use some of these adjectives in their essay to show their point of view. They should use a range to avoid repetition. Point out that these adjectives can be used before a noun or in a phrase starting with It is … . For example, Learning to collaborate is an essential skill. or It is essential that young people learn tocollaborate.

exam task: essay

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The length of the third opinion given in the task is longer than students would find in the Cambridge exam. This is to give students additional help.

9

On the whole, it seems to me that these key benefits far outweigh the possible drawbacks of competitions. Learning to compete and collaborate are essential skills for the future of the next generation. These are generally learned more effectively through practical activities like competitions than they could ever be in a traditionalclassroom.

Improveit 10 Students should check their work against this checklist

or ask a partner to check it before submitting anything. Use these assessment points as a guide for the feedback to give students for this essay. Provide the model answer to Ex 9 for students, for example, by photocopying it or scanning and uploading it to your private class onlinearea.

11 Point out that this score is about persuasiveness, not an overall score on English or essay-writingskills.

Tofinish Call out the following examples of absolute language and ask students to use hedging to make them more reasonable and polite. Sample answers are inbrackets. 1 You should do more exercise. (Perhaps you could consider doing a little moreexercise.) 2 Everyone enjoys sports days. (Most people enjoy sportsdays.) 3 Competition is beneficial to children. (A bit of competition may be beneficial to somechildren.)

Students may start the essay in class and finish it for homework. Point out the list of assessment points in Ex 10 for students to check their work against. If you have the facilities, provide students with a way to submit their work electronically, for example, through your private class onlinearea.

extra: whole class

Modelanswer Many people today think that competitions are harmful for young people because of the associated pressure. For this reason, fewer and fewer schools are holding competitions for young people to participate in. However, competitions can be beneficial for many reasons such as the development of real-world skills and teamspirit. In some ways, a competition helps prepare young people for their lives after leaving school. Taking part can enhance a person’s ability to make decisions under pressure, analyse a problem and find solutions. It could be said that success as an adult depends on one’s ability to compete, for example, in a job interview or for apartner. Another key benefit of competitions is that they can potentially give young people the chance to work together as a group. By holding competitions which require children or adolescents to cooperate in teams, it helps build community. According to many of my peers, playing in a sports tournament has helped them to make lasting friendships and has fostered a sense ofbelonging.

Groups take turns to participate in each other’s challenge. Keep score and announce the winner of each game. Finish by asking students to share which challenge was the best andwhy.

Students work in small groups to plan a short competitive activity suitable for the classroom e.g. throwing a screwed up paper ball into a bucket. Each team needs to consider how to explain their game, and how the points will bescored.

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SWITCH ON

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Ask students to write a sentence describing each of the three birds in theclip.

Trying toimpress 1 Put students into small groups to discuss what they think

Possibleanswers 1 The first male bowerbird is very hard working and determined, which is shown by his creation of an intricate bower to attract thefemale. 2 The female bowerbird is quiet and laid back, She doesn’t show a positive interest in the male bowerbird and is easily distracted by theintruder. 3 The second male bowerbird is lazy and cowardly because he doesn’t bother to make a bower, but simply intrudes on the original bowerbird to distract the female’sattention.

are the essential ingredients for success. Ask each group to share their lists, noting ideas on the board and grouping similar ideas together. Encourage students to discuss and agree on the final list. If good luck (or being fortunate), hasn’t been mentioned, point it out to theclass. Possibleanswers hard work, determination, courage, good luck, good education, charm, strong values, familysupport

2

Play the clip then ask students to discuss in pairs which ingredients each bird demonstrated. Point out that a bower is a pleasant place in the shade under atree.

4 This saying was by Arnold Palmer (1929–2016), a hugely

successful professional golfer in the 1950s and 1960s. Hewas known to be very hard-working. Students can discuss whether and to what extent they can create their own luck inlife.

background This clip is narrated by iconic British naturalist and broadcaster Sir David Attenborough. Bowerbirds are found in tropical regions of North Australia and NewGuinea. The male bowerbird shows great determination, hedemonstrates hard work and courage. However, he does not experience good luck because the female bird is distracted by the appearance of another male bird at the crucial moment in the courtingdance.

3

Ask students to read the questions, then play the clip again. Students discuss their answers in pairs then check as aclass. 1 The male bowerbird makes a bower, offers gifts of blue trinkets, makes his pupils dilate and contract, gives a strange deep call, does an exoticdance. 2 It is not stated in the clip because it is not known exactly why, but we can assume that it is because there is strong competition from other male bowerbirds. Perhaps there are fewer females thanmales. 3 There is no right or wrong answer to this question – it is a matter of opinion. It could be said that the original male bowerbird was the loser because he lost the attention of the female. However, the female also lost out because she did not find a mate. The male bird who distracted the attention of the female was only the winner if he subsequently attracted her with his bower building skills, gifts and dance. Alternatively, you could argue that, although the male bowerbird did not have good luck in this instance, his hard work and determination would surely make him the winner in theend!

extra: whole class During the clip, write the following words on the board in two columns as shown below, and ask students to work in pairs to match the words with theiropposites.

Project 5 Go through the project with the class. Put weaker students in pairs to support eachother.

Students could do the research in class then write their script and record it for homework. Or alternatively, students could do the research at home then write and record/produce their work in class. This will allow for more time in class for peer feedback on students’presentations.

Suggestions of very successful people who experienced failure at one time include: Sir Winston Churchill, Bethany Hamilton, Steve Jobs, Walt Disney, Arianna Huffington, Oprah Winfrey, Jay-Z, Thomas Edison and Elon Musk. If students do not have access to the internet, they can choose a person they already knowabout.

Ask students to work through the questions in Ex 5, then ask each student or pair to present their story to the class. Ask the class to provide positive peer feedback for each presentation and finish with a vote on the most inspiringstory.

extra If students have chosen a famous person for the project, they can either continue that research to create a fuller biography or they can choose another person who is not famous – someone from their own circle of family, friends or local community. Alternatively, if they chose to present a non-famous person, they can extend the project by choosing a famous person to research and writeabout. Presentationtool:

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hard-working unambitious determined lazy lively cowardly positive laidback ambitious quiet courageous negative hard working – lazy, determined – laid back, lively – quiet, positive – negative, ambitious – unambitious, courageous –cowardly 53

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2 Winners andlosers

INDEPENDENT LEARNING SBp32

Feedback 1 Put students into pairs to discuss the questions

aboutfeedback. Elicit some answers to each question. Listencarefully to students’ preferences about feedback. Use these to inform your choices about the methods of feedback youprovide.

2 3 4 5 6

I’ve been playing chess for quite some timenow. Have you seen any of the questionsyet? They’ve got quite a few more players thanus. Neither of my other games was as bad asthis. We had a little more of the food to give usenergy.

4 1 each 2 less 3 the whole 4 enough 5 fewer 6 a few 7 a lot of 8none

5 1 the 2 one 3 fewer 4 into 5 this 6 to/that/which 7 rather 8be

6 Possibleanswer

extra: whole class Ask if anyone uses digital technology to get feedback, e.g. spellcheckers, grammar checkers, apps for learning English or online translators. Ask: How can using technology for feedback be helpful? Are there any possibledrawbacks? Elicit that technology can improve spelling and grammar, and give instant feedback. However, it’s possible to become too reliant on technology, which it is not always possible to use inexams.

2 Students may choose any written piece of work from

the unit. The essay task from page 31 is a good choice to suggest (before you providefeedback).

3 Give students an opportunity to make changes to their piece of work in class or for homework in response to thefeedback.

UNITCHECK

3 1 What are you hoping to do with all the prizemoney?

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If possible, complete Practice Exs 1 and 3 in class because they involve pairwork, as well as Review Ex 1, which involves audio. The other activities may be set for homework. Then, in class, give students an opportunity to discuss and check theiranswers.

Practice 1 Students’ ownanswers. 2 1 burning ambition 2 wildlyexaggerated 3 bitterly disappointed 4 rise to theoccasion 5 petty argument 6 hold agrudge

3 Students’ ownanswers.

Review 1

2.10 1 to repeat 2 pushing 3 training 4 to take 5 eating 6 tohave

2

1 being, answering, being 2 to inform,contacting 3 to bring 4 training, to improve 5 beating, tobring 6 to shake 7 doing, to practise, to warm up,bend 8 resetting, making, toget

Calling all people with strong views! We are having a debating competition on Friday at 6 p.m. and we are looking for people with strong opinions to take part. The debate is about whether we should ban school sports teams. If you take part, it will be good fun, but also it is a good way of boosting your school record. You could take part in order to improve your public speaking and your arguing skills, which are very important for college and work. Also the head teacher has said she will give students time off to prepare for thedebate.

GRAMMAR FILE

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1 1 to spend 2 doing 3 to arrive 4 to give 5 being 6 torealise

2 1 A not to laugh 2 A buying 3 A checking 4 A to say

Brestarting B tosend B tocheck Btelling

3 1 feeling , look 2 to have disappeared 3 managing 4 tobetempted 5 sleeping, sleeping 6 totravel

4 1 only to discover 2 3 4 5 6

try taking supplements toget not to let himself bediscouraged appears to havemoved regret not booking thetickets went on togive

5 1 problems 2 unemployment 3 proposals 4 while 5cash 6 1 few 2 a/the 3 from 4 a 5 little 6 more 7 them 8many

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Lead-in SBp35

Choices andchanges

X 3

READING

USE OFENGLISH

topic: homelessness incities skill: finding inferred meaning in atext task: multiplechoice

key wordtransformation wordformation

GRAMMAR comparativestructures as andlike causativeverbs

VOCABULARY verbs with similarmeanings verb + nouncollocations adjectiveaffixes

LISTENING topic: guerrillagardening skill: using key words to follow complexarguments task: multiple choice: longertext

SPEAKING topic:choices skill: justifying choices anddecisions task: collaborative task: decisionquestion

WRITING topic: the contribution of youngpeople skill: arguing acase task:letter

SWITCH ON video: A Street Cat NamedBob project: biographicalscriptwriting

Introduce the unit title, Choices and changes. Give students one minute to write down words that they associate with choices and changes. Ask students to compare their lists with a partner. Elicit someideas. Focus students’ attention on the room in the picture. Ask: What sort of person do you think this room belongs to? Howdo youknow? Put students into pairs to discuss the following questions: What do you think people would think about you if they saw your room? How has your room changed over the years? Elicit a fewresponses. Ask students to read the quote Home is where my stuff is and discuss questions 1–3 in pairs. Elicit a fewresponses. Say: The quote is an adapted version of a proverb. Does anyone know what it is? (Home is where the heart is.) Ask: What do you think it means? (We feel at home wherever we feel most comfortable or where the people we loveare.)

extra Write on the board: Home is where is and ask students to discuss in pairs what else they could put in the proverb that would be true for them or someone they know. Ask each pair to share their bestidea.

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READING

5

Tostart

Set a time limit of six minutes for students to answer questions 2–6. Go through the other answers with theclass.

Elicit the meaning of busk (to play music in a public place in order to earn money). Ask students to discuss the following question in pairs then elicit some responses: Some people never give money to people on the streets who beg or busk. Would you? Why?/Whynot?

1 2 3 4

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1 Ask students to discuss the question in pairs, then elicit someresponses.

Possibleanswers unemployment, housing, inequality, racism, access to good education, antisocial behaviour like vandalism or littering, health, poverty,homelessness

2 If homelessness wasn’t mentioned in Ex 1, ask: Doyou

think homelessness is a big problem in your country? Write the following questions on the board for them to discuss in smallgroups. • How many homeless people are there in yourarea? • Where do homeless people sleep in yourarea? • What are the most common reasons that a person becomeshomeless? • What initiatives are in place to help thehomeless?

Readon 3 Focus students’ attention on the photo and ask the class the question and elicit someideas.

It means that homeless people want and need a change that would really help them to find a home or change their lifestyle as well as ‘change’ as in ‘spare coins’ to buy food. It’s clever because the word ‘change’ has twomeanings.

exam task: multiple choice 4 Give students two minutes to read the article for gist. Refer back to the ideas that students thought of in Ex2. Ask: Does it raise any of yourpoints?

Remind students that the multiple choice task is Part 5 of the Reading and Use of English Paper. Students are given a long text to read, such as an article, and they have to answer six multiple-choice questions based on the information in the text. Read through the first three points of the exam tip with students. Summarise the exam strategies on the board bywriting: 1 2 3 4

Read the textquickly. Underline key words in questionstems. Find the relevant parts of thetext. Re-read the text and options carefully, noting anydistractors. 5 Choose youranswer. Ask students to read and complete the exam tip question. Elicit thedistractor. The distraction is that sleeping rough is mentioned in the text and options A, B, D use those words. Seeing the same words as the text does not mean that the answer is correct. The correct answer is C (it refers to the insecurity that passers-byfeel).

C (the insecurity that passers-by feel resultsin) C (but nothing seems to be able to stem theflow) A (Charities and local authorities do theirbest) B (the life skills that those of us with support from family, friends and work have never thoughtabout) 5 C (more likely to pick up a takeaway coffee on the way to their destination than buy a magazine once afortnight) 6 D (believing that it will make a lasting difference to many lives … For them, the change is there tostay)

6 Point out the first word in bold endeavouring and elicit which of the meanings (1–8) it corresponds to (trying hard). Students match the other words andmeanings. 1 detritus 2 holding operation 3multitude 4 ground-breaking 5 endeavouring 6 stem theflow 7 analogy 8alleys

extra: fast finishers Fast finishers find more words in the article which are new to them, or that they do not use often. Ask them to try to deduce meaning from context, then use a dictionary tocheck.

Sumup 7 Summarise the first paragraph as an example, e.g.

Peoplein cities worry about homelessness for safety, aesthetic and health reasons. Put students into A/B pairs and allocate paragraphs 1, 3, 5 and 7 to student A and 2, 4, 6 and 8 to student B to summarise. Give students a few minutes to prepare their one-sentence summaries then share them with apartner. Possibleanswers 1 The problems caused by homelessness, particularly in big cities, include littering, dangers to health, and discomfort and anxiety topassers-by. 2 Work done by various charities and agencies doesn’t seem to be able to stop people (e.g. ex-military and teenage runaways) from becominghomeless. 3 The type of help currently on offer is insufficient, ineffective and needs to bechanged. 4 Homelessness can easily make people stop believing in themselves, and can stop them being able to resolve theirsituation. 5 More recent initiatives try to give the homeless work to earn money, a major success being that of selling a magazine called The BigIssue. 6 A new venture involves training homeless people to man coffee stalls and this is proving verysuccessful. 7 People are attracted by the good quality of the coffee and are keen to help people like Liam, one of the baristas, change their lives for thebetter. 8 As well as giving them an income, the project helps homeless people learn both life and work skills that will help them moveforward.

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Speakup 8 Ask: Have you heard of any other initiatives to reduce

homelessness? Ask students to discuss the question in pairs. Elicit a fewresponses.

Funfooter Read the footer aloud. Ask: Do you think the Big Issue or Change Please could be effective in your country? Why/Why not? What other similar enterprise ideas mightwork?

Tofinish Ask students to discuss this question in pairs: Some people say that there’s no point helping long-term homeless people because they have become so used to a life on the streets. Doyou agree? Why/Why not? Elicit some ideas for both points ofview. In preparation for the Grammar lesson, you could ask students to complete Exs 1 and 2 on page 38, and the Grammar file section on comparative structures on page 146 for homework. Students could also go through the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation. Encourage them to note down any questions they would like to ask you in the nextlesson. Presentationtool:

Unit 3, Reading

Workbook / Online Practice:

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GRAMMAR

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Tostart Write the following riddles on the board (without the underlining or answers in brackets) and give students a few minutes to discuss and try to solve them in pairs. Askthem to write the answer on a piece of paper and bring it to you. Tick any that are correct. The winners are the first pair to solve all three riddles (or the pair with the most after threeminutes). • The more you have, the less you see.(darkness) • The more it dries, the wetter it gets. (atowel) • It’s harder to catch, the faster you run. (yourbreath) Tell students that the purpose of this lesson is to review comparative structures. You can use two comparatives together to form one structure in order to show two things changing together. Underline the two comparatives in each riddle as examples of thisstructure.

explore grammar

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1 Elicit what students remember about the article

Change Please on page 37. Then, go through the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation. Ask students to read the first part of the explore grammar box and match the comparative structure functions listed with the example sentences from the article. Go through the answers as aclass.

Extra Practice App

Ask students to read the section on as and like. Pointout that when giving examples, such as is more formal thanlike. 1 E ​2 C ​3 B ​4 A ​5D

watch out for Point out that there is a small number of irregular adjectives, including: far – further – the furthest; little – less – the least; much/many – more – themost There are also some irregular adverbs: well – better – the best; badly – worse – theworst.

extra Write the following prompts on the board for students to complete with a personal example. Point out that the purpose of writing personalised examples is that it helps make the structures morememorable. 1 I’m a lot like… 2 I’d consider training as a… 3 As everyone in this class knows… 4 Learning English requires skills such as… 5 … benefits students and teachersalike. Ask students to share their examples in pairs. Then ask a few students to share anexample.

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3 Choices andchanges GRAMMAR (Continued)

2 Ask students to read the sentences to answer the questions. Elicit theanswers.

1 The sentences have a different meaning. A means ‘Yourteacher is worried and I am too.’ B means ‘I am your teacher and I amworried.’ 2 The sentences have the same meaning. Like and such as both introduceexamples.

3 Ask students to say any online charity campaigns they’ve

heard of. Ask: What do you know about the Ice Bucket Challenge? Have any of you done it? Point out the picture at the bottom of page 38 and ask students to read thefooter.

4

3.1 Give students time to read the questions. Say: Ialso want you to summarise the interviewer’s introduction in your own words. Encourage students to take a few notes while you play therecording. 1 Because it is a chance to have a good laugh and raise money and also because it was done bycelebrities. 2 It was colder than she’dimagined. 3 Because David also took part in thechallenge.

5

3.2 Give students a few minutes to read the interview and select the correctwords. 1 As 2 like 3 far 4 like 5 like 6 like 7 as 8 alike 9 colder 10 funnier 11 by far 12most 13 Like 14as

extra Say: Beth gushed about taking the Ice Bucket Challenge, but do you think this sort of charitable challenge can also be problematic? In pairs, I’d like you to weigh up the pros and cons of participating. Elicit some advantages and disadvantages, and finish by asking for a show of hands of who would take part and who wouldn’t. (Disadvantages could include people doing the challenge but not giving any money to charity, or people getting harmed inaccidents.)

6 Ask students to complete the comments with one

word, then compare their answers in pairs. Conduct classfeedback. 1 as 2 Like, as 3 more 4 far 5alike

Speakup 7 Give students a moment to think about their ideas before asking them to compare in pairs. Ask a few students to share a response to one of the questions inclass.

Possibleanswers 1 Reasons governments should pay for research and help: governments often have more funds; governments may have a big picture view and be able to channel funds to the causes that support a lot of people; it would save charities a lot of fundraising time if the government fundedthem. Reasons charities should pay for research and help: governments may ignore certain causes; it gives individuals the choice to donate to charities they care for; people may feel empowered to take action on behalf of a charity, which they might not feel for thegovernment. 2 The phrase means that you should take care of yourself and your own family before you help otherpeople.

extra: whole class Ask students to work in pairs. Ask them to compare two recent charity campaigns and prepare a mini-presentation for the class. They should include the uses of comparative and superlative adjectives and as/like from thelesson. They should think about: what the charities involved, who the organisers and participants were, and how much money wasraised.

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Ask: How can people make an informed choice about which charities to give to? Elicit ideas, such as people should look at the percentage of funds used to help directly, and people should think about what causes can have the greatest impact on the greatest number ofpeople. Ask students to discuss in pairs: If you were given $1,000 for a charity of your choice, which charity would you give it to andwhy?

Tofinish Ask: If you could volunteer for a day to help people what would it be for and why? Give students a minute to think about this. Then put students into small groups to share their ideas. Ask someone from each group to report back briefly to theclass. Presentationtool:

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Grammar reference and practice:

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VOCABULARY

verbs with similarmeanings Ask students to close their books. Write the word change on the board. Give students two minutes to see how many verbs they can come up with that have a similar meaning to ‘change’. Write ideas on theboard. Tell students that the aim of this lesson is to be able to differentiate between verbs with the meaning of‘change’.

1 Read the question aloud and give an example of something

you would like to change, e.g. I’d like to drink less coffee and get more sleep. Give some examples of areas of lifestyle change that students could include in their discussion, e.g. technology use, transport, accommodation, schedule, clothing, eating/drinking habits. In pairs, students discuss the question. Elicit a fewresponses. Possibleanswers exercise more, read more books, learn to relax, eat morehealthily

2 Students select the correct verb individually then discuss the differences in meaning in pairs. Go through the answers, eliciting the differences in meaning between each pair ofverbs. 1 transformed ​2 amended ​3 adapt ​4 altered ​ 5 adjusted ​6 modify ​7 revamp ​8evolving

explorelanguage Ask a student to read out the explore language box. Say: Agood way to show context when you record a new word is torecord it in an examplesentence.

3 Elicit some examples of things we could ‘adjust’,

e.g.settings on a computer, clothing (if you adjust something you are wearing, you move it slightly so that it is neater, more comfortable), a schedule, a seatbelt, etc. In pairs, students think of an example to use with each verb listed. Put pairs together to form a group of four to compare their ideas and discuss anything they have done recently. Elicit some examples for eachverb. Possibleanswers transform: the way we get information, the way you look amend: a report, a schedule, a summary, an outline, abrief adapt to: a new climate, new working hours alter: a timetable, a jacket, yourplans modify: your behaviour, equipment,requirements revamp: your office, a room, your wardrobe(clothes)

verb + nouncollocations 4 Tell students that the aim of this part of the lesson is to

understand and use common collocations with the verbs do, give, lend, make, pay andturn.

1 doing ​2 making ​3 making ​4 turn ​5 doing ​6 make ​ 7 do ​8 Give ​9 Do ​10 Pay ​11 Give ​12Lend

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Read out the title and subheading Small kindnesses: Haveyou done anything kind today? What? Ask students to read the article quickly to see if they have done any of the good turns mentioned today. Students complete the gaps in the article with the correct form of the verbs given. Students compare their answers in pairs. Conduct class feedback. Check that students understand scowl (tolook at someone in an angryway).

5

3.3 Tell students that they are going to hear a boy talking about one of the acts of kindness. Ask students to listen out for which act of kindness he is talking about. Play the recording, then elicit theanswer. Praising someone when they deserve it./Paying someone acompliment.

extra: whole class Play the recording again and ask students to listen for collocations with do and make. Ask students to turn to the audioscript on page 176 to check: do the (complete) opposite, make sure, make adifference.

extra: mixed ability For stronger students, point out the additional list of collocations with do/make on page 160 and ask students to choose a few to look up in the dictionary and write a personalised examplefor.

6 Put students into pairs for this exercise, then elicit someideas.

Speakup 7 Ask if anyone has heard of the author Roald Dahl and

elicit what they know about him and his books. Students discuss the question in pairs. Encourage students to incorporate the verbs and collocations from thislesson.

background Roald Dahl (1916–1990) was a best-selling author of books such as Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Matilda and The BFG. His books have sold over 250 million copies worldwide. He is known for his creative and funny children’s stories that typically show the triumph ofkindness.

game on Put students into pairs for the challenge and set a time limit of two minutes for students to write their lists. Collect the lists and redistribute them to another pair to read. In the next lesson, conduct class feedback on whether they did anything from theirlist.

Tofinish Tell students that you are thinking of revamping the classroom. Ask students to work in groups to come up with a short proposal about changes they think could be made to improve the room. Give students a choice of how to present their ideas verbally: as a written list or a drawnplan. In preparation for the Listening lesson, ask students to do some research on guerrilla gardeningonline. Presentationtool:

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3 Choices andchanges

LISTENING

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Tostart

exam task: multiple choice: longertext 5

Ask: Is gardening popular where you live? What would you like to grow if you could? Discuss as aclass.

Powerup 1 Focus students’ attention on the pictures. Elicit what

they can see. Ask the first question to the class and elicit responses. If possible, give students a couple of minutes to look for some more images of guerrilla gardens on the internet to allow them to get a better understanding of the concept. Elicit what students found out. Ask students to share any particularly interesting images with theclass. Guerrilla gardening is the activity of growing plants or vegetables on any piece of land in a city that you do not own, especially land that is in bad condition because it has not been used for a long time. People do this so that cities will have more green areas and be better places tolive.

2 Students discuss the second question in pairs. Writethe following categories of people on the board and ask students to discuss how these people might feel about guerrilla gardens: residents, local councillors, children. Elicit a fewresponses.

Possibleanswers • I think it’s a great idea for people to turn waste spaces into gardens, so I’d be very supportive of any local guerrilla gardeners’projects. • Although I do like the concept of more green spaces, Ithink it is questionable to do it without proper permission. It would be much better if the local council would fund gardens to bebuilt. • I have mixed views on this idea. On the one hand, guerrilla gardens done well could look amazing. On the other hand, the gardens could look a bit messy andunkempt.

Listenup 3 Read the rubric and question aloud and elicit someideas. 4 For this exercise, ask students to use a piece of paper to

cover the options while they look and underline key words in the stem sentence only. In the exam, students will not have time to read all the options before they listen, so they should focus on identifying key words in the stems. Give students no more than two minutes to underline key words, then ask them to compare with apartner.

3.4 Ask students to read question 1 in Ex 7. Then elicit the answer to exam tip question 1. Play the recording and elicit the answer to exam tip question 2. Then refer students back to options A–D and choose the one that matches what Don said after but, ofcourse. 1 aconfession 2 But, of course… 3 D (But, of course, it’s often illegal in the sense that the gardens are on cityland.)

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3.5 Play the recording and ask students to concentrate on understanding the main point. Elicit how successful Don’s project hasbeen. It has been very successful (because now it has been accepted, and people copyit).

7

3.6 Play the recording again for students to select the correct answers. Elicit the answers andreasons. 1 D (But, of course, it’s often illegal in the sense that the gardens are on cityland.) 2 D (Don had taken over the land, he was using it to grow vegetables for the whole community and, more importantly, others were starting to do it aswell.) 3 B (food supply is awful. It’s all convenience stores and drive through take-away chains and so people there have an awful diet because they actually have no access to decentfood.) 4 D (I advised the council to take a different view and fortunately, theydid.) 5 A (… the powers that be need to understand that good can come from small acts of disobedience! … People need to know that change can happen through these small acts of resistance that initially look selfish but actually benefiteveryone.) 6 D (lack of awareness about self-reliance is a hurdle. If we could just get people to understand that then so many opportunities openup.)

extra: whole class Ask students to turn to the audioscript on pages 176–177 and identify where the ‘clues’ in the text are for each question. The clues are paraphrases of the correctoption.

Suggestedanswers 1 admits 2 after getting to knowDon 3 important,because 4 feel, remove hisgarden 5 why, act ofdefiance 6 biggest issue, environmentalproblems

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Speakup 8 To extend the task, elicit some responses to the following questions: What do you think makes projects like the guerrilla garden a success? Are there any places in your area where a project like this would work? Then ask students to discuss the questions in Ex 8 in pairs. Elicit a fewresponses.

extra: whole class Ask students to work in small groups and find out about a project that is changing people’s lives for the better, locally or internationally, and tell your classmates about it. If appropriate, they could do this by shooting a video, explaining their project, outside the class. Then students vote for the project they think is mostworthwhile.

Tofinish Ask students to work in small groups to think of a place in school or in the local area where they would like to see a guerrilla garden. Ask them to discuss where it would be, what it would have, and give reasons for their choice. Students should present their choice to theclass. If appropriate, take the class on a walk and have students point out the location they have chosen. Alternatively students could go to the location and film a short video of themselves, explaining their proposed guerrilla garden on theirphone.

alternative Keep the pace of the presentations up by setting a time limit for the sharing part, e.g. two minutes per group. If you have a large class, students could combine groups to share about their project rather than sharing with the wholeclass. Presentationtool:

Unit 3, Listening

Workbook / Online Practice:

p27

Photocopiable activity:

3B

Extend vocabulary:

SBp160

Audioscript: SBp176 Extra Practice App

USE OF ENGLISH 1

SBp41

Tostart Write the following on the board: social life; holidays; study time; health and fitness. Then ask: What things are outside your control in your life? What things do you need others to doforyou? Ask students to work in pairs and discuss the questions using theprompts. Elicit some ideas for each question. Listen to see if students use the structure to have/get something done and whether it is used appropriately. If they do use it appropriately, ask the students to share with the class what they said, and write it on the board as anexample. Tell students that the aim of this lesson is to use the structure to have/get somethingdone.

explorelanguage

SB p146

1 Ask students to read the explore language box,

ifnecessary clarifying that sb = somebody and sth = something. Point out the typical structure: causative verb+ object + infinitive (with and withoutto).

watch out for Students need to be careful to use or omit to as listed in the language box. An exception is to help sb to do sth, where to may be used, or omitted in informal speech, e.g.She helped me (to) adjust the gears on mybicycle. In pairs, ask students to notice and discuss in pairs the differences in meaning and structure in the sentence pairs in Ex1. 1 The structure is different: in A, made is followed by an object + an adjective; in B it is followed by an object + an infinitive. The meaning is also different (A = cause someone to feel something; B = require). We know who caused the action in bothsentences. 2 The structure is the same. The meaning is different (A = the speaker has no control over what happened; B = the speaker controlled what happened). The ‘doer’ of the action is unknown in bothsentences. 3 The structure is different (A: let + object + infinitive; B: allowed + object + to-infinitive). The meaning is the same. We know who caused the action in bothsentences.

2 Elicit the rewriting of the first question as an example.

Students rewrite the questions, then check as a class. Ask students to ask and answer the questions with a partner. Ask students to report back something their partnersaid. 1 What kinds of things do you get other people to do foryou?Why? 2 How regularly do you have your hairdone/cut? 3 How often has your teacher made you stay after school?Why? 4 What kind of things should you/we let teenagers do on theirown? 5 Do your parents make you do a lot ofhousework? 6 Have you ever helped someone to set up a charityproject?

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3 Choices andchanges USE OF ENGLISH 1 (Continued)

alternative Moving around can help energise the class and provide a change of pace. Ask students to walk around the class asking and answering each question from Ex 2 to a different person (out of order). They can ask each question more than once. Circulate, asking and answering questions with as many students as possible, giving feedback on whether the causative structure is used correctly. Ask students what was the most interesting thing they foundout.

3 Write on the board: artistic change, legal change,

educational change, invention. Tell students that they are going to read sentences about some real teenagers who created some big changes in these areas. After reading the sentences, ask students to discuss the questions inpairs. Suggestedanswers 1 aninvention 2 an artisticchange 3 aninvention 4 aninvention 5 a legal/educationalchange 6 an educationalchange

exam task: key wordtransformation In the Cambridge exam there would be more variety in the type of grammatical / lexical changes the students need to make. Here the focus reflects the lesson – causative verbs.

4

Read the rubric and exam tip aloud. In the key word transformation task, each answer is worth two marks reflecting the two changes that usually need to be made. Set a time limit of six minutes for students to complete the exercise. Students compare their answers in pairs before checking as aclass. 1 made the lions scared so that (causative verb +adjective) 2 allows me to change (causative verb +to-infinitive) 3 contributed to us/our winning (verb + prep + -ingform) 4 has made it easier for (causative verb + comparativeadjective) 5 get the law changed so (causative verb + pastparticiple) 6 as a result of teaching myself (fixed phrase to show result+ -ingform)

extra See if anyone has heard of any of the teenagers who made the changes in Ex 4, or can guess who they are. There may be more than one possible answer foreach. 1 RichardTurere 2 Wolfgang AmadeusMozart 3 Olivia Hallisey for her project ‘Temperature-Independent, Portable, and Rapid Field Detection of Ebola via a SilkDerived Lateral-FlowSystem’. 4 WilliamKamkwamba 5 MalalaYousafzai 6 ThomasSuarez Ask students to work individually or in pairs to research the change from Ex 3 that interests them most, who made it, why they made it, and any obstacles they had to overcome along the way. All of these people have short talks or videos available on the internet to watch, either by or aboutthem. Group students with other students who chose a different teen to research to share what they foundout.

Funfooter Read the footer aloud, and ask students to guess how George Nissen came up with the idea of a trampoline. (He got the idea from a net under a trapeze at a circus and imagined the possibilities if it was bouncy.) His first trampoline was selfmade in his garage, then he used skills gained in his business degree to promoteit.

Tofinish Ask students to discuss the following questions in small groups: Which of the changes mentioned in Ex 4 do you think would have the greatest impact? Why? In which area would you like to see change happen? What steps could you take now to start to make change in thisarea? Presentationtool:

Unit 3, Use of English 1

Workbook / Online Practice:

p29

Grammar reference and practice: SBp146 Extra Practice App

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USE OF ENGLISH 2

SBp42

Tostart Say: The more choice there is, the better. Do you agree? Askfor a show ofhands. Ask students to discuss the following questions in pairs, thenelicit a fewresponses: • In what situations would more choice beadvantageous? • In what situations might too many choices becomeoverwhelming? • How would you describe your own approach to makingdecisions?

1 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs, then elicit afewresponses.

2

3.7 Play the recording, then elicit theexamples. Speaker A: She spends longer choosing what to watch on TV than watching. Her friends make decisions forher. Speaker B: He has a problem choosing between lots of similar items online. He has a problem with multiplechoicequestions.

3 Ask students which of the adjectives in the box they

heard in the recording in Ex 2 (all of them). Students rewrite the sentences with the adjectivesgiven. 1 Indecisive,spontaneous 2 legendary, incapable of making, an excessive amount oftime 3 Numerous, that isimpractical

watch out for Some words have a spelling change when a suffix is added, e.g. envy – enviable; reverse – reversible; number – numerous; humour –humorous.

explorelanguage Read through the explore language box with students and answer any questions that they mighthave.

4 Students work individually to form adjectives from the words. Elicit possible additions to eachgroup.

(Additional suggestions inbrackets) 1 voluntary, cautionary, literary (necessary, contemporary,legendary) 2 productive, defensive, instructive (provocative, exclusive, massive, selective,decisive) 3 rational, partial, global (emotional, dismal, total, eternal, fatal, vital, conceptual,fundamental) 4 enviable, deniable, escapable (formidable, capable, noticeable, stable,adjustable) 5 advantageous, humorous, conscious (rigorous, conscientious,suspicious) 6 reversible, flexible, gullible (edible, tangible,accessible)

extra: fast finishers Write the following extra sets on the board for fastfinishers. 7 problem, democracy, system, diplomacy (problematic, democratic, systematic,diplomatic) 8 horror, calorie, science (horrific, calorific,scientific)

5 Students work individually, then compare their answers inpairs.

(The underlined words have no negativeform.) 1 involuntary, cautionary,literary 2 unproductive, defenceless,uninstructive 3 irrational, impartial,global 4 unenviable, undeniable,inescapable 5 disadvantageous, humourless,unconscious 6 irreversible, inflexible,guileless

watch out for Some words can be made negative by adding the suffix -less, e.g. humourless, defenceless. Other words include colourless, painless and harmless. This suffix has the meaning‘without’.

exam task: wordformation There are more items that test adjective affixation here than would be in the Cambridge exam, as this reflects the focus of the lesson.

6

Read the rubric and the exam tip aloud. Point out that this is practice for Reading and Use of English Part 3. Remind students to quickly read the text for gist first and think about what kind of word needs to go in each gap (noun, verb, adjective, etc.). Give students a time limit of eight minutes to complete the exercise. Fast finishers should check their answers and spelling verycarefully. 1 numerous (adjective describing the nounfactors) 2 effective (adjective describing decisions after howadverb) 3 problematic (adjective following the most to formsuperlative) 4 anxiety (noun, to match the other nouns in the list: concentration, frustration,etc.) 5 rational (adjective, describing how we think weare) 6 inability (this is the main noun of the noun phrase an inability to see the wood for thetrees) 7 unnoticeable (negative because but means that the word must contrast with Physical fatigue is easy to be awareof) 8 irreversible (negative because the decisions will beunreliable)

extra: mixed ability Ask weaker classes: Have you added prefixes to words in three of the gaps? Have you used one word only in eachgap?

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3 Choices andchanges

SPEAKING

USE OF ENGLISH 2 (Continued)

Speakup 7 Put students into small groups to discuss the questions.

Elicit a few responses. Ask for a show of hands of people who consider themselves to be decisive or indecisive. If some people can’t make up their minds whether they are decisive or not, tell them that they are clearlyindecisive!

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Ask: Do you think this is true for you? In what other situations might fast music help or hinderyou? Play some fast music and set an exercise for students to complete, such as Ex 1 of the Review section on page 48. Ask students: Do you think you concentrated better or worse with the musicon?

Tofinish Ask students to test each other on the adjective suffixes in pairs, by calling out words from Ex 4, and asking their partner to supply the adjective without looking at their notes, e.g. reverse –reversible. In preparation for the Speaking lesson, you could ask students to read through the exam tip on page 43 as well as the Speaking file on page 163 forhomework. Presentationtool:

Unit 3, Use of English 2

Workbook / Online Practice:

p30

Photocopiable activity:

3C

Audioscript:

SBp177

Extra Practice App

SBp43

Tostart Ask students: What kinds of decisions have you made recently? Put them into pairs to tell each other what factors they considered before making these decisions. Elicit some answers from the wholeclass.

Powerup 1 Go through the instructions for the Choice Game and

ask two students to read the parts of A and B aloud as an example. Give students a minute to see which pair can make the most choices. More sample choices could include: cold or hot, go out or stay in, phone call or text message, beach or mountain, sing or dance,etc.

2 Ask students to look at the pictures and discuss what

the people are considering before they make a choice. Elicitsome ideas for eachpicture. Possibleanswer The woman choosing from the menu might be considering how hungry she is, what each meal costs, what she feels like eating, any specials or recommendations from others, what might be a healthy option,etc. The man choosing oil might be considering where it was produced, whether it’s organic or which would be best for his purpose, the cost, the packaging,etc.

Speakup exam task: collaborativetask 3

SB p163

Point out that this is an exam-style task for Speaking Part 3, the collaborative task. The focus of this task is giving opinions with reasons, agreeing/ disagreeing, suggesting, and negotiating adecision. Set a time limit of three minutes and encourage students to continue discussing the items for the full amount oftime. Possibleanswer A: Let’s start with buying things online or going shopping – what would we need toconsider? B: Well, for a start, we’d need to think about convenience. Buying online is great for that, you can do it from the comfort of your sofa… A: I guess it would depend where the shops are and how long you were willing towait. B: Yeah, sometimes when you order something online, itcan take ages toarrive. A: And what about cost? I’ve got some great bargains online at a fraction of the price of theshops. B: That’s all very well, but shouldn’t we also consider supporting local business? Would knowing that you were helping them stay afloat affect yourdecision? A: That’s a fair point, but to be honest, I’m probably most influenced byprice. B: To move on, how about deciding whether to share a flat or live athome? A: The first consideration is probably what your family thinks. Do they want you to stick around or are they ready for you toleave?

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B: I’d also add that it would depend where ‘home’ is and what your plans are. For instance, if you’re enrolled in a university in another city, you’re obviously not going to stay athome. A: You can save a lot of money by living at home though, and the food is probably muchbetter. B: You’re probably right. What other things would you keep in mind, besidesmoney? A: Well, I’d be thinking about what I actually wanted to do. That said, I suppose I’d need to think about family expectations aswell. Should we move on to deciding between starting work and going to university? B: It depends what industry you wanted to get into and whether university was the right pathway for that. My point is that if you wanted to be say, a plumber, why waste time studying when you could get anapprenticeship? A: I think it’s crucial that people factor in costs as well – it’s easy to end up with a huge student loan at the end of yourcourse. B: What we’ve got to remember is that university may actually improve your earning capacity in the long run aswell. A: Onto saving money or spending it, I think the most essential thing to consider are your long-term goals and short-termneeds. B: And considering the difference between a want and aneed! A: Finally, oh, this can be a tough call, celebrating with family orfriends. B: What I’d consider first and foremost is what’s being celebrated. The main reason I say this is because, in my family anyway, there are certain celebrations which we always spendtogether. A: I agree with you. You’d need to consider what you were celebrating, and maybe, if it’s a birthday or something, which option you would enjoy themost!

4

3.8 Remind students that after the discussion phase, they will be asked to make a decision and will have one minute to reach it. Read the question aloud: Which of these decisions is the most difficult to make? Why? Play the recording then elicit which decisions were chosen and how they justifiedthem. starting work instead of going to university: It’s harder to change your mind later on; the wrong choice can affect your whole career. sharing a flat instead of living at home: It can cause a rift in the family; there could be problems with yourflatmates.

exam tip If you didn’t use the flipped classroom approach suggested at the end of the last lesson, read through the exam tip in class. For more detail about this part of the exam, refer students to the Speaking file on page163.

useful language: giving reasons 5 Ask students to read through the useful language box and tick the phrases they heard. For weaker classes, you could replay the recording for students to notice which phrases were used. Elicit the answers. The main reason I say… Well, for a start, if…

6

3.9 Ask if anyone knows what the schwa /ə/ is. Explainthat it is the most common vowel sound in English. It is typically heard in parts of a word that are spoken without stress, such as the a in about. Ask students to read the sentences and underline the highlighted words which need full stress. Play the recording for students tocheck. full stress: 1 and2  schwa: 3 and4

exam task: collaborative task 7

Set a time limit of one minute for students to answer the question with a partner. Encourage them to talk for the whole time, and to justify their selection using some of the useful language. For extra practice, ask students to practise again with a newpartner. Possibleanswer A: I think we could rule out a couple of these straight away – what do youthink? B: For sure, the decision about work or university is a major one, as is where you live, because both of those have a huge impact over a period oftime. A: Let’s look at the remaining three options. Deciding who to celebrate events with can actually be really important to get right. There’s a chance of offending someonethere. B: It seems it’s down to deciding between where to buy things or whether to spend or save. What would yousay? A: Well, if you think about it, spending when you should be saving could have some major consequences. You could run up a debt or end up making a large purchase that youregret. B: So, what you’re saying is that the decision that matters least here would be whether you buy online orinstore? A: That sounds right tome.

Tofinish Tell students you are going to read two quotes about decision-making and they should listen carefully and decide which one resonates most closely with them and why. Ask them to share their choice with their partner, justifyingit. • Sometimes it’s the smallest decisions that can change your lifeforever. • Trust your instincts and make judgements on what your heart tells you. The heart will not betrayyou. In preparation for the Writing lesson, ask students to work through Exs 2–9 on pages 44–45 at their own pace at home. Use the class time for students to discuss the exercises and provide class feedback before students plan and write their exam task in class while you circulate to provideassistance. Presentationtool:

Unit 3, Speaking

Workbook / Online Practice:

p31

Speaking file:

SBp163

Audioscript: SBp177

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3 Choices andchanges

WRITING

SBpp44–45

Tostart Write these topics on the board and ask students to give each one a score between 1 and 10 (1 = couldn’t care less, 10 = highly concerned about): litter, climate change, animal welfare, homelessness. Put students into small groups of three to discuss theirchoices.

Powerup 1 Give students a few minutes to discuss the quote in pairs, then elicit a fewopinions.

Planon

7 Ask students to find the phrases, then compare their answers in pairs. Conduct classfeedback. 1 2 3 4 5 6

I feel I must write… this is not the case… It is also worth pointing out that… I appreciate that… I think you should… if you could come…

exam tip Go through the exam tip with the class and elicit answers to thequestions. 2 is more formal, has a more complex structure and is lesspersonal.

2 Give students a few minutes to read the exam-style letter

task and answer the questions individually. Then ask them to discuss their answers in pairs. Go through the answers as aclass. 1 2 3 4

useful language: point of view adjectives 8 Focus students’ attention on the example. Ask students to rewrite the sentences in a more politeway.

the editor – in response to anarticle readers of thenewspaper my views and myreasons formal (because it is a letter to aneditor)

1 My point of view is different. / I have a different point ofview. 2 In my view what you say isincorrect. 3 I insist that you publish myletter. 4 I (strongly) believe you should considerthis. 5 I am shocked to discover that this is your point ofview.

3 Give students a few minutes to read the sample letter

individually and match the paragraphs before comparing inpairs. 1 D 2 C 3 A 4B

4 Give students a minute to re-read the letter then elicit

a few responses. If students had any different answers in Ex 2, go through them with the students to iron out anydifficulties.

5 Go through the questions with the class and elicit someanswers.

The writer asks the editor to publish the letter and visit theschool. Another suggestion could be to research what young people are involvedin.

6 Ask students to decide which statement describes how to disagree politely and to find examples in theletter. B Although it may be true that… I believe that… I appreciate that… but I think…

background Being polite is about communicating or behaving in a culturally appropriate way that is correct for the situation, and showing that you are keen to consider other people’s needs and feelings. Being too direct in English can be considered impolite, especially in formal BritishEnglish.

Writeon 9 Students re-read the task and make notes.

Remindstudents to justify their point ofview.

10 Ask students to work through thesteps.

exam task: letter

SB p166

The letter task in the Cambridge exam may require the candidate to write either a formal or an informal letter. Here the focus is on the formal letter.

11

You could set this task for homework. Fast finishers should check that they have written according to the word limit, and that the language they have used ispolite. Modelanswer DearEditor, I was deeply disappointed by your article last week, claiming that young people are self-centred and uninvolved in the wider community. In fact, I am quite shocked to discover that this is your point of view. As a young person, I feel strongly that I must respond to these unfair accusations, which in my view are entirelyincorrect. Firstly, I would say that the young people I know show their care for others by starting with family and friends. What you don’t see as an outsider is the teenager who cooks and cleans for their family, looks after their younger siblings, and supports their friends through toughtimes.

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Secondly, I will point out that many young people in our town do volunteer work at a range of organisations. For example, a number of us volunteer at the soup kitchen every Friday while others are involved with an afterschool programme for disadvantaged children. Spending our own free time on community projects demonstrates our care and contribution to thecommunity. Finally, with regards to the positivity of our decisionmaking, I would suggest that you are stereotyping. Most of the teenagers at my school take responsibility for their actions and have plans and goals in place for living healthy and productivelives. I strongly believe that you should revisit your point of view on this matter. I hope I have shown that young people in this community are generous and conscientious citizens who help others in numerous ways. I hope I have been able to persuade you to reconsider yourviews. Yours sincerely,…

SWITCH ON

A Street Cat NamedBob 1 Check students know what a biographical film/biopic

is (a film based on a real person’s life). Elicit the names of any characters from biographical films that students knowabout.

For questions 2 and 3, ask students to decide who is the most fortunate and least fortunate and write these down on two pieces of paper. Collect the papers in. While you count the votes, ask students to discuss with a partner who they chose and justify (give reasons and examples) for their choices. Share the results of who was most fortunate/least fortunate according to the vote. Tell students that the aim of this exercise was to find out how students define a person being fortunate: whether it’s wealth, respect, fame, or having access to opportunities and the means/mindset to take advantage of them. Also, how they define a person being unfortunate: whether it’s ill health, bad luck and circ*mstance, a lack of power, or making badchoices.

Improveit 12 Tell students to check their letter against the assessment points, and then make changes, if necessary, inresponse.

13

Students use the four questions in Ex 12 as the framework for feeding back in pairs. If pairs are mixed ability, encourage students to look for something their partner did well andwhy.

If you collect the work in to provide individualised feedback, use the list from Ex 12 as a framework. You may also want to discuss other criteria but be careful not to overwhelm or distract from the in-depth analysis of the main focus criterionhere.

Possibleanswer 1 Examples may include Nelson Mandela, Frida Kahlo, Mark Zuckerberg, Erin Brockovich, Queen Elizabeth II, Muhammad Ali, Abraham Lincoln, MargaretThatcher.

2

Tofinish

Unit 3, Writing

Workbook / Online Practice:

p32

Writing file:

SBp166

Tell students they are going to watch a clip about a person called James who has had a mix of unfortunate and fortunate things happen to him. After playing the clip, ask students to write a one-sentence summary of how James had his book published. Ask students to compare their summaries in pairs. Ask a few students to share theirsummaries. Possibleanswer After the press began to cover James and Bob, a literary agent read about him and approached him to write a book, then helped him to get itpublished.

Ask students to share stories in groups of when they had cause to make a complaint about a product or service. Then ask each group to share the worst situation with the class, then have a class vote on the worstsituation. Presentationtool:

SBp46

3

Ask students to make notes about what James does to help, while you play the clip again. Students compare their answers in pairs and discuss the other questions. Elicitanswers. 1 He took responsibility for him when he realised that Bob was alone. He spent the last of his money on taking Bob to the vet and paying for his treatment. He nursed Bob for two weeks and gave him his antibiotics until he had recovered. He continued to look after him even after he hadrecovered. 2 Spending the last of his money is very surprising given that he is a homeless person. James probably had very little tospare. 3 I would have kept him warm and fed him, but I probably wouldn’t have paid for the vet because I wouldn’t have had enoughmoney.

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3 Choices andchanges SWITCH ON (Continued)

4 Tell students that the film made about Bob was rated

PG in Britain. Say: Does anyone know what PG means? Share the information in the background note below. Askstudents to discuss the questions in pairs, then elicit a fewresponses.

background A film rated PG (Parental Guidance) has been deemed suitable for general viewing, but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children. A PG film should not unsettle a child aged around eight or older. Children of any age may watch, but parents are advised to consider whether the content may upset younger or more sensitivechildren. Possibleanswers 1 • Yes, it is possible. As the film’s audience will include younger viewers, some of the more unpleasant aspects of homelessness have been moderated. However, as the majority of people know little to nothing about homelessness, everyone should be able to come away from the film learningsomething. • No, it’s not likely. If a child of any age is allowed to see this film alone, the reality of James’s situation would need to be sanitised beyond recognition. We expect the film focuses more on Bob than it does on James and his problems, to appeal to youngerviewers. • Possibly. We imagine that although the film will only show select aspects of James’s life as a homeless man, they will only really register with people above a certain age. Adults will be able to read between the lines to understand the more difficult aspects ofhomelessness. 2 They should modify the content to avoid showing the darker aspects of homelessness and focus on the positive aspects of human kindness that James experienced after he had befriendedBob. 3 I would focus on the special relationship between James and Bob, and what an amazing character Bob the catis.

extra: whole class Put students into small groups to discuss the following statement: James’s story doesn’t send a realistic or hopeful message to others in hisposition.

Project 5 Ask students to either choose a contemporary figure

or assign them one. If necessary, clarify that a podcast is a radio programme that can be downloaded from the internet. Students could record their podcast on a smartphone, then upload this to your class online space. Encourage each student to read part of the script. Iftechnology is not available, students could alternatively prepare aspeech. Students vote on the most interesting podcast. This could be done through your online space with a poll. Remind students to keep commentsencouraging. Possibleanswers • Jonnie Peaco*ck, a gold medal-winning Paralympic sprinter. He had part of his right leg amputated after contracting meningitis aged five, but was made aware of sports available to him when he asked what he might be able to do with a prosthetic leg while in hospital. He subsequently broke a world record before winning the Summer Paralympic 100 metres in 2012, and again when he successfully defended his title in2016. • American philanthropist Maggie Doyne. On her gap year, Maggie met a six year-old girl called Hima, who was struggling to survive on the little money she earned by selling broken stones. Maggie was inspired to found a school, children’s home, women’s centre and health clinic after meeting Hima. Maggie now lives in Nepal and works full-time for her initiative, called KopilaValley. • Oprah Winfrey was born into poverty and had a troubled childhood. Sent away from home aged 14 by her mother, Oprah moved in with her father, Vernon, in Nashville, Tennessee, and under his care thrived in school, winning a university scholarship before landing a job as the first black female news anchor for local channel WLAC-TV. Her career blossomed from there and Oprah is now one of the most influential women in theworld.

extra Ask students to prepare another podcast. Allow them to choose a podcast or presentation about the following topics or another topic of their choice which you might think is appropriate for your class. Remind students that research should be conducted in English for maximumpractice. • Special relationships between humans and animals, (e.g.guide dogs for the blind, sniffer dogs) and why the bond between humans and dogs is sostrong. • The difference between the natures of cats anddogs. • Produce another podcast which would highlight the extraordinary nature of Bob the Cat, given that cats are usually much more independent thandogs. Presentationtool:

Switch on

Switch on videoscript:

TBp179

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INDEPENDENT LEARNING SBp46

Skillassessment 1 Ask students to rank their confidence on the different skills inEnglish.

2 Put students into pairs to compare their answers and discuss thequestions.

1 1 most urgent, the mostchallenging 2 more frequently,better 3 fastest, as preparedas 4 the best, moreconcerned 5 less, unhealthier (moreunhealthy)

2 1 C ​2 B ​3 B ​4 C ​5 A ​6C 3 1 get, have ​2 let, wasn’t allowed ​3 force, make ​ 4 get,help

3 Give an example, e.g. I would like to improve my skills by

listening to more English radio and podcasts. Ask students to complete the sentences individually then to share with their partner. Ask if any students want to share one of their resolutions with theclass.

UNITCHECK

Review

SBp47

If possible, complete Practice Exs 1 and 3 in class because they involve pair work. Alternatively, the answers to Practice 3 could also be posted to your private class online space. The other activities may be completed in class or set forhomework.

Practice 1 Students’ ownanswers. 2 1 any of those in firstsection 2 make a difference/sacrifices/sb’sday 3 do good/an act of kindness/a good turn/sb afavour 4 give sb a hug/praise/a helpinghand 5–8 Students’ ownanswers 9 endeavour 10 repercussion

3 I think that my town should have more bicycle paths so that

people can cycle more easily and safely. At the moment, there are only a few paths, and this makes cycling quite dangerous. Numerous streets could be modified to include cycle lanes with only minor adjustments, while other roads would require a complete transformation. Although getting sufficient funding may be problematic, I suggest that if people were properly informed of the multitude of benefits that cycling offers, they would be open to this advantageousinvestment.

4 Emma, I’m really worried about my brother Matt. He’s

suffering badly from fatigue. He’s been trying to hold down a job AND study part time for a degree in the evenings. He really needs to weigh up the pros and cons, continuing to do this, otherwise he’ll fail at both. He can’t take for granted that there won’t be repercussions at work if he continues to take time off. What should I advise him todo?

4 1 making ​2 has ​3 to ​4 after ​5 than ​6 a ​7 about ​ 8got/had

5 I was recently involved with a project in our local community

that arranges to take hot food to people who are elderly or house-bound. It has been a very successful project. I work twice a week. It involves going to the kitchen to help with the food preparation and then taking the hot food to the assigned addresses. It’s actually a good project because the people really appreciate it and a lot of them have good stories to tell you. I think it’s really made them feel much better. Theyare healthier because they are getting good food every day and they are happier because they have someone to chat to. I have to say I really enjoy it, much more than I thought I would, and I would encourage you all tohelp.

GRAMMARFILE

SBp147

1 1 the most coherent ​2 the most reliable ​

3 more dismayed ​4 the most courageous ​5 as fast ​ 6 less carefully, morethoroughly

2 1 The further out you swim, the colder the watergets. 2 I’m getting more and more worried aboutJanine. 3 This is the more relevant of the two articles / is of less relevance than the firstarticle. 4 There will be less competition for the position than there was lastyear. 5 The furthest distance I’ve ever run is 25kilometres.

3 1 like ​2 as ​3 As ​4 like ​5as 4 1 as there had ​2 took my comment as a criticism ​ 3 as if she hates ​4 looks like an artist ​ 5 trained as a chemist ​6 as youknow

5 1 have made, promise ​2 get, to look ​3 let, copy ​

4 enabled, to get ​5 require, to consult ​6 Have, contact ​ 7 helps/helped,feel

6 1 many ​2 in ​3 were ​4 having ​5 their ​6 to ​7 as ​ 8more

Presentationtool:

Unit 3, Unit check

Workbook / Online Practice:

p33

Audioscript: SBp177 Extra Practice App

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4 Same or different?

Lead-in SBp49 Show the quote, Life would be boring if we were all the same, on the IWB if you are using one. Ask: Do you agree? Why/ Why not? What does this picture show? (It shows Russian dolls which have a series of similar smaller dolls nested inside.) How does it relate to being thesame?

X 4

Same or different? READING

USE OFENGLISH

topic:subcultures skill: identifying contrastingopinions task: cross-text multiplematching

opencloze multiple-choicecloze

GRAMMAR presenttenses substitution andomission

topic: overcomingchallenges skill:discussion task: collaborative task;discussion

VOCABULARY

WRITING

clothingadjectives similarities anddifferences three-part phrasalverbs

topic:multiculturalism skill: usingsynonyms task:essay

LISTENING

SWITCH ON

topic:identity skill: understanding attitude andfeeling task: multiple choice: shorttexts

video: Nollywoodfilm-makers project: advertisingfilms

SPEAKING

Ask students to read the questions. Point out the phrasal verbs stand out and fit in and ask what they mean and for some examples. Explain that if someone fits in, they are accepted by the other people in a group, e.g. I never really fitted in at school. I wasn’t sure if he would fit in with my friends. If someone stands out, they are obviously different, e.g. He stood out from the crowd with his purple dreadlocks. It can also be used to show someone was obviously better at something, e.g. She stood out from the rest of the team because of her determination andathleticism. Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit some ideas andexamples.

extra: whole class Point out the unit title Same or different? Put pairs together to form groups of four and ask them to see how many similarities and differences they can find between members of their group in five minutes, not including appearance. For example, they can compare personality, circ*mstances, and experiences. Conduct class feedback, then ask: Was it easier to find ways in which you were the same? Or was it easier to find ways in which you weredifferent?

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READING

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Tostart Write the following words and phrases on the board and ask students to work in pairs to group the words in a meaningful way, looking them up in dictionaries if necessary: subculture, mainstream, anti-establishment, conventional, rebelling, norm, (non-)conformist, fringeculture, subculture. Suggested categoriesinclude: Group 1: mainstream, norm, conventional, Group 2: anti-establishment, rebelling, fringe culture,subculture, non-conformist Tell students that the aim of this lesson is to identify contrasting and similar opinions in a complex text. The words above will all appear in the readingtext.

1 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs, then elicit some responses to eachone.

Possibleanswers 1 A particular group of people within a society and their behaviour, beliefs, activities and style which usually differ from the mainstream societalnorms. 2 skateboarder – skateboardingculture, originally linked to surfing culture in the 1960s, now a distinct subculture. The style has evolved continuously, but may include casual ‘street’ fashion and ‘indie’ rock or hip hop/urban music. goth – associated with Goth music (slow sad music played on electric guitars and keyboards) and following a fashion for pale skin, dark eye makeup, and black or purpleclothes. hippy – someone, especially in the 1960s, who promoted love and peace, opposed violence peacefully and often wore floral prints and lots of beads, had long hair, and took drugs forpleasure hipster – people with urban alternative lifestyles, who often care about environment, shun big brands and mainstream music; they are often associated with having beards, horn-rimmed glasses and second-handclothing. 3 surfer – subculture based around surfing culture including language, lifestyle and fashion such as board shorts and bikinis; very popular in California, Hawaii andAustralia. cosplay – adults dressing up as fictional characters, usually from Japanese anime (animated films) or manga (comicbooks). bikers – a motorcycling subculture which includes black leather, bandanas, tattoos, rockmusic. hip hop – a type of popular culture that began among young African-Americans in big cities, which includes hip hop music, dancing, and graffitiart. teddy boys – a British subculture which rose in the 1950s associated with Edwardian fashions, jazz and rock’n’rollmusic. skinheads – a young white person who has hair that is cut very short, especially one who behaves violently towards people of otherraces. punk rocker – someone who likes punk music (a type of loud music popular in the 1970s and 1980s) and wears things that are typical of it, such as torn clothes, metal chains, and colouredhair. 4 They want to be different. They want to rebel against society. Society in general may treat them with suspicion, or may feel they are threatening because they have different appearances, habits, opinions, values,etc.

extra Sometimes an image is the best way to explain new vocabulary. For the subcultures mentioned above, consider doing an online image search on the IWB to show a series of images associated with each subculture. Make sure you try it before class to check only appropriate images comeup. Point out that the images that come up are likely to be stereotypes, e.g. a search of skaters may show mainly men, although many women are also part of thissubculture.

Readon 2 Focus students on the title How unique is unique? Check students’ pronunciation of unique, if necessary: /juːˈniːk/. Give students three minutes to read the comments on page 51 for gist to work out what the original article mentioned. Elicit someideas. Possibleanswers People in a subculture are trying to be being different and rebel against society. (A,C) Subcultures are dangerous to society.(B) The very things that make subculture adherents unique, often end up becoming popular.(D)

3 Ask students to re-read the article and discuss the questions inpairs.

exam task: cross-text multiplematching 4

Read through the exam tip with students and give them time to complete and compare their answers to question 1 with a partner. Ask students to complete this exam-styleactivity. 1 A (B talks about people with ideas and values, often idealistic/but an appreciation for something outside of the mainstream. A shares this idea, saying: Back in my grandparents’ day it was the hippies with their love of peace and hatred of violence. They floated around in kaftans and beads, distributing flowers everywhere. Noble thoughtsindeed.) 2 C (A talks about subcultures that: think they’re different from everyone else. This article has got that spot on. C disagrees, saying: Why is it that people are always insisting (a conviction so clearly expressed by the writer) that those who follow particular trends and look a bit different from themselves are trying hard to be unique and different? In my opinion, the majority are just following theirpreferences.) 3 D (C thinks: Gradually, trends die out and others take their place – a totally natural order of a developing society. D says: And then the cycle will repeat itself as another fringe culture breaksaway.) 4 B (Others describe the subcultures as an irritant. B says many people view them as a threat: ‘It’s different, so it must be wrong, it must be dangerous,’ theythink.)

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4 Same or different? READING (Continued)

5 Write irony on the board and ask students to find

the word in comment A. Ask: What is ‘irony’? (Irony occurs where a situation is unusual or amusing because something strange happens, or the opposite of what is expected happens or is true). Ask: What does Person A find ironic? (People do the same things to try and be different, so they actually don’t end up being different from anyone after all.) Point out that irony can also be used as a synonym for sarcasm, when you use the opposite words to what you mean when speaking, in order to be amusing or make a point, e.g. Of course, Gina won’t be late, she never is. (when in fact, she is oftenlate). 1 get my headround 2 spoton 3 disdain 4 stance 5 norms 6 do (them)down 7 purport 8 diehards 9 usherin 10 pretentiousness

extra: mixed ability To help a weaker class, write the answers on the board out of order, then ask students to find them in thetext.

extra: fast finishers Ask fast finishers to find the following phrasal verbs in the text and deduce their meaning fromcontext.

Speakup 7 Ask students to find at least one comment they agree

with and one they disagree with. Elicit some ideas in a classdiscussion.

8 Put students into pairs to discuss the questions. Elicit a few responses toeach.

Tofinish Ask students to discuss the following questions in pairs then elicit a few ideas: Do you know anyone who is into a subculture? Who? How far are they committed? Have you personally followed any trends in the past or are you following onenow? In preparation for the Grammar lesson, students can go through the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation. Or ask students to read the explore grammar box and complete Ex 1 on Students’ Book page 52, and read the Grammar file notes on present tenses on page 148. Ask students to note down any questions for discussion inclass. Presentationtool:

Unit 4, Reading

Workbook / Online Practice:

pp36–37

Extra Practice App

paragraph A: get wound up about something (to get annoyed aboutsomething) paragraph C: die out (disappear, and stopexisting) paragraph D: move on (leave something behind); break away (to leave a group and form anothergroup)

Sumup 6 Give students a few minutes to write a one-sentence

summary for each point. Put students into groups to shareideas. Suggestedanswers 1 Most people are irritated by subcultures because subcultures want to be different and this upsets the ‘norm’, while some maintain that subcultures, in being different, present a threat and instil fear, howeverunintentionally. 2 Subcultures have always existed in recent times, including hippies (who advocated peace and love), and attracted people who wanted either to rebel against what were considered society’s norms or were simply interested in the accessories of the subculture, i.e. the fashion associated withit. 3 The article referenced in the comments appears to have taken the majority view that subcultures threaten the stability of society and consist of people whose main aim is to be special and rebellious, but in the end, lose their uniqueness as othersjoin.

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GRAMMAR

3

SBp52

Tostart Tell students a story about something dramatic or amusing that happened to you using present tenses, e.g. So, I’m walking my dog at the park and I sit down on a bench for a rest. I have the strangest sensation. Then I realise, the bench is covered in wet paint and it’s all over me. Ironically, it’s the day I’m wearing my new jeans, too. I race home to change as fast as I can. Howannoying! Ask students: Did you notice what tenses I used for my story? Why? (present tenses, to make the story more ‘immediate’ anddramatic). Tell students that the aim of this lesson is to use present tense for different functions such as retelling dramaticsequences.

explore grammar

SB p148

1 Go through the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation and ask students to read the explore grammar box and match the examples with uses. If necessary, clarify wanes (when something becomes gradually weaker or less important). Conduct classfeedback. 1 D ​2 C ​3 A ​4B

2 Read the example 0 with the class. Give some other

examples of the present continuous with always to convey a speaker’s attitude (often with disapproval) compared to the more neutral present simple, e.g. She’s always buying the latest gadget. They’re always going on at young people. Then ask students to read the sentences in pairs and discuss the differences in meaning between the sentences. Go through the answers as aclass. 1 In sentence A, the present continuous is used to focus on the result of a regular activity, whereas in B, the present simple is used to show things that are true and follow on in a naturalorder. 2 In sentence A, the present simple is used to refer to the writer’s purpose or content, whereas in B, the continuous form focuses on a present activity inprogress. 3 In sentence A, love is a stative verb and indicates something that is always true, whereas in B, the continuous form is used colloquially to focus on themoment. 4 In sentence A, the present continuous is used to say that an activity is in the process of change, whereas in B, the present simple shows that it is a general truth and a naturalprogression. 5 In sentence A, the present simple is used to describe a dramatic incident, and in B it is used in a headline to attractreaders.

watch out for Some verbs have both a stative and dynamic meaning, e.g.think, feel,have.

4.1 Tell students that they are going to listen to a research interview with a man about what he has noticed on the street. Ask students to close their books while you play the recording once, and for them to concentrate on understanding the gist of the interview. Ask: What people did the man notice? Elicit some ideas. Then play the recording again for students to complete the phrases. Ask students to decide why each present tense was used in each case. Go through the answers, writing them on the board to check students have the spelling and apostrophes correct, and eliciting which purpose each was used for (if students aren’t sure, ask them to refer to the Grammar file section on present tenses on page148).

Write The mind boggles! on the board and ask students if they heard this phrase in the recording and what this informal expression means. (If your mind boggles when you think of something, it is difficult for you to imagine or accept it, e.g. My mind boggles at how much you can find out about a person’s ancestry from a simple DNA test. Or,How do black holes work? The mindboggles!). 1 doesn’t start (present simple for scheduledevents) 2 compiling (present continuous for an action inprogress) 3 getting (present continuous with always to convey negativity, the speaker feels sorry for the homeless man gettingmoved) 4 I’m thinking (present continuous, used colloquially with a stativeverb) 5 ’s been borrowing (present perfect simple for something that started in the past and is stillcontinuing)

4 Focus students on the picture of a candidate waiting

for a job interview. Ask: How to does wearing the right clothes help in a job interview? Ask students to skim the candidate’s blog post to find out what he is worried about (whether he has done enough research for the interview, whether he is wearing something that gives the right impression, whether he is too early and his shoes are dirty). Point out that the blog post must have been written after the job interview so ask: Why is it written in the present tense? (for dramatic effect). Students complete the gaps in the blog then compare their answers in pairs before checking as a class. Point out that the style is informal, which is why contractions are used rather than fullforms. 1 has come ​2 ’m waiting ​3 ’m getting ​4 Have I done ​ 5 Am I wearing ​6 ’ve been reading up/’ve read up ​ 7 ’ve dressed ​8 is always telling ​9 says ​ 10 ’m projecting ​11 appear ​12 has given  ​13 ’m looking ​14 haven’tcleaned

extra Ask students to work in pairs or individually to write their own short blog post using the present tense to describe one of the followingsituations. • first day at a newschool/college • sitting anexam • going for a jobinterview If working in pairs, both students will need to write the blog down for the follow-up activity. When they have finished, ask students to find a new partner and compare theirposts.

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4 Same or different?

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR (Continued)

Speakup 5 Share an example of a recent past event or events, using present tenses for effect, e.g. I go into the room where everyone is dancing and there’s Debbie – in exactly the same dress as me. She sees me and ….

Give students a moment to think about what they will share and the tenses they will use. As students share, circulate, checking that students are using present tenses appropriately for dramatic effect. Remember to notice and encourage students when they are using the tensesappropriately.

Tofinish Say: The blogger wrote that putting on the right clothes can actually lift your mood and elevate self-confidence. Ask students to work in small groups to make lists of other actions which boost self-confidence. Ask each group to report back to theclass. Presentationtool:

Unit 4, Grammar

Workbook / Online Practice:

p38

Photocopiable activity:

4A

Grammar reference and practice:

SBp148

Audioscript:

SBp177

SBp53

clothingadjectives Tostart Tell students that the aim of this lesson is to use a range of adjectives and idioms to express similarities and differences. Ask students to work in pairs. Say: Look again at thepictures on pages 50–52. Write down as many items of clothing and accessories as you can name in two minutes. Conduct whole class feedback and write the items on the board. Ask students to discuss with their partner whether they have any of theseitems. Possibleanswers glasses, denim jacket, grey hoodie, rucksack (p50) choker, torn jeans, floral headbands, flared jacket, white shawl, flannel shirt, baseball cap, baseball shoes, ring, beads (p51) collared shirt, smart trousers, leather shoes (p52)

1 Ask students to discuss the question in pairs. Paraphrase the question when you elicit the answers, saying: Wouldyou rather fit in or standout?

explorelanguage 2 Ask students to use dictionaries if they need to look

up any of the words. Elicit examples for each adjective, checking students know what each means. Read through the explore language tip. Other words from the box that only have limited collocations include five-inch heels, bootcutjeans/trousers. Suggestedanswers bootcut jeans, designer top, embroidered waistcoat, faded T-shirt, five-inch heels, flared trousers, loud jumper, pleated skirt, ripped/torn jeans, scruffy jacket, shabby boots, skimpy dress, stylishdress

extra Ask students to think of five more clothing items or clothing adjectives that they would like to know the name for, and to look them up in a dictionary. They may consider material, e.g. ‘fake’ leather or fleece, or patterns such as tartan, polka-dot,chevron. Students select a new look for themselves by searching for ‘random fashion generator’ and using one to generate themselves a new outfit. Students could compare their outfits in small groups, and tell the class about the best newlook.

similarities anddifferences 3

4.2 Ask: Do you think you are similar or different to members of your family? In what way? Ask students to listen and note down any similarities and differences between the girl and hersisters. similar: age, love of clothes, think the same, samehandwriting different: hair colour (Emma’s is darker), chubby face (Maddy), Emma looks like Dad, Maddy has Mum’scharacter

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4

4.3 Play the recording again for students to listen for what each word refersto. 1 their father ​2 their mother ​3 the twins  ​4 money spent on the writer’s clothes in a year  ​5 their behaviour ​6 the twins’handwriting

5 Ask students to read the text quickly to find out what the writer thinks of her English friend’s school uniform, (she is thankful she doesn’t have to wear a uniform like her friend because clothes are a means of expression and the uniform isn’t cheap). Then ask students to complete the text. Elicit theanswers.

background In the UK, most schools require students to wear a uniform. A typical secondary school uniform might consist of a shirt or polo shirt, with shorts, trousers or skirt with a school jumper. Some schools have more formal uniforms with a blazer and tie. Schools must ensure that the students’ uniforms have a similar cost, and that religious freedoms are tolerated, such as the right to wear a headscarf orturban. 1 indistinguishable ​2 spitting image ​3 individuality ​ 4 consistent ​5 equivalent ​6 a carboncopy

6 Elicit the meaning of the following words in the box:

anonymity (when other people do not know who you are or what your name is); synonymous (something that is synonymous with something else is considered to be very closely connected with it); uproar (a lot of noise or angry protest about something); wavelength (if you are on the same wavelength as someone, you have the same opinions andfeelings). Ask students to read the text quickly for gist then complete the gaps. Check the answers. Elicit the meaning of eccentricity (a positive word for strange or unusual behaviour), and point out the adjective/noun form iseccentric.

1 synonymous ​2 world ​3 wavelength ​4 standing ​ 5 rebellious ​6 uproar ​7 take ​8 fit ​9cry 10anonymity

7

Elicit ways to complete 1, e.g. A person who is rebellious is someone who deliberately goes against rules or norms. Students complete the remaining definitions in pairs then think of some examples. Elicit possibledefinitions. Possibleanswers 1 deliberately goes against rules ornorms. 2 enjoys the privacy of nobody knowing his/her name or recognisinghim/her. 3 likes to be different from everyoneelse. 4 causes others to be shocked andprotest. 5 has a different perspective from other people/looks at things in a differentway. 6 has similar opinions and feelings toyou. 7 looks verysimilar.

Speakup 8 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit a fewresponses.

extra: fast finishers Refer fast finishers to the Extend vocabulary section for Unit 4 on page 160. Ask students to research what each idiom means, and think of an examplecontext.

extra: whole class As an extension project, divide the idioms in the Extend vocabulary section for Unit 4 on page 160 among the class, and ask students to prepare an explanation to teach the rest of theclass.

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Point out that Genoa (Genova) is an Italian port city. Ask students: Why do you think jeans are so popular? What adjectives from Activity 2 could be used to describe jeans? (bootcut, designer, embroidered, faded, flared, ripped/torn, scruffy, stylish). Elicit any other adjectives students know that could be used with jeans, e.g. baggy, low-riding, high-waisted, three-quarter length. Ask students to discuss in pairs whether they like wearing jeans and what kinds of jeans are fashionable in their country at themoment.

Tofinish Have a mini-debate on this topic: Every school should have a uniform. Ask half the class to agree and the other half to disagree with the motion. In teams, ask them to prepare arguments using some of the ideas and vocabulary covered in the lesson and their own ideas. Tell students that they need to argue for the side they have been assigned regardless of their personal opinion. Then, call on students to give their arguments, alternating between agree/disagree. Finish by asking for a show of hands of who really thinks a uniform should be introduced and who doesn’t. For larger classes, students could have their debate in pairs orgroups. Presentationtool:

Unit 4, Vocabulary

Workbook / Online Practice:

p39

Photocopiable activity:

4B

Extend vocabulary:

SBp160

Audioscript: SBp177 Extra Practice App

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4 Same or different?

LISTENING

1 C (I suspect she wanted to see if an author’s gender meant it sold morecopies.) 2 A (… people respect her for wanting to receive honest criticism. And she’s really tried to do something different – I think the story’s quite unusual … Good for her – she could’ve just written more of the same and been sure of herincome!)

SBp54

Tostart Ask students to work with a partner and list words they could use toexpress: 1 thoughts e.g. I suppose … (feel, consider, judge, agree, believe, suppose, imagine,sense) 2 feelings/attitude e.g. shocked (surprised, amazed, unhappy,enthusiastic) Elicit possible answers and write these on the board for reference during the next discussion. Tell students that the aim of the lesson is to follow a fast-paced conversation between nativespeakers.

exam task: multiple choice: shorttexts In the Cambridge exam the conversations would be on different topics. Here they are all about the lesson topic of identity.

5

Powerup 1 Ask students to think about who they would be if they

could be someone else for the day (either someone they know or someone in public life). Ask students to think about the kind of life the other person has and the challenges the person faces. Students share their ideas in pairs then elicit a fewresponses.

3 (a reason) B (What he suggested was that being somebody else for twenty-eight days would allow him insights into the debate over whether nature or nurture causes a person to be how they are. In fact, it went further than that because Farid hoped to see whether he would start thinking like the other person…) 4 (a feeling) A (I wasn’t convinced it would beuseful.) 5 (a problem) C (By the time I’ve caught up with what friends are doing online and watched some television, Idon’t have much space left over for my ownlife.) 6 (a purpose) A (But don’t you think it’s the same with books … I mean, you can lose yourself in a good story and escape from real life – that’s been true for centuries – people lovestories.)

Possibleanswer I would be my local politician for a day. I would jump at the chance to effect change and make local people’s lives better. I would also like to experience what it’s like to be a politician as I suspect it’s not as always easy to make changes in reality. I’d like to find out what it is that often prevents people in local government from being able to turn their ideas into real policies once they getelected.

Listenup 2 Ask the class: Has anyone read the books or watched

the films about Harry Potter? What do you know about J.K.Rowling, the author of the Harry Potterseries? Tell students that they are going to listen to a conversation about why J. K. Rowling decided to write under a new name. Write pen name and pseudonym on the board and say: Why do you think J. K. might have used a pen name or pseudonym when she published a new book? Elicit a few ideas. Ask students to read questions 1 and 2, and elicit which kind of information they are looking for and theclues.

alternative As an alternative to checking answers as a class, you could refer students to the audioscript on page 178 and get them to find the answer. This will support them in identifying clues they should have picked up on during therecording.

6 Ask students to match the phrases in bold from the

recording with their meanings. Check answers as a class and ask students to make a note of any new words anddefinitions.

listening for: reasons, beliefs andattitudes words in the questions: 1 why, think, hoped, wanted, expected; 2 think, should be admired,good

3

4.4 Encourage students to listen for gist this time. Play the recording and elicit theanswer. Yes.

exam tip 4

4.5 Ask students to complete the exercise before reading the exam tip. Play the recording again and ask students to answer questions 1 and 2 in Ex 2. Thenask students to read the exam tip and elicit the answers. Point out that the opinions of ‘she’ (the author) and ‘her publishers’ do not answer the question, which focuses on what the speaker herselfthinks.

4.6 Point out that this is an exam-style task to practise Listening, Part 1. Give students one minute to read the questions and underline key words (in the questions only, not the options because they probably wouldn’t have time before they listen in the actual exam). Then play the recording. Elicit the answers and reasons.

1 A 2 D 3 C 4 B 5E

extra Students work in pairs and discuss thesequestions: •

Do you think J. K. Rowling was right to choose a male name as her pseudonym? Why?/Whynot?

Why do you think Farid failed to get funding for his experiment? What ethical considerations do you think people were worriedabout?

Why do you think it’s possible to ‘lose yourself’ in a TV, film orbook?

extra: fast finishers Ask students to write sentences using the phrases in Ex6.

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Speakup 7 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs, then elicit a few ideas foreach.

Possibleanswers 1 I love learning about other people’s lifestyles, I suppose it’s so I can take on bits and pieces of advice to improve my own way of doing things. An example of something I’m really fascinated by is Tim Ferriss’s four-hour work week. Basically, he has set up a number of small businesses which run themselves with only four hours of input from him so he can travel the world and do what he likes. Whatalifestyle! I’d describe myself as vaguely interested, more about the lifestyles of my family and friends than celebrities. Icouldn’t care less about what brand of protein shake or toothbrush some actor uses, for example. Celebrities often seem to have crazy and expensive lifestyles that I can’t really relateto. 2 That’s a tough question. On the one hand, I value and appreciate having friends who are on the exact same wavelength. I find that when I know friends share my point of view, and sense of humour, I can relax more easily and just be myself. On the other hand, I definitely enjoy meeting people who have a different way of looking at things. It’s interesting to hear different perspectives andideas.

extra

USE OF ENGLISH 1

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Tostart Write the following dialogue on theboard: A: Do these flared ones suitme? B: Yeah, they do! Beads would complete thelook. A: I don’t have any but maybe I’ll pop out after school and grab some before Igo. Ask students to read it and guess what the situation is (suggested answer: preparing to go to a party dressed as ahippy). Tell students that the aim of this lesson is to understand and use substitution and omission. Substitution is when we replace a word/phrase with something else, and omission is where we leave out aword. Point out the underlined word ones, and ask: What word might ‘ones’ be a substitute for? (jeans/trousers). Ask students to look at the other underlined words and discuss in pairs what words/phrases they might replace. (do = suit you; any = any beads; some = beads/some beads). Ask students to find where a pronoun has been omitted and why. (I’ll has been omitted before grab because we can omit pronouns in the second of two coordinate clauses: it is omitted to avoidrepetition.)

explore language

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1 Write on the board: I wanted some skinny jeans but the

Ask students to work in small groups to find out more about a lifestyle in a TV series, film or book which they would like to try. Say: Tell your classmates what it is like, why you would like to try living like this and what you think you wouldlearn.

Tofinish Students work in small groups. They discuss the following questions about their own lifestyles: 1 Are you happy with your lifestyle? 2 Are there any aspects you would like to change? 3 What would you like to do differently?

shop didn’t have skinny jeans. Ask students: What kind of word is skinny jeans? (noun phrase). Ask: What word could we replace skinny jeans with to avoid repetition? (the quantifier any). Point out that this is an example of point B in the explore language box – that nouns/noun phrases can be replaced with quantifiers. Ask students to replace the highlighted words in sentences 1–6 with words in the box, using the substitution section in the language box points to help them. As you go through the answers, elicit which language point each sentence is an exampleof. 1 ones (A) ​2 doing so (C, D) ​3 any (B) ​4 not (E) ​ 5 did too (C) ​6 so(D)

Presentationtool:

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We do not omit pronouns in subordinate clauses (dependent clauses that cannot form a complete sentence), e.g. I gave him the hat because I thought it would suit him. The underlined clause could not be a completesentence.

Audioscript: SBp177–178 Extra Practice App

extra Ask students to read the omission section F–H of the language box. Ask: Which words in 1–3 can be removed without changing the meaning? Use the ‘omission section’ in the explore language box to helpyou. Write the following sentences on theboard. 1 I watched the whole series and then I fell asleep because I was sotired. 2 Facebook appeals more to older people and Snapchat appeals toteenagers. 3 A: Has she finished her work yet? B: She must havefinished. 1 the second I (not thethird) 2 the secondappeals  3 the secondfinished 77

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4 Same or different? USE OF ENGLISH 1 (Continued)

2 Ask if anyone has heard of the Johari window, a technique to get to know yourself better and what they know about it. Ask students to read the article quickly to find out what a Johari window involves and whether they wereright.

Then tell students they are going to improve the cohesion and reduce repetition in the article by finding three repeated words to replace and three words which can be omitted. Focus students on the example, the crossed-out words the adjectives. Read out the sentence before the replacement to emphasise the repetition: You are given a list of several adjectives out of which you need to pick the adjectives that describe your personality. Ask: What kind of word is adjectives? (noun). Ask: What kind of word can we replace a noun with? (a quantifier: see point B in the languagebox). Students find repetitions to replace/omit then compare in pairs before checking as aclass.

background The Johari window is a tool developed by psychologists in 1955. The word ‘Johari ‘is a portmanteau (blend) of the creator’s first names: Joseph Luft (1916–2014) and Harrington Ingham (1916–1995). The tool provides a framework for reflection on self and others. It is used mainly by self-help groups and in corporate settings. It can help people identify facades they present to others (things we know and others do not) and blind spots (things others know but we donot). The Johari window is a technique to help people better understand their relationship with themselves and others. You are given a list of several adjectives out of which you need to pick the adjectives some that describe your personality. Your friends then get the same list, and each friend picks adjectives that describe you. These adjectives go into Window 1. Adjectives selected only by you but not by any of your friends others/anyone else go into Window 2 – and you can choose whether to tell your friends about this. If you don’t tell them not, then the adjectives remain hidden. Adjectives that are not selected by you but only selected by friends go into Window 3. Adjectives that were on the original list but not selected by either your friends or you go into Window4.

extra Ask students to work in pairs and discuss thesequestions. •

What is the effect of the revised text? (Suggested answer: It is easier to read because it avoids repetition and sounds morenatural.)

Do you find it easier to edit a text someone else has written or your ownwork?

3 Ask students to read the text to find out what challenge of identity is dealt with in the text (growing up with parents from two very different cultures). Then get students to answer the question in therubric. She was motivated by not being sure of who shewas.

exam task: open cloze 4

Read through the exam tip and ask students to check the subject/verb agreement in gap5. It must agree with She at start ofsentence. Point out that this exercise is exam-style practice for Reading and Use of English, Part 2. Being able to apply rules of substitution and omission may help students fill in some gaps. Set a time limit of five minutes for students to complete thecloze. Before checking answers, ask students to compare answers inpairs. 1 is (to match the present tense have earlier in the sentence; inversion after the wh-clause what their identityis) 2 not (the second part of the sentence tells us that the child may feel like they don’t fit in, indicating it isn’tstraightforward) 3 with (the phrasal verb grow up takes the preposition with beforepeople) 4 as (as a/an is a phrase used when someone is in a particular age group, e.g. As a(n) child/adult, he lovedpainting.) 5 her (her refers to the famous actress who has been referred to as She earlier in thesentence) 6 in (the phrasal verb grow up takes the preposition in when talking about aplace) 7 so (the writer is substituting the expression take upacting) 8 having (part of having to = it being necessary to; the -ing form is needed after the prepositionof)

Speakup 5 Ask students to discuss the question in pairs. Then elicit a fewresponses.

Possibleanswers 2 Ideas include listening, reading or watching content written by diverse people, personality tests (e.g. the Myers Briggs test), asking people aboutthemselves.

Tofinish Brainstorm some positive adjectives to describe personality on the board, for example, charismatic, conscientious, decisive, competitive, stable, witty, accomplished, unique, calm, intuitive,confident. Students follow the instructions in the text in Ex 2 to construct a Johari window using the adjectives in the brainstorm or any other positive adjectives they can think of. If appropriate for your class, there are also Johari window tests available online which students could complete, then invite trusted family members or friends to complete if theywish. Then, ask students to find a new partner to discuss thefollowing: 1 What did you discover? Are there anysurprises? 2 How easy do you think it is to really knowyourself? Presentationtool:

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Grammar reference and practice: SB p146 Extra Practice App 78

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USE OF ENGLISH 2

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Tostart Give students two minutes to draw a superhero on a piece of paper – real or imagined. Tell them it does not matter how good the drawing is! Ask students to come up with some powers for their superhero and write themdown. Put students into pairs to describe their superheroes to each other to see what they have incommon. Bring the class back together, and ask some students to briefly talk about traits their superheroes shared, e.g. they were both physically strong, could fly, and weregood-looking. Ask: What do your answers reveal about what we think a superhero is usually like? How does this reflect beliefs and values in our society? Encourage students to think about diversity or lack of diversity among their superheroes, for example, considering gender and ethnic diversity (e.g. were most of the superheroesmale?).

1 Write stereotype on the board and elicit what it means

(a belief or idea of what a particular type of person or thing is like. Stereotypes are often unfair or untrue). Ask: What other word forms can you make from stereotype? (verb = stereotype; adjective = stereotypical; adverb =stereotypically).

Brainstorm superheroes students know on the board. Then choose one, e.g. Thor, and ask: What makes him stereotypical? Ask students to discuss in pairs a few of the superheroes and ask: In what way do these superheroes conform to or challengestereotypes? Possibleanswers Thor, Wonder Woman, Captain America, Spiderman, BlackWidow, Black Panther Thor, for example, is tall, blond, strong and brave – like a stereotypical ‘ideal man’. All are courageous with a special gift or power and save theworld.

2

4.7 If you have the facilities, do an image search for the first Thor movie and display a few pictures to give background to this exercise. Write on the board for discussion in pairs: Have you seen the first Thor movie? If so, what did you think? If not, does it appeal to you? Why/ Why not? (To build on the previous lesson on page 55, point out the underlined substitutions and elicit what if so and if not are replacing – if you have/have not seen Thor.) Play the recording for students to listen for how two teens answered thequestions. Then play the recording again for students to complete the phrasal verbs in Ex 2. Ask students to check their answers in the audioscript. 1 going ​2 live ​3 standing, coming ​4 get ​5 get ​​ 6going ​7 going ​8 catch ​9comes

explorelanguage Read through the explore language box with the class. In the example put off work, point out that the phrasal verb has two parts and that work is the object. Point out that all of the phrasal verbs in the exercise have three parts (a verb and two particles), e.g. go on about, stand up to, so the parts cannot beseparated.

3 Students complete the text with phrasal verbs then compare their answers inpairs.

1 come up against ​2 get away with ​3 going on about ​ 4 live up to 5 get outof

extra Write the following on the board for students to discuss in pairs. Alternatively, ask students to move around the classroom asking different people about eachitem. Something … 1 … you’ve read up onrecently. 2 … you’ve got away withrecently. 3 … your family keep going on at youabout. 4 … you need to get round todoing. 5 … important to you that you would stand upfor.

exam task: multiple-choicecloze There are more items here that test three part phrasal verbs than in the Cambridge exam as this reflects the focus of the lesson

4

Point out that this is exam-style practice for Reading and Use of English, Part 1. Read the exam tip aloud. Remind students to quickly read the text for gist first. Set a time limit of eight minutes for students to complete the activity. Go through the answers (and reasons) as aclass. 1 B (part of the set phrase in turn) 2 C (look up to = admire andrespect) 3 B (enhanced = madebetter) 4 D (logical progression is acollocation) 5 A (stand up for =support) 6 B (amongst others = there aremore) 7 A (stay away from =avoid) 8 D (talk down to =patronise)

Speakup 5 Put students into pairs to discuss the questions. Then elicit a fewresponses.

extra: fast finishers Ask fast finishers to find and underline three more threepart phrasal verbs in the audioscript on page 178 (read up on; get round to; facing upto).

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4 Same or different?

SPEAKING

USE OF ENGLISH 2 (Continued)

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Use the opportunity to check that students know how to read a large sum of money aloud: $1,390,000 = one million, three hundred and ninety thousand dollars. Point out that this is approximately $1.4 million (one point four million dollars). Ask students to take turns to write down a large sum of money for their partner to read aloud as fluently as possible, e.g. £456,350,263 (four hundred and fiftysix million, three hundred and fifty thousand, two hundred and sixty-three pounds). To challenge stronger students, ask their partner to put the figure in a sentence, e.g. The company made over $ … lastyear.

Tofinish Write the following lines using three-part phrasal verbs on the board in speechbubbles. – Stop going on aboutit!

Tostart Tell students about a time you faced a challenge or obstacle and overcame it. If possible, use an example that students in your class can relate to, such as something that happened when you were a teenager: When I was a teenager, my family moved town. It felt like I was starting all over again, and it was a far cry from what I was used to, and it was really hard to make friends. It seemed at one point like I was never going to be accepted into the group. Anyway, I persevered and joined asports team, and through being part of that, I was gradually accepted into the schoolcommunity. Ask students to share a challenge they have faced and overcome, or are facing now (for example, a challenge related to study, friendship or extracurricular activities). Invite a few volunteers toshare.

Powerup

– It’s time to face up to thetruth.

1 Give an example of someone you know who has

– You’ll never get away withthat! – Stay away fromhere. In pairs, ask students to create a short dialogue using one ormore of the speech bubbles as one of thelines. Students could turn their dialogue into an online comic using an online comic strip generator then share these on your class online space for other students to view. Alternatively, students could record the dialogues on their phones and present them to anotherpair. Presentationtool:

Unit 4, Use of English 2

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Extra Practice App

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overcome obstacles to achieve a lot, e.g. Did you know that the entrepreneur, Richard Branson, suffers from dyslexia? (acognitive condition that affects reading comprehension). Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs then conduct classfeedback.

Speakup exam task: discussion 2

SB p164

Encourage students to speak in pairs for around three minutes. Circulate and make note of any errors to address after theactivity. Possibleanswer A: So, we’re looking at challenges, what’s your thinking on the kinds of challenges a comedian in a wheelchair might havefaced? B: I’d say the hardest thing for any comedian is dealing with a tough audience who just won’t laugh. Wheelchair or nowheelchair! A: You’re probably right! I guess he or she would have to think about whether the venues they were performing in were accessible, the sort of thing that some people might take forgranted. A: Do you mean stairs and toilets and things likethat? B: Exactly. I mean, imagine you’re at a comedy club with an open mic night, and you want to get up to perform but there are only stairs up to the stage, it doesn’t make things easy, doesit? A: And add to that limits that other people might impose as well. People might mistakenly think, ‘Oh she’s in a wheelchair, she can’t be the performer’, and they would be guilty of stereotyping, ofcourse. B: I guess a Paralympic gold medallist might have overcome some similar challenges relating to accessibility andstereotyping.

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A: I’d agree with that. I’d also add here that I’ve heard that it’s a challenge for Paralympians to get sponsorship and funding… B: To jump in here, I think that’s related to the fact that they don’t always get as much media coverage as other Olympians despite being incredibleathletes. A: Now to move on to the young female chief executive, Ithink she might have had to deal with issues relating to her youth and hergender. B: Are you saying that being a young woman doesn’t make you a good businessleader? A: No, on the contrary, what I meant was that there may be some prejudice towards her that she would have had to have coped with. For example, people might have thought she wasn’t as capable as an older person. Andthere are still relatively few female business leaders compared to male, so I guess I’m saying she might have to come up against someprejudice. B: Could I just add something here? I think young female executives might also be deliberately discriminated against during their career in case they have children. Outdatedthinking! A: Speaking of children, what would the challenges be for a ten-year-old musicalgenius? B: I think it would be hard to fit in with peers of your own age, because you have this special talent that other children don’t understand or might be jealousof. A: You’d have to get over that, and be prepared to stand out and be different. You’d have to learn to cope with a lot of pressure, too. The pressure of living up to people’s hopes for yourfuture. B: And this last one, have you thought about the challenges of a footballer before? One from a deprivedneighbourhood? A: I haven’t thought about that before. I’m not really sure but maybe she or he will have had to overcome material disadvantage in order to becomesuccessful.

extra: mixed ability If you are using an IWB or projector, keep the useful language displayed during the task so that students can use the prompts ifneeded.

3 Elicit some synonyms for deter (discourage, hold back,

impede) and the expression spur someone on (encourage someone). Give students one minute to discuss the question, then elicit someideas. Possibleanswer A: There is no one answer to that. However, I think it would depend on the person’s personality more thananything. B: And how about your support network? If you’re facing obstacles but have a good support network, it could make all the difference to whether you stand strong or giveup. A: I would agree with that. I’ve heard that you can learn some resilience strategies to help deal with the ups and downs oflife. B: Yes, although some people definitely seem to be born with an extra dose of positivity and determination which helps get themthrough.

exam tip 4

4.8 Read through the questions with the class then play the recording for students to answer the questions. Elicit the responses. Read through the exam tip. Point out that the Part 4 discussion lasts around four minutes, and will be on the same topic as the Part 3 collaborative task, but is separate from the discussion question in Part 3 in which students are required to discuss a decision question. For more information, refer students to the Speaking file on page164.

useful language: giving yourself time Point out the useful language box, and demonstrate the intonation of each phrase for students to repeat. Play the beginning of the recording again so students can hear the expression the student used to give herself time (That’s a really interesting question and there’s no one realanswer!) 1 Students’ ownanswers. 2 C (We know this because the first candidate says, That’s a really good question in answer to the Examiner’s question. Then when the first candidate has made a point, the second candidate interrupts and says, Yes, if I can come in here…)

5 It is useful for students to practise the discussion task

with a range of different partners. Set a time limit of four minutes for the first question, encouraging students to speak for the whole amount of time. Then ask students to swap partners for each of the subsequentquestions.

Speakingextra 6 Give an example question using the format given, e.g.

Some people say that you can overcome any challenge with the right attitude. Do youagree?

Students write questions in pairs then swap them with another pair to discuss. Elicit some of the questions and pointsraised.

Tofinish With books closed, see if students can remember any of the useful expressions for giving yourself time. Write these on theboard. Ask students to write down at least three difficult questions, e.g. How can we achieve world peace? Why is the skyblue? Ask a few students to ask you one of their questions and reply with one or more of the phrases in the box to give yourself time, e.g. That’s something I haven’t considered before. Well, there is no one answer to that. I suppose… Students walk around the room, asking their questions and answering with a phrase and expanding if theycan. In preparation for the Writing lesson, ask students to read the Writing file on page 165 to revisit important features in an essay. Ask students to choose one piece of advice which they found was the most useful and share it with the class at the beginning of the nextlesson. Presentationtool:

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4 Same or different?

WRITING

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Tostart Focus students’ attention on the picture on Students’ Book page 58 and elicit what it is (a cream tea: a traditional British afternoon tea consisting of tea and scones with jam and cream) and whether anyone has tried it. Ask: What foods from other cultures are popular in your country? Ask students to discuss in pairs: What foods from other cultures have you tried? What did you learn about the other culture from trying thefood? Write multi- on the board and give students two minutes in pairs to think of as many words as they can that begin with this prefix. Elicitwords. Possibleanswers multi-coloured, multi-faith, multi-pack, multi-racial, multistorey, multi-tasking, multicultural, multifaceted,multiply Ask: What does the prefix ‘multi-’ mean? (it’s used to show that something has more than onepart)

Powerup 1 Ask the questions to the class and elicit a few responses foreach.

Suggested definition of multiculturalism: the belief that it is important and good to include people or ideas from many different countries, races, orreligions.

2

4.9 Ask students to discuss in pairs which one is closest to their ownview.

Plan on 3 Ask students to read the task. Brainstorm important

essay features on the board. If you didn’t use the flipped classroom approach at the end of the previous lesson, refer students to the Writing file on page 165. Ask students to skim the exam help section and boxed tips, tofind any more importantfeatures. 1 Use a formal or semi-formal style; include all points in the task; include a clear argument with reasons and examples; organise the writing into paragraphs; include an introduction and conclusion; consider the audience; use linking expressions to connectideas. 2 A discussion of two ways of learning about other cultures, plus select the most important way and givereasons.

4 Students go through the steps inpairs. 5 Ask students to read the essay written by a student in response to the task, and complete thetable.

Paragraph 1 – (purpose) introduce the topic as in the task but in own words; (focus) why learning about other cultures isimportant Paragraph 2 – (purpose) to describe one way of learning about other cultures with opinion and examples; (focus) studying other cultures atschool Paragraph 3 – (purpose) to describe another way of learning about other cultures with opinion and examples; (focus) listening to speakers from a range ofcommunities Paragraph 4 – (purpose) share your opinion (with reasons) on the best way to learn about other cultures out of the two ways given above; (focus) ensure students are prepared for thefuture

Paragraph 5 – (purpose) summarise your opinion in a different way; (focus) learning at school allows a wide exploration from a youngage

6 Elicit some ideas and write them on the board to ensure students copy them downcorrectly.

Suggestedanswers 1 I believe that the most successful method is… 2 It is crucial to think about… 3 People vary in their points of view… 4 In my opinion, the most effective way… 5 In conclusion; Overall…

exam tip 7 Elicit synonyms that students know for each word.

Then read through the exam tip aloud. Students write paraphrases of the ideas in Ex 3 using the prompts either individually or in pairs. Then ask a few students to share theirparaphrases. Possibleanswers communities: groups, people,society different: diverse, unlike, distinctive,separate global: worldwide, international,universal lifestyle: way of life, everyday life,routine understanding: tolerance, appreciation, knowledge,awareness examtip The curriculum should have a section that allows students to study other cultures because I think what they study has a lot of influence on students. → It would be a good idea if part of the curriculum gave students the opportunity to learn about other cultures as study has a great impact onstudents. If young people can go and visit other communities, they can actually talk to people in those communities, whether this is another culture or simply another way oflife. → Students would have the option of speaking to people from other communities if they were allowed to visit those groups that had different cultures or who lived in a differentway. A speaker is often a good representative of a community and can answer questions easily. → People who speak for their communities usually represent them well and are also able to respond to questions morereadily.

extra Say: The essay task focused on the best ways of learning about other cultures, but what are the limitations of each suggested method? (studying other cultures at school, visiting different communities, listening to speakers from a range of communities). Ask students to discuss possible limitations of each method in small groups, e.g. even if you study another culture at school, you might never meet anyone from that culture; the perspective taught might be outdated or from a biased viewpoint. Elicit the limitations, then ask: Having considered some of the limitations, which do you think is the best method to learn about other cultures? Have you maintained your previous view or changed it? Point out that good critical thinkers are able to change their viewpoint with newinformation/ perspectives.

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Writeon 8 Students read the task and follow the steps to plan their

essay. They may like to use a graphic organiser to plan like the one in Ex 5. Students compare theirideas.

exam task: essay

SWITCH ON

Nollywoodfilm-makers 1 Say: Some people say there is no such thing as a new story.

Do you agree? Give an example of a recurrent storyline, e.g. one classic is the rags-to-riches storyline where a poor, downtrodden person makes a fortune through good luck, hard work, or creativity. Put students into small groups to make a list of at least three other common storylines and discuss questions 2 and 3 in relation to their list. Ask each group to report back one of their common storylines, why it is recurrent and what this tells us about humanexperience.

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Some of the opinions are longer than would be in the Cambridge exam to help students with the next task.

9

The essay could be started in class and finished or set forhomework. Modelanswer Like many people today, I consider myself lucky to have the opportunity to live in a multicultural society which is a melting pot of people with diverse cultural practices. Sadly, some people do not share my enthusiasm, and consequently many people experience prejudice due to xenophobia. Learning about other cultures is an effective way to combat thisproblem. One benefit of learning about other cultures is that it shows people that there is a range of valid ways to do things rather than only one right way. For example, cultural practices may vary when it comes to food, manners and clothing. By learning about different ways of doing things, people’s lives are enriched and perspectivesbroadened. Another benefit is that mutual learning tends to lead to greater tolerance of differences. People tend to be wary of the unknown. Yet, after learning about other cultures, they can come to appreciate and even celebratedifferences. In my view, the most important benefit is greater acceptance between groups of people. This is because having empathy and tolerance for people different to ourselves is vital for a peacefulsociety. Overall, I think that the more people are exposed to other cultures, the more accepting they are likely to be. This means learning about other cultures is extremely worthwhile, both for the individual and the community as awhole.

Improveit 10 Ask students to check their essays for the points listed,

and check to see if they used substitution and omission as demonstrated in the explore language section on page55.

Tofinish Ask students to discuss in pairs then elicit a fewresponses: 1 What cultures would you like to know more about and why? How could you learn aboutthem? 2 Do you think learning another language is an effective way to learn about anotherculture? Presentationtool:

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Possibleanswers 1 • forbidden love, e.g. aspects of Romeo and Juliet have been reused across literature, film, television since itscreation • conflict and conflict resolution appear in all stories about war or crime, e.g. police TVseries • tribal rivalry, e.g. Westerns, Game ofThrones • politics and power: e.g. a powerful figure’s fall from a great height due to personal flaws (power corrupts), e.g.Othello, House ofCards 2 These storylines crop up repeatedly because they illustrate underlying psychological truths about the human condition, and so can help to provide answers toviewers’ own particular questions orissues. 3 All humans have similar experiences, whatever their background or culturalidentity.

2

Ask if anyone has heard of Bollywood or Nollywood. Ask students to guess what they are and which is the biggest. Play the video for students to see if they wereright. Bollywood. Both Nollywood and Bollywood produce more films per year thanHollywood.

background Nigeria is an oil-producing country in West Africa, east of Benin and west of Cameroon. Its capital is Abuja, and its largest city is Lagos. Nigeria became an independent state in 1960, after being ruled by the UK for almost 100 years. About half its population are Muslims, who live mainly in the north, and the rest are Christians, living mainly in the south. English is the official language, although over 520languages arespoken.

3

Ask students to read the questions and then watch again to answer them. Elicit theanswers. 1 He feels that some are too comfortable making low quality films because they see film as a means of making money. Contrastingly, Kunle lives forfilmmaking. 2 C He grew up in London, but is able to travel often to Nigeria so he can bridge cultural differenceseasily.

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4 Same or different? SWITCH ON (Continued)

4 Share the possible answer below about British cinema,

then ask students to discuss the questions in pairs. Conduct class feedback. Ask: What films from your country would you recommend to someone fromabroad? Possibleanswer 1 British cinema is diverse, and is getting better at representing a greater variety of citizens and stories on screen, in different styles. Comedies still tend to exaggerate situations, which can distort reality, but they can be effective at penetrating the heart of the British mind-set: a dry sense of humour, valuing family above all else, and not taking themselves tooseriously. 2 Students’ ownanswers.

INDEPENDENT LEARNING SBp60

Reading andwriting 1 Ask: In what situations do you read? Elicit some ideas.

Put students into small groups of three–five to answer the questions. Elicit skills and write them on the board, combining any similarideas.

2 Ask students to reflect on their confidence in each skill on the list, by giving it a rank from 1 (least confident) to 10 (veryconfident).

3 Give students time to complete the sentences

Project 5 Put students into groups of three. Remind students of

the subcultures discussed in the Reading section on page 50 for possible subcultures to choose. Give students a set time to produce their poster, e.g. 30 minutes. Go around the class, engaging with students and providing help wherenecessary.

extra: project If students are technologically competent and keen, they may like to have a go at making a short film of their own using the video function on their mobile phone. They should make up team(s) of at least four people so that they can share out the responsibilities: writer, producer, director, advertising, camera, sound, special effects, lighting, etc. If appropriate, students could meet outside of class to complete thefilming. Give them a set time within which to produce their film, e.g. 2–3 weeks, and a deadline for presenting it to theclass. Ask students to complete the Independent learning section on page 60 in preparation for the next lesson. Then, in class, put students into small groups to discuss theiranswers. Presentationtool:

Unit 4, Switch on

Switch on videoscript:

TBp180

individually. Elicit ways that students thought they could improve their reading, e.g. read more regularly, read blogs, news or content they are interested in in English, read books or magazines, pose questions while you read, use underlining or highlighting, reflect on what you read and write a summary or think of a summary, practise scanning for key details, improve your speed by using your finger across the page, try an online speedreadingwebsite.

4 Ask students to think about their strengths and weaknesses and grade the three skills.

5 Students could use their essay from the Writing section of this unit. If students have not completed it yet, or do not have a piece of writing to use, ask them to read the example essay on page 165 instead and identify ways which the writer has been successful in their area ofweakness.

6 Ask students to identify a focus for future essays, and note itdown.

UNITCHECK

SBp61

If possible, complete the Practice exercises 2 and 4 in class because they involve pair work. The other activities may be completed in class or set forhomework. Relevant Unit Check activities may also be set for fast finishers during thelessons.

Practice 1 Possibleanswers 1 jeans: bootcut, embroidered, faded, flared, ripped, scruffy,stylish. Among young people in my area, I think ripped jeans are the most common at the moment and the least common areflared. 2 carbon copy of, compatible with, consistent with, equivalent to, identical to, indistinguishable from, on the same wavelength as, spitting image of,synonymous with Most people in our class chose on the same wavelength, because it is an interesting idiom to describe when you really look at things in the same way as someoneelse. Only one person listed synonymous, perhaps because it is a more formalword. 3 a far cry from, a world of difference between, on a differentwavelength

2 Students’ ownanswers. 84

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3 1 stand ​2 get ​3 came ​4 get ​5 going ​6read 4 Possibleanswer A: It’s a black accessory that some British people wore on their head as fashion a number of years ago. It came to symbolise the stereotypicalEnglishman. B: Is it a bowlerhat?

Review 1

4.10  1 because he’s always disagreeing with her/because he sees lifedifferently 2 because they think differently/because it’s not worth talking about theproblem 3 he plays loud music while he’sstudying 4 to sit down and talk/to split studytimes

2 (The continuous verbs are inbold.) A: My brother is driving me mad! He’s always disagreeing with me. We see life sodifferently. B: Well, why do you bother talking about it? I mean, if you know you think differently, then it’s not worth discussing, isit? A: Yeah, but as we are both living at home, it’s annoying that he’s got a completely different timetable to me. He plays loud music while he’s studying – and he doesn’t think about anybody else in thehouse. B: Don’t your parentsmind? A: Oh, they think we need to sort it out forourselves. B: Hmm … it sounds as if you do need to sit down and have a proper talk. You don’t have to agree – just split times when you study, forexample? A: OK, well, will you come and talk to him withme?

3 1 F ​2 A ​3 E ​4 C ​5 B ​6D 4 1 is/’s ​2 has/’s been ​3 is/’s making ​4 has/’s been drawing ​ 5 has/’s become ​6 goes ​7 emerges ​8talks

5 1 Everyone likes to copy celebrities even when it looks silly to copy them doso. 2 I read the article and then I gave it to her and I haven’t seen itsince. 3 They wanted us to arrange tickets for them but we didn’t have ticketsany. 4 A: Did you speak to the new girl? B: I didn’t have time to speak toher. 5 I’m interested in African cultures and he is interested in African culturestoo. 6 A: Have you got her number? B: I think I haveher number so.

7 Possibleanswer

A story that everybody is familiar with in England is the story of Robin Hood. He supposedly lived in the 15th century and, in the story, Robin lives with his band of merry men in the woods in the middle of England and spends his time robbing rich travellers and then giving money to the poor. He was actually a criminal and the Sheriff was always trying to catch him. The story came about at a time when many English people were having a bad time because of the king and so the ordinary people considered him to be a good person. They wanted to believe there was someone looking after them and working for the good of everyone. There have been many films and TV series based on the story and I think most people believe that he was a realperson.

GRAMMARFILE

SBp149

1 1 been thinking ​2 is always asking, never listens ​

3 always asks, respect ​4 I’m considering, ruled ​5 I consider ​ 6changed

2 Conversation1: 1 hear ​2 bangs ​3 doesn’t even try / is not even trying ​ 4 falls ​5 knocks ​6 is shouting ​7 has been grounded ​ 8 has beenlooking Conversation2: 1 are you doing ​2 has been ​3 has been delayed ​ 4 isn’t starting ​5 are always delaying ​6 have arranged ​ 7 am having ​8comes Conversation3: 1 have seen ​2 have lost ​3 is sitting ​4 hasn’t seen ​ 5 comes up ​6 talk ​7 realise ​8 have beenliving

3 1 have been collecting poetry bookssince 2 is always leaving the frontdoor 3 am talking about the importanceof 4 (have) cut down oneating 5 I’ve been checking / I was checking(through) 6 has not (hasn’t) been to school since / last went toschool

4 1 is ​2 to ​3 have ​4 later ​5 for ​6 has ​7 Were ​8not Presentationtool:

Unit 4, Unit check

Workbook / Online Practice:

WB p45

Audioscript: SBp178

6 1 from ​2 our ​3 the ​4 in ​5 is ​6 of/about ​7 to ​ 8how/that

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5 All ornothing

Lead-in SBp63 Write the unit title All or nothing on the board and ask what the expression means (it is used to say that unless something is done completely, it is not acceptable, i.e. half-heartedness won’t do – it’s got to be all ornothing). Ask students to look at the picture on page 63. Read the quote aloud and elicit ideas of what it means (people today are so busy thinking about money that they lose sight of what is really important in life or forget to be grateful). Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit someideas.

All ornothing

X 5

READING

USE OFENGLISH

topic: future ofadvertising skill: identifying expansion or exemplification ofpoints task: gappedtext

opencloze wordformation

GRAMMAR ways of talking about thefuture verb phrases +prepositions

VOCABULARY buying andselling separable andinseparable phrasalverbs nouns from phrasalverbs

LISTENING topic: businessstart-ups skill: understanding points ofview task: multiplematching

SPEAKING topic: gender paygap skill:speculating task: longturn

WRITING topic: a charityevent skill: writing topicsentences task:report

SWITCH ON video: the scenicroute project: trip around theworld

Possibleanswers 1 The child is enjoying the simple pleasure of feeling rain on his/her face. The photo contrasts with the quote because it shows someone who appears grateful for a small pleasure that doesn’t costanything. 2 Spending time with friends and family, having some time alone, a break, working towards goals,etc. 3 • I value my phone the most because it contains my most important information and is the possession I use mostoften. • I was given a special locket by my late grandmother and I always wear it to remind myself ofher. • I have a signed poster from one of my favourite stars who I was lucky enough to meet. It’s more than a signature to me – it’s the memory of meeting myidol.

extra Ask: To what extent do you think the quote reflects society in your country? Does it depend? If so, onwhat? Ask students to work in pairs to think of some simple pleasures that they are grateful for. Elicit someideas.

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READING

SBpp64–65

Tostart If you have the technology available, play an interesting advertisem*nt in English. Discuss the techniques the advertisem*nt uses to influence thebuyer. Ask students to work in pairs to see how many forms of the word advertisem*nt they can come up with: advertise (verb), advert, advertisem*nt (noun), ad (informal nouns),etc.

1 Share an example of something you’ve been persuaded

to buy recently by an advertisem*nt. For example, say: Recently, I saw an online advert for a new kind of chocolate biscuit and I just had to buy a packet. Check pronunciation of persuade /pəˈsweɪd/. Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs then elicit some responses to eachone. Possibleanswers 1 • I’m a sucker when it comes to advertising, and I know it. I’m quite easily persuaded, especially when it comes to online advertising. The advertisers seem to know exactly what I’m looking for and put it right in front of me. Whoam I to resist? For example, recently… • I’m quite critical of advertisem*nts and that helps me not to be taken in. For example, am I really going to be popular, rich and good-looking just because I wear a new fragrance? However, recently, I did buy… 2 My favourite advert at the moment would probably be the one for … . I say this because… One ad I really like is … because… It’s hard to top the advert for … as…

alternative Students could show each other a favourite advertisem*nt and discuss how persuasive it is, and why it is memorable forthem.

Readon extra: whole class Focus students on the picture on page 65 and elicit/ point out that it represents virtual reality (VR), which allows a person wearing a headset to watch or experience an environment produced by a computer that looks and seems real. Ask: Have you ever tried VR? What is it like? How do you think the rise of virtual reality may changeadvertising?

2 Students discuss the question in pairs. Elicit some responses.

Possibleanswer By 2030, I think most advertising will be done online and print advertising will be a thing of thepast. I’d say adverts are going to get more and more responsive to the individual. We might walk by the same billboard and it will show one advert to me, and a different one toyou. By then, heaps of people will have access to virtual reality headsets so we will be able to view online purchases much more closely before buying. Imagine walking around a hotel before you booked, or getting to walk around a university campus abroad before you enrolled – that’s thefuture!

3 Remind students that quickly reading for gist is an

important strategy for understanding the main ideas in all the Reading and Use of English tasks, and will prepare them to answer the individual questions more accurately and efficiently. Give students three minutes to read the article and paragraphs to see if any of their ideas from Ex 2 werementioned.

exam task: gappedtext Read through the exam tip with students, giving them time to follow the instructions in the second part. Elicit theanswers. C The highlighted phrases in paragraph iii all relate to the idea of personalisation, first generally (that means personalisation; all about us) and then with the specific example of personalised customer service operatives, based on what each individual finds attractive or not. Paragraph C gives other examples of personalised products: As well as this, … you’ll be able to buy a robot friend … use a small chip to measure how many times a day you blink, to assess your eye health and find the perfect mascara. Driverless public transport will interact with us all individually.) The linking phrase As well as this, at the beginning of paragraph C, provides a clue that this paragraph is likely to fit after a paragraph where another example of a personalised product has beengiven.

4

Ask students to do the remainder of this examstyleexercise.

1 B (At the end of paragraph i, it says … the defining point of the whole film was when the proud creator of Hawking’s world-famous voice synthesiser turned it on and announced, ‘Welcome to the future.’ This moment is referred to in B as … a single moment summed up so wonderfully the extent to which technology can change lives for the better…) 2 G (Paragraph ii ends with a question: how is this going to happen? i.e. how is every single advertising message going to be relevant to the receiver? Paragraph G responds directly to this: To put it briefly, over the next ten years, advertising will move from communicating to predicting, and emoting…) 3 C (See exam tip answer keyabove) 4 E (Paragraph iv ends with the question how will brands actually use it [VR]? This question is referred to at the beginning of paragraph E: That is where the imagination must take a leap because in reality, even the experts don’t know. Paragraph E goes on to speculate on how the question from paragraph iv might be answered: A logical progression would be … and to give a current example of VR use In fact, there is actually a VR advert now…) 5 A (The first sentence in paragraph vi says Wearable and connected devices will be providing the data to enable this targeting to become more detailed, referring to Screens and posters will display different images based on the information on your mobile in paragraphA.) 6 D (Paragraph vi ends with We’ll enter a store to hear our own playlist playing and be immediately directed to … This links to the similar example in paragraph D, Tom Cruise walks past a number of digital ads that address him by name as hepasses.)

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5 All ornothing READING (Continued)

extra: whole class Ask students: What do you think the writer means by thissentence? … over the next ten years most marketing will become like the ‘Amazon Recommends’ feature, only bigger! Point out that the writer is comparing ever more personal targeting with what companies like Amazon already do on their site where they suggest other things we may want to buy based on what we already have bought. Ask students to work in pairs to answer this question: How do you feel about the way brands can access our personal data in order to target us with personalised advertising?Why?

5 Point out the first bold word in the article, defining, and

demonstrate reading the word in context to deduce meaning: For me, the defining point in the whole film was … . Ask students to look at definitions 1–8 and select the right one (significant). Students match the remaining words and definitions. Conduct classfeedback. 1 defining 2 initial 3 buying into 4 emoting 5 spouses 6 generated 7 bulk 8prospective

Sumup 6 Give students a few minutes to work in pairs to write a

one-sentence summary for each point. Put students into groups toshare. Suggestedanswers 1 Stephen Hawking is the subject of the film The Theory of Everything; he was a very clever man who suffered from Motor Neurone Disease and uses a voicesynthesiser. 2 Future advertising will target everyone personally, using detailed information about us gleaned from varioussources. 3 Virtual reality will develop to make advertising more immediate, real andexciting.

extra: fast finishers Ask students to read the comments about the article on the right-hand side of page 65. Ask: Which do you agree with? Why? Students write their own comment in under 50 words and post it in your private class online space. Alternatively, give students an opportunity to share their comments in small groups to compare theirviews.

Speakup 7 Ask students to discuss the question in pairs. Elicit

some ideas. Then ask: What else could you describe as a necessary evil? (Possible answers: exercise, vegetables, work,study) A necessary evil is something bad or unpleasant that you have to accept in order to achieve what you want. Someone who describes advertising as a necessary evil thinks that advertising is annoying, but we have to have it for companies to get their products or service noticed or so we are aware of what isavailable.

extra: whole class Ask students to work in pairs. Say: Think of a product that is popular today. Imagine using the technology and ideas outlined in the article to advertise the product in ten years’ time. Design the advertisem*nt or advertising strategy. At the end of the activity, allow students to compare their ideas with the rest of the class to decide whose ideas are the most effective. Why?

Funfooter Read the footer aloud. If you have internet access, search for this advert to show the class. Ask: How do you think advertising has changed since the1940s?

Tofinish In pairs, students plan a future advertising strategy for a popular product, using some of the technology and ideas outlined in the article. They should include: who the target audience is, what mediums of advertising they will use, where they will advertise, and what the advertisem*nts will look/ sound like. Ask each pair to share their strategy briefly with the class. Ask: Whose ideas are most effective?Why? Alternatively, have an advertising strategy competition. Ask pairs to come up with a strategy to advertise the same nominated item, e.g. an upcoming event for your school, a smartphone, a pen. Pairs take turns to make a one-minute strategy pitch to the class or to groups for larger classes. Ask students to vote for the best strategy by secret ballot (anonymously on a piece of paper), giving a reason. Collect the papers and tally the votes to see who wins, and read the reasonsaloud. In preparation for the Grammar lesson, ask students to read the explore grammar box on page 66 and complete Exs 1 and 2. They can also read the Grammar file section on ways of talking about the future on page 150 or work through the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation. Ask students to note down any questions for discussion inclass. Presentationtool:

Unit 5, Reading

Workbook / Online Practice:

WB pp46–47

Extra Practice App

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GRAMMAR

extra: mixed ability

SBp66

Tostart If you haven’t already asked students to do so in preparation for class, refer students to the ways of talking about the future section in the Grammar file on page 150 and read through it with students, asking questions to check they understand the main points. Ask students to complete Ex 1 on page 151 in class and go through the answers. Set Exs 2–3 for homework or for fast finishers to complete in theclass.

explore grammar

SB p150

1 Go through the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation.

Students complete the example sentences in the explore grammar box, then compare in pairs. (Do not worry about the future in the past sectionyet.) A willmove B is going tohappen D will havedeveloped E will have beenmining G will bedemonstrating

2 Students match the descriptions 1–7 with the sentences A–G. Go through the answers as aclass.

1 B ​2 D ​3 E ​4 A ​5 C (or F) ​6 F (or C) ​7G

watch out for Some future time expressions are followed by the present simple, e.g. Let’s see how many things we can sell before the market closes; I’m not going to buy anything else until I get rid of some of my oldstuff.

This activity is suitable to extend stronger classes. Read out the following pair of sentences twice or write on theboard: 1 I’ll wait for you at the busstop. 2 I’ll be waiting for you at the busstop. Tell students that the meaning is similar but not identical. Read the sentences one more time. Students discuss the difference in meaning in pairs then elicit someideas. (Suggested answer: In 1, the future simple indicated that the speaker is making the decision now, whereas in 2, use of the future continuous implies that this is part of an original plan or normal sequence ofevents.) Repeat with the following sentencepairs. 1 We’re to arrive at 9.30 and to check in with security before going to the conferenceroom. 2 We arrive at 9.30, check in with security, and go to the conferenceroom. (In sentence 1, the use of the verb be + infinitive shows they’ve been officially requested to carry out a sequence of actions, whereas in 2, the present simple tells us that the details are on aschedule.) 1 We’ll grab something to eat after the cinema. The film will have finished bysix. 2 We’ll grab something to eat after the cinema. The film finishes atsix. (In sentence 1, the film will end sometime before six, whereas in 2, the use of the present simple means that the published end time of the film is exactlysix.) 1 We’re going to have a meeting nextweek. 2 We’re having a meeting nextweek. (In sentence 1, the use of going to implies that there is a meeting planned/desired for next week, but with no confirmed time as yet, whereas in 2, the use of present continuous means that there is a confirmed time for the meeting/the meeting isdefinite.) 1 They’re about toleave. 2 They’re leaving in tenminutes. (In sentence 1, they are on the point of leaving/will leave at any moment, whereas in 2, they’ve arranged to leave at a point and that point is in tenminutes.)

3

5.1 Ask students to read the survey questions 1–4. Play the recording while students take notes. Students compare their answers inpairs. 1 A: a pair of trainers for partner, jewellery for mother, voucher forbrother B: ahouse 2 A: keys on achain B: her nan’srings 3 A: everything else – chucked/hidden/abandoned/ hoarded B: donated to charity/passed on tofriends 4 A: Apple products, new phone, production equipment, newclothes B: stuff for house, white goods,food

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5 All ornothing GRAMMAR (Continued)

4 Refer students to the audioscript on pages 178–179 to underline the futureforms.

1 Speaker 1: I think the next big thing I’m probably going to buy is maybe my partner a pair of trainers, some jewellery for my mother and I’ll give my brother avoucher. Speaker 2: I’m hoping my next big purchase is probably going to be a house because I’ve just turned twenty-three. Turning twenty-four next year and I was just thinking that if I don’t get on the property ladder soon, I’m probably never going to makeit. 2 Speaker 1: Of all of my possessions, I have a pair of keys on a chain that my partner gave to me, and they’re supposed to be the keys to our future house, so hopefully, I’ll still have that in the future. If not, then I’ll probably just chuck them away and I probably won’t have the house … if we broke up … No, I’mjoking! Speaker 2: In ten years’ time, I’ll probably still have my nan’s rings which she left me, one of which I’m wearing now. The other one, I leave at home ’cos I don’t want to lose it. Hopefully, I’ll still have those in tenyears. 3 Speaker 1: With everything else I have, I will probably have either chucked it, hidden it under the bed, abandoned it completely in some sort of alleyway or just bin … or hoard everything,possibly. Speaker 2: I’ll probably donate. Whatever I don’t use, I usually donate to charity anyway or they get passed on to friends who don’t have as much luck as I havefinancially. 4 Speaker 1: In five years’ time, I will have spent money on some more Apple products, probably – probably a new phone again at some point. Hopefully, some production equipment for my personal stuff. Clothes, hopefully. Hopefully, I’ll buy some new clothes at somepoint. Speaker 2: I think in five years’ time I will have probably bought, like, stuff for my house, so the white goods – fridge freezer, cooker, washing machine, that kind of thing, really – the expensive stuff. But other than that it’ll be, like, I mean most people spend their money on food these days, don’t they, really? Like, if you think about how much money you’ve spent on food in the last week, you could say it all adds up. So that’s where most of my moneygoes.

5 Ask students if they have heard of the 100-thing

challenge. Ask students to quickly read the article to find out what the challenge is, and how easy or difficult the writer finds it. (The challenge is to reduce your number of possessions to 100 or fewer. The writer has a lot of decisions to make, it doesn’t seem like it will be easy.) Then ask students to complete the gaps in the article. Students compare their answers in pairs before checking as aclass.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

ammoving will have beensleeping willfit am going to haveto will beusing is going tobe willbe am going togive will have thrownout will justhave

Speakup 6 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs. Circulate,

listening to future tenses, and noting down any areas which might require additional revision and if necessary, refer students to the relevant section of the Grammar file on page 150 torevise.

Tofinish Ask students to reflect on the lesson in small groups, identifying the most useful things they learned and any questions they still have about using future forms. Encourage group members to respond to each other’s questions. Ask a volunteer from each group to summarise the most useful learning and share any outstanding questions for other groups to see if they can answerthem. Presentationtool:

Unit 5, Grammar

Workbook / Online Practice:

WB p48

Photocopiable activity:

5A

Grammar reference and practice:

SB pp150–151

Audioscript and explore grammar video

extra: whole class Elicit the meaning of clutter (a large number of things that are scattered somewhere in an untidy way), and ask students to discuss. Ask: Do you own a lot of clutter? What is the best way to de-clutter (reduce the number of extra possessions youhave)?

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VOCABULARY

SBp67

buying andselling Tostart As a class or in small groups, brainstorm vocabulary related to buying and selling, especially any idioms. Make a note of the ideas so that they can be used in the ‘To finish’exercise.

1 Ask students to complete the sentences then compare

their answers in pairs. Go through the answers, eliciting the definitions, and demonstrating the pronunciation and stress (as underlined in the answers). Then ask students to make their own sentences with theverbs.

extra: mixed ability If you have a mixed-ability class, encourage students to choose at least two of the verbs to write sentences for, and encourage stronger students to domore. 1 acquired (to obtain something by buying it or being givenit) 2 consume (to eat or drink something; to use time, energy, goods,etc.) 3 accumulated (to gradually get more and more money, possessions, knowledge, etc. over a period oftime) 4 collect (to get and keep objects of the same type, because you think they are attractive orinteresting) 5 hoard (to collect and save large amounts of food, money, etc., especially when it is not necessary to doso) Possiblesentences 1 In 2018, her business was acquired by a largercompany. 2 Food may not be consumed on thepremises. 3 I just don’t know how we’ve managed to accumulate so muchclutter! 4 I used to collect teddy bears but now I collect merchandise from concerts I’ve beento. 5 I hoard clothes, I don’t like to give any away even when they’re wornout.

2

5.2 Play the recording and ask students to make notes on what each speaker says about spending habits. Elicit the gist of what each speaker said then ask if anyone knows someone similar, and in whatway.

3

5.3 Play the recording again for students to complete the collocations. Elicit the answers, and what each collocation means. Then ask students to think of something in each category and tell their partner aboutit. 1 soft (a soft touch is someone from whom you can easily get what you want, because they are kind or easy todeceive) 2 easy (an easy prey is someone who can easily be deceived orharmed) 3 knock down (If a price is a knock down, it is heavilydiscounted) 4 hard (a hard sell is a way of selling something in which there is a lot of pressure on you to buy. It can also be something that is difficult to sell or makepopular.) 5 insatiable (an insatiable desire is an extremely strong wish for something that cannot be satisfied in anotherway) 6 sentimental (if something has sentimental value, it has a high worth based on or relating to your feelings. This may differ from an item’s monetaryvalue.)

4 Students complete the sentences, then refer them to

the audioscript on page 179 to look for the same verbs/ expressions and check theiranswers. 1 up ​2 with ​3 onto ​4 up ​5without

explorelanguage Go through the explore language box with students. Elicit which of the verbs in Ex 4 are separable/inseparable (separable = pass up, clutter up; inseparable = part with, hang onto, go without). Point out that even if phrasal verbs are separable, this is optional. So, if students aren’t sure if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable, it is advisable not to separateit.

5 Students discuss the meaning of each bolded expression in pairs then write an alternative in their own words, using dictionaries to help if necessary. Elicit possible paraphrases from theclass. Suggestedanswers 1 make us react in the way theywant 2 spend money  3 only spend what Ineed

6 Ask students to read the blog quickly to find out the

writer’s reasons for hoarding. (Hoarding was triggered by having to downsize when he/she was eleven. He/she assigns special meaning to items so throwing them away feels like losing a bit of his/heridentity). 1 accumulated ​2 cluttered ​3 hoarded ​4 chuck ​ 5 sentimental ​6 insatiable ​7 keep ​8 splashing ​9 up ​ 10 pass ​11 with ​12dumping

Speakup 7 Students discuss the question in pairs. Elicit someideas.

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Ask: Do you think this number is excessive? How do you think these children accumulated so many toys? How do you think these figures would compare to children in your owncountry? Ask students to work in small groups to make a list of the pros and cons of children owning so many toys for about fiveminutes. Ask each group to share briefly with the class, then ask: What advice would you give to a parent whose child has too many toys? How would you convince a child to clear out some of theirtoys?

Tofinish Return to the brainstorm(s) of buying and selling vocabulary from the ‘To start’ activity at the beginning of the lesson. Ask students to close their books. Ask: What words/phrases can you addnow? Presentationtool:

Unit 5, Vocabulary

Workbook / Online Practice:

WB p49

Photocopiable activity:

5B

Audioscript: SBp179 Extra Practice App

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5 All ornothing

LISTENING

Task1 A recommendation B financialsecurity C rise inpopularity D cheapset-up E internationalopportunities F talent G lifestyle H helpothers Task2 A reassured, big companies,partner B optimistic, expansion, differentproducts C inspired, opportunity,international D encouraged, ethicalbusiness E hopeful,difference F excited, new type ofbusiness G surprised, growquickly H convinced, better thancompetitors

SBp68

Tostart Start by brainstorming with the class some places where people can buy goods. Write ideas on the board, e.g. retail stores, markets, online shops, catalogues, online auction sites. Ask students to discuss in small groups what they think about shopping from each place, considering types of product sold, cost, convenience and any otherfactors.

Powerup 1 Ask students to discuss the question in pairs, using a

dictionary to clarify any words they are unsure of. Then elicit someideas. Possibleanswers auction: where items are sold to the person who offers the most money for them, e.g. land, buildings, paintings, antiques, second-handitems bargain: to try and get a lower price, e.g. at a market, or buying second-handgoods barter: to exchange goods, work, or services for other goods or services rather than formoney haggle: to argue when you are trying to agree about the price of something, e.g. at amarket trade: when you exchange something you have for something that someone elsehas

Listenup 2

5.4 Play the recording while students note down what each retailer sells or how they makemoney. 1 clothing and jewelleryonline 2 redesigned/upcycled second-hand products such as cars and electricgoods 3 previously owned trainersonline 4 runs a swap shop online where customers arrange swaps of items such asgames 5 uploads haul videos and retailers give her clothes for free in exchange foradvertising

background A haul video, as mentioned by Speaker 5, is a type of online video blog (vlog) where someone reviews a selection of items (a ‘haul’) they have bought (usually clothes or beautyproducts).

3 Ask students to underline key words in the tasks. In pairs, students discuss possible paraphrases and other ways of expressing key ideas. Encourage them to think of many possible ways the answers may be given in the recording. Elicit someideas.

exam task: multiplematching The options in Task 2 here are slightly more detailed than would be in the Cambridge exam to give students more help at this stage.

4

5.5 Read the exam tip aloud. Point out, in relation to Task 2, that attitude and feelings (such as feeling reassured or optimistic) may be expressed or supported by intonation as well as wording. Then play the recording twice, if necessary. (Students will hear it a total of twice in the exam.) Go through the answers as a class. If students have found it difficult, refer them to the audioscript on page 179 to find the clues that answered eachquestion.

Task1 1 H (I decided it would be a great way of supporting my favouritecharity) 2 D (to sell something that required very littleinvestment) 3 C (I can flip the trainers swiftly, so I’m not sitting onstock) 4 E (I can profit from the huge worldwidemarket) 5 G (I could dress in great stuff which I could never have affordedotherwise) Task2 6 D (meet the needs of customers without compromising futuregenerations) 7 H (so I feel my business is already ahead of thegame) 8 B (to use my current structure to trade other collectibles such as handbags, comics andwatches) 9 F (experiment with setting up gaming nights so people who use the site can meet eachother) 10 A (So much so that now that some major stores want to use me as an advertisingoutlet)

5 Ask students to match the expressions with their

definitions. If necessary, students could find and underline them in the audioscript on page 179, using context to deducemeaning. 1 F 2 A 3 E 4 C 5 B 6D

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USE OF ENGLISH 1

extra: whole class Ask students to thinkof: • something that eats up yourtime • an expression in English you’ve got the hang of usingrecently • an item or brand that is hot property at themoment. Put them into pairs to discuss theirideas.

Speakup 6 Students discuss the questions inpairs.

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. If you have the technology, show a haul video or part of one. Ask students to discuss in pairs: How could you verify if the statement in the footer is true? If students have internet access, give them five minutes to see if they can find any evidence to back up or refute thefooter.

Tofinish Ask students to work in pairs to discuss the kind of retail business they might enjoy running now or in the future. If students have internet access, they could try looking for ideas on an online small business idea generator, and share which was the most appealing idea andwhy. In preparation for the next lesson, ask students to read the Grammar file section on verb phrases + prepositions on page 150 for homework and complete Ex 4 on page151. Presentationtool:

Unit 5, Listening

Workbook / Online Practice:

WBp50

Audioscript: SBp179 Extra Practice App

SBp69

Tostart Write the following questions on the board (without underlining) for students to discuss inpairs: What is something you wish you had an aptitudefor? How could this school create more opportunities for students to practiseEnglish? How could someone cultivate a strong relationship with new classmates orcolleagues? Elicit some responses to each question. Then ask students to find and underline the fixed phrase in eachquestion.

1 Check students understand what a fixed phrase is (the

standard combination of words used to express an idea, often a verb + a noun/adjective + a preposition). In pairs, ask students to think of possible strategies to remember fixed phrases. Elicit someideas. Possibleanswer Repeating the phrase/copying it out; thinking of a situation where it applies personally and using it in a sentence; sorting the phrases into topics; recording the phrase in a vocabulary notebook (real oronline).

explore language

SB p150

2 Ask students to read through the explore language

box and to find and underline the verb phrase with preposition in A. If students have already read the Grammar file on page 150 before class, ask if there were questions and go through the answers to the Grammar file Ex 4. Otherwise, refer students to the Grammar file and ask them to read through it then complete Ex 4 on page151. A play a partin B play a bigger part in, play your partin C play a bigger rolein

watch out for Some prepositions are different in English to other languages. With those that are different to students’ other language(s), students will need to take note to learn themcarefully.

3 Students complete the sentences, then compare inpairs. 1 of ​2 with ​3 of ​4 on ​5 about ​6to/towards

extra: whole class Ask students to underline the fixed phrases in the sentences in Ex 3. Students choose at least three phrases to write their own sentence, changing verb tense asappropriate. (Fixed phrases: 1 examine the evidence of, 2 has a strong relationship with, 3 identify the causes of, 4 based their theory on, 5 provide information about, 6 investigating attitudesto/towards)

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5 All ornothing USE OF ENGLISH 1 (Continued)

4 Ask students to complete the questions, then compare their answers in pairs before checking as a class. With sentence 3, ask: What is crowd-funding? (a method of getting money for something, for example a new film or album, by asking people to give part of the money needed, often on theinternet).

Put students into groups of three to discuss the questions. Alternatively, ask students to move around the classroom, asking and answering questions with differentpeople. 1 have 2 make 3 taking 4 create 5 impose (have is alsocorrect)

5 Focus students on the picture and ask: What is a pop-

up shop? Elicit some answers. Then ask some follow up questions such as Do you know of any pop-up shops in this area? What are the advantages of setting up a pop-up rather than a permanentshop? A pop-up shop is a temporary shop, normally in a very limited space. Entrepreneurs may set up a pop-up shop to test the market for their product, sell seasonal products such as calendars, to supplement an online business, or to take advantage of a special rental rate on a retailspace.

6 Ask students to read the article to find out about the Bray sisters’ pop-up shop, and how successful it hasbeen.

They were surprisingly successful and have made money from their pop-upshop.

exam task: multiplematching Ask students to read the exam tip and complete the sentences. Elicit theanswers. 1 to (before, because this is a fixedphrase) 2 first (after, because the word last indicates that first needs to go in thegap)

7

Speakup 8 Put students into groups of three to discuss the questions. Elicit someideas.

Possibleanswers 1 I’d like to sell mobile devices, mainly so that I could try the latest gadgetsmyself! I’m a big sports fan, so what I’d really like to sell would be sports gear. I’d enjoy giving people advice on the best tennis racket or the most appropriate runningshoes. If I had a shop, it would sell gourmet chocolates. I reckon there’s always a market for sweetthings! 2 We like to have unique items to feel special anddifferent.

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Ask: What are your initial thoughts about this café’s practice? Ask students to work in pairs to think of three questions they would like to ask about the cuddle café. If students have the facility, ask them to research answers to their questions online. Otherwise, ask students to research the answers to their questions for homework to feed back at the beginning of the next lesson. Ask: After researching the café, did your opinion about the caféchange?

Tofinish Play preposition bingo with the fixed phrases from the lesson. Ask students to draw up a grid of 16 squares (with four columns and four rows). Ask them to fill each cell in the grid with one of the following prepositions (they will have to use some more than once): to, for, of, with, on,about. Read one of the fixed phrases from the lesson without the preposition, e.g. make a comment. Elicit the preposition that follows (on). Students cross out one of those prepositions on their grid. Continue with other fixed phrases from the lesson. The first student to cross out four prepositions in a row in any direction and call out bingo is thewinner. Presentationtool:

Unit 5, Use of English 1

Point out that this article is an exam-style open cloze task for Reading and Use of English, Part 2. Give students five minutes to complete the gaps then compare their answers in pairs before checking as aclass.

Workbook / Online Practice:

WB p51

1 to (noun +to-infinitive) 2 access (part of the collocation gain access tosomething) 3 are (presentcontinuous) 4 every (part of the expression every sooften) 5 from (part of the collocation make money fromsomething) 6 had (past perfect sequence oftenses) 7 a (part of the collocation have a positiveinfluence) 8 will/may/might/could (future perfect/modal perfect to talk aboutpossibility)

Extra Practice App

Grammar reference and practice: SBpp150–151 Photocopiable activity:

5C

Audioscript:

SBp179

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USE OF ENGLISH 2

SBp70

Tostart Write the following words on the board: workout, drawback, feedback, intake, breakthrough, holdup. Ask: What do these words have in common? (They are all nouns formed from phrasal verbs.) What other nouns formed from phrasal verbs can you thinkof? Ask students to work in pairs to replace the underlined word in the following prompts with one of the words above, then discuss an answer for each prompt. Elicit someideas. 1 the main disadvantage of buying thingsonline 2 the most significant scientific discovery in the lastcentury 3 the most effective exercise to get fitquickly 1 drawback  2 breakthrough  3workout

1 Students discuss the question in pairs. Point out that in US English, pocket money is usually referred to as anallowance.

2

5.6 Play the recording then elicit answers to thequestions. Speaker 1: It helps children learn about managingmoney. Speaker 2: It shouldn’t just be given, but earned, to encouragemotivation.

explorelanguage 3 Go through the explore language box with students. For

point A, point out that these nouns are from the phrasal verbs pour down and break down. For point D, point out that there are some verbs that may be written with or without a hyphen, e.g. turnout, turn-out. Refer students to the audioscript on page 179 to find examples for A–D. Elicit the answers, and for 1, point out the collocation, economicdownturn. 1 downturn ​2 cutbacks ​3 upbringing ​4outset

4 Ask students to complete the email extracts with the

prepositions. Conduct class feedback, pointing out that 7 is the only open compound word and the others are closed (oneword). 1 setbacks ​2 turnover ​3 outlay ​4 buyout ​5 takeover ​ 6 update ​7 cover-up ​8 crackdown ​9 outcry ​10fallout

extra: whole class Ask: Which of the email extracts is more formal? How do youknow? Elicit that the first email is more formal. There are no colloquialisms and no contractions, and more sophisticated vocabulary isused.

exam task: wordformation There are more items here testing nouns from phrasal verbs than would appear in the Cambridge exam as this reflects the focus of the lesson.

5

Point out that this exercise is practice for Reading and Use of English, Part 3. Students have to change the word in capitals to fit the gap. They may need to add affixes, change word form or form a compound word. Read the exam tip aloud. Give students six minutes to complete the exercise then ask students to compare their answers in pairs before checking as aclass.

1 breakthroughs (plural noun to follow the quantifier few and plural verb form have) 2 unambitious (negative adjective to describe us; it’s negative to match the same view in the explanation in the next clause: it just means we need to work that muchharder) 3 inequality (noun following the determiner this and the subject for the verb starts; it’s negative because the blog article has been talking about how the world isunequal) 4 extremely (modifier for the adjectiveyoung) 5 disgraceful (adjective as part of the form find something + adjective, where find means to have a particular feeling or opinion; it’s negative because the writer finds the difference in pocket moneyunacceptable) 6 offspring (noun meaning someone’schildren) 7 overhaul (noun meaning to change a system or method in order to improveit) 8 outcry (noun from the phrasal verb cry out, meaning ‘an angry protest by a lot of ordinarypeople’)

extra: fast finishers To extend stronger students, point out the additional Extend vocabulary list of nouns from phrasal verbs on page 160. Students could check any unknown words in a dictionary, then think of some ways to use them insentences.

Speakup 6 Ask: To what extent do you believe the survey results

would be true in your country? Why? In pairs, ask students to discuss the question. Encourage students to ask and answer some other questions about pocket money, such as Is it a good idea to let kids spend all their pocket money, or should they be encouraged to save it? Why? Conduct classfeedback.

Tofinish Ask students to work in pairs to create a crossword using eight nouns from phrasal verbs from this lesson. Note: this can also be done using an online crossword generator. If you don’t have printing facilities, look for a crossword generator which allows students to share and solve online. Pairs swap with another pair and race to see who can complete the word searchfirst. Presentationtool:

Unit 5, Use of English 2

Workbook / Online Practice:

WB p52

Audioscript: SBp179 Extra Practice App

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5 All ornothing

SPEAKING

SBp71

Tostart

useful language: speculating 5

Before class, find out what the gender wage gap is in your country, for example, in Britain in 2016, the median hourly rate for male workers was 9.4% higher than female workers. Ask students to guess what the differenceis. Put students into small groups to discuss the followingquestions: 1 Do you think addressing gender wage gap should be a priority? Why/Whynot? 2 What can governments do to crack down on gender payinequality?

Powerup 1 Focus students on the picture and ask them to discuss

whether they think a male model gets more, less or the same as a femalemodel. Possibleanswers • It’s highly likely that he gets paid more because of the pervasive gender pay gap that seems to be a globalproblem. • It’s a guess on my part, but I’d say he gets about the same as a femalemodel. • The likelihood of him being paid less is quite low, but maybe I’ll besurprised.

2 Ask students to read the extract. Ask students to discuss in pairs whether they agree with the writer’s points, and encourage them to give reasons for theirchoices.

Possibleanswers • I find the writer’s views objectionable because it feels like he/she is belittling women’s concerns about the gender pay gap by calling them‘moans’. • I totally agree with the writer, male models deserve equal pay because they are doing the samejob. • I’d tend to agree that men are becoming bigger consumers of beauty products and fashion than they used tobe.

3

5.7 Ask students to look at pictures A–C. Play the recording for students to work out which two questions she is answering but don’t check the answer yet. (The answers are in Ex4.)

extra: whole class For weaker classes, you could read the following questions for them to selectfrom: 1 Do you think the people earn the same as their male/ femalecounterparts? 2 Is this a goodthing? 3 Why do you think thisis? 4 How could they change thesituation? 5 How do you think they feel aboutit?

4

5.8 Play the recording for students to hear what the student was asked. Write the answer on the board for students to use in Ex6. Compare two of the photos and say whether you think they earn the same amount as their male counterparts, and why you think thisis.

5.9 Play the recording for students to complete the phrases. Point out that these phrases are examples of hedging – using moderate rather than absolute language to present a reasonable argument and sound more polite. Ask students to read the useful language box on speculating. Ask students to put an asterisk next to a few of the phrases that they haven’t used before (or haven’t used often) as a reminder to try them out in Ex6. 1 may 2 thinking 3 far 4 well 5 right 6would

extra: mixed ability Ask students to individually practise reading aloud the student’s answer in audioscript 5.7 on page 179. Weaker students and classes may especially benefit from this opportunity to practise the phrases in context and developfluency.

exam task: longturn

SB p162

As the focus of the lesson is related to the long turn, there are no Listening Candidate Questions as would be in the Cambridge exam.

6

Read through the exam tip. Point out that the long turn is Part 2 of the Speaking Paper and requires students to speak for one minute about pictures they are given, and then answer a question about the other candidate’s pictures. Put students into pairs to complete the tasks. If you haven’t already, write the following task from Ex 3 on the board: Compare two of the pictures and say whether you think the people earn the same as their male counterparts. Why do you think thisis?

Possibleanswer Page71 Referring to pictures B and C, both concern women who are working in fields that have been typically dominated by men. In B, the woman is a politician, and it looks like she is giving some sort of address, to the European Union maybe? The woman in the other picture has a completely different sort of job – driving a lorry. So, although the skillsets for the two jobs are completely different, it’s highly likely that both these women work long hours, and I could be wrong but from their expressions, I’d guess that both find their jobssatisfying. Now, about the pay, I’d say that the politician is paid equally to a male in the same position. As far as I can gather, for many political positions there is a set salary, so gender wouldn’t affect her pay packet, in theoryanyway. As for the lorry driver, in all probability she isn’t paid as well as a man in the same role. Frustrating as this is, I say it because I do know that the gender gap exists across so many industries, and I highly doubt logistics is an exception. There’s a chance this driver has a forward-thinking employer who has taken measures to address the pay gap. It might also depend where she lives, maybe it’s in a country which has laws and policy to fight discrimination andinequality.

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Page172 So, I’m going to talk about the pictures of the football players and the actor. On the face of it, the jobs don’t have much in common, although I suppose you could say that they both need to practise to perform their best. Here, the pictures show the footballer mid-performance whereas the actor must have received that award for a performance she’s already done. I think it’s a foregone conclusion that both these women are at the top of their respective fields, I could tell that from the sponsored jerseys and thetrophy. Despite excelling at what they do, in all probability, both of these women are being paid far less than their male counterparts, I think I’m right in that. The reason I say this is because I’ve seen a lot of reports on social media about female actors being paid a fraction of their male co-stars, and getting quite angry about it, which isn’tsurprising. When it comes to footballers, it is sometimes said that female sports stars are paid less because spectators aren’t as interested, but I think that’s only because females haven’t been broadcast as much, so it’s a bit of a vicious cycle. So, even if the likelihood of this footballer being paid the same as a male is extremely low at this point in time, I do hope we’ll get there in the not too distantfuture.

WRITING

SBpp72–73

Tostart Ask: What events are held to fundraise (raise funds/money) for charities in your country? Brainstorm some ideas with the class. Possible answers: fair/gala, quiz night, ball/dance, charity auction, cake stall, book stall, concert and fitness events, such asrunning.

Powerup 1 Students discuss the questions in pairs, then elicit someideas.

Possibleanswers 1 to evaluate whether a similar event should be run in future; to make recommendations for future events; to report back to interested stakeholders; to know who helped so they can bethanked 2 As a fundraiser, the most helpful thing to know is likely to be the total amount of moneyraised. 3 poor turnout; running out of food/drink/products; someone getting hurt; technical problems; badweather

Planon

extra: mixed ability If you have weaker students in your class, give students the option to repeat the task in Ex 3 with the same pictures as in the recording, so that students can focus on language rather than having to generate new ideas. Encourage students to time each other for one minute, and to use the useful phrases from Ex 5. Students could swap tasks and repeat for extrapractice.

Speakingextra

2 Focus students on the picture of a school fair and ask:

What things might be sold at a fair like this? Then ask students to read the writing task. Elicit what you have to write about and who will read thereport. Describe the fair, saying how successful it was and what is recommended. The organising committee will read thereport.

3 Students read the report individually, then discuss the

7 Point out the collocation valid reason in question 3.

Remind students to give reasons and examples for their answers. Circulate, noting down any misuse of the phrases for speculating for the ‘To finish’ activity. Elicit some ideas for each. Ask: What assumptions are made in the wording of question 4? Elicit that it assumes families include two parents, a male and female, and they are married. In fact, families are extremelyvaried.

Tofinish Play ‘sheep out’ with some of the phrases of speculation from Ex5. Draw on the board gaps for each word, e.g (I could be wrong but…) With books closed, students take turns to guess a word, if it is correct, write it in the gap. If it is incorrect, draw part of a sheep on the board. If the class guess the phrase before you complete the sheep, they win. Put students into small groups to playagain. Presentationtool:

Unit 5, Speaking

Workbook / Online Practice:

WB p53

Speaking file:

SBp162

questions in pairs. Elicit theanswers.

1 It’s formal because it is supposed to be objective and is often written for a person inauthority. 2 To help organise the informationclearly. 3 explaining, describing,suggesting 4 Yes, in the ‘Recommendations’ partonly.

exam tip Read through the exam tip with the class, giving students time to complete the questions. For more information on reports, refer students to the Writing file on page168. 1 The fair = describe the fair; Results = how successful it was; Recommendations = what you wouldrecommend 2 It’s roughly the same, so that the information is balanced for thereader.

4 Students complete the questions inpairs. 1 to say what the report will talkabout 2 a generalpoint 3 thedetails

Audioscript: SBp179

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5 All ornothing WRITING (Continued)

5 Students identify the topic sentences in eachparagraph. This report gives information about the charity fair which was recently held at ourschool. The fair was very successful, raising over £2,500 for thecharity. Due to its success, it would definitely be sensible to run this fair again, but there are a couple of improvements that could bemade.

6 Ask students to read and select the topic sentence. Elicit the answer, and how weknow.

Sentence 1 (It is general, it does not include detail or specificinformation.)

7 Students write a topic sentence for the paragraph in

pairs, ensuring that it is a general introduction and in a formal style. Elicit some topicsentences. Possibleanswer Some stalls were more popular thanothers.

useful language: makingrecommendations 8 Students look for possible replacements. Point out

that it is good to have a range of phrases to use to avoid repetition. Point out the additional phrases in the useful languagebox. Possibleanswers 1 describes,explains 2 demonstrate, indicate,illustrate 3 Likethis 4 think about, bear inmind 5 could, may,might 6 In summary, To sum up, Toconclude

extra: whole class Tell students that you have received an email from a teacher at another school who is organising a charity concert. Unfortunately, they haven’t sold many tickets and the concert is next week. Say: Work with a partner to think of at least three ideas I can send to the teacher to speed up ticket sales. Use some of the phrases from the useful language box. Ask each pair to share one of theirideas. Possibleanswer You should do some online advertising – it’s the best way to get the word out about afundraiser. You might need to drop the price or offer a special such as buy two tickets, get onefree. It may be a good idea to ask a local radio station if they could promote the concert for free, seeing as it is forcharity.

10 Students complete 1–4 individually then work in pairs to check their ideas. Circulate and offer guidance whereneeded.

exam task:report 11

SB p168

You could set this task for homework along with Ex 12. Encourage students to read the checklist in Ex12 before submitting theirreport.

Modelanswer Report on the school quiznight This report gives information about the quiz night which was recently held at our school. The report explains what took place at the quiz night, how successful it was and gives recommendations for futureevents. The quiznight The quiz night was organised to fundraise for our upcoming exchange trip to our sister school in Wales. Around 100 attendees worked in teams to answer general knowledge questions about a wide range of topics. The evening was hosted by our deputy principal. There was a range of prizes on offer, generously donated by local businesses. Light refreshments were included in the ticketprice. Success Overall, it appears the quiz night was a great success as over $2,000 was raised for the trip. In addition, anecdotal feedback indicates that people thoroughly enjoyed the evening. The atmosphere was lively and as well as making money, it provided an opportunity for the school community tosocialise. Recommendations Because of its success and popularity, I would highly recommend running a similar quiz night next year, albeit with a few changes. I would suggest involving the students in the preparation and running of the event. For example, they could be involved in decorating the hall or serving supper. Another idea which could make a little bit of extra money on the night would be to have a raffle or charity auction. Finally, there were a few minor sound issues at the beginning of the night which could be avoided with more thorough testingbeforehand.

Improveit 12 This task could be completed at home before bringing the completed report to class toshare.

13 Ask students to swap reports with a partner. Finally,

collect in the reports and give feedback related to the assessment points in Ex 12. Remember to note and comment on ways that the report has met the assessment points in addition to providing constructive feedback on ways to improveit.

Tofinish

need to include. Elicit theanswer.

Point out that a report is a common form of writing used in the workplace. In pairs, ask students to write down three professions on a piece of paper. Ask each pair to swap with another group and speculate how often a person in each profession might write reports, and what the reports might be about. Ask each pair to share their ideas about one of the professions theydiscussed.

Describe the quiz night, explain how successful it was and make recommendations for the next quiznight.

Presentationtool:

Unit 5, Writing

Workbook / Online Practice:

WB pp54–55

Writing file:

SBp168

Writeon 9 Students read the task and underline the details they

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SWITCH ON

4 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit someideas.

SBp74

Possibleanswers 1 • Agree. Time is far more valuable than money. You may save 10% on your grocery bill by searching online or in magazines for deals and coupons, but you’ll never get back the two hours you spent hunting themdown. • Neither agree nor disagree. With lots of cost comparison websites, promotional codes online, and signs in store announcing sales, finding ways to buy something for less has become second nature and we likely do it every day without really thinking about it. Jordon’s just an extremeexample. • Disagree. Jordon clearly has his priorities right. He is not a victim of the consumer society and he plays it so that he profits in terms of valuable life experiences which I think are much more important than saving a few hours here orthere. 2 I think Jordan’s story will certainly make commuters more aware of how they plan their travel. It could be that they save thousands if they plan their journey more effectively. But on the whole, I think people are more preoccupied with how to spend their money than save it thesedays!

The scenicroute 1 Read the questions aloud. Point out that trade-off is a

noun from a phrasal verb and elicit what it means (a balance between two opposing things, e.g. There has to be a trade-off between quality and quantity if we want to keep prices low). Put students into groups to discuss thequestions.

extra: whole class Focus students’ attention on the picture. Say: We are going to watch a video about Jordon Cox, the ‘coupon kid.’ Ask: Do you ever use coupons? What other ways can you get discounts or specialdeals?

2

Ask students to close their books so they don’t read ahead. Before playing the video, ask students to speculate in pairs why Jordon didn’t take the train home from an outing one day, and what he might have done instead. Then ask students to watch the video to check theirideas. Jordon searched online for alternative ways home after discovering that his planned trainjourney from the North East of England to his home in the South East was very expensive. He found hecould travel home via Berlin and still save money, and so took the opportunity to have an adventure in one of his bucket-listcities.

3

Give students time to read the questions and elicit what a carbon footprint is, (the amount of carbon dioxide that a person or organisation produces by the things they do, used as a way of measuring the amount of harm they do to the environment). Play the video again then ask students to discuss their answers inpairs. 1 Bus and train from Sheffield toEast MidlandsAirport Flight toBerlin Train from airport to Berlin citycentre Train back to Berlinairport Flight to LondonStansted Bus home (three trains, two flights and two buses = seven journeysaltogether) 2 Possibleanswers • Yes. The donation only cost £4 so he still would have come in under his initial budget, and his money-saving story would have been intact. If he cared enough about it to find out what he could do, I like to think he didpay. • No. It’s clear that Jordon won’t spend a penny more than he needs to. In the interview, while he said he had done the research, he didn’t confirm he had paid it. I think he did the research because he knew he would be asked the question and wanted to have an answer ready for themedia.

Project 5 Put students into groups of three to plan their journey. Students could complete step 4 for homework then re-group in the next lesson to compare theirroutes.

Students produce an annotated poster presentation of their three routes showing the maps and timetables for each journey in a visually appealingway.

Alternatively, they can produce a digital presentation with a slide for each journey and present it via computer. They can include photos of interesting sights along the routes. For each presentation, ask the rest of the class to vote on their preferredroute.

extra: mixed ability With a mixed ability class, consider extending strong students by designating them as leaders of eachgroup.

alternative: project You could give students a choice of which project theydo. 1 Students work in small groups to think of an idea for a‘swap shop’. Ask them todecide:

1 which types of things they couldswap. 2 how they could organise swaps so they arefair. 3 where and how the swaps should beavailable. Groups present their ideas to the class and students vote for the best swapshop.

2 Students work in small groups to make a ‘haul’ video. Ask studentsto: 1 decide what items toreview. 2 think about what to say, with each student takingpart. 3 film the haul video, and editit. 4 share it on an online space for other students toview. If you are at a tech-free school, students could present their ideas to the rest of theclass.

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5 All ornothing SWITCH ON (Continued) In preparation for the next class, ask students to read the Independent learning questionnaire on page 74, and prepare to discuss questions 1–4. This will allow more time in class for discussion, and will give students a chance to reflect on the questions so producing more considered answers. It will also provide weaker students with a chance to prepare notes and content to help them participate more fully in thediscussion.

INDEPENDENT LEARNING SBp74

Listening andspeaking 1 Put students into small groups to discuss the questions. Then elicit someideas.

Presentationtool:

Unit 5, Switch on

Switch on videoscript:

TBp180

Possibleanswers Being a good listener will help you improve your speaking skills because you can use and learn phrases and intonation that you hear. Speaking involves producing oral language. Listening involves understanding oral language. Conversation requires both listening and speakingskills.

2 Ask students to reflect on the listening they have done in the unit, including listening to recordings, the Switch on video, and the teacher andclassmates. Possibleanswers 1 global skills: listening for gist, understanding attitude/ opinion of thespeaker specific skills: listening fordetails 2 Students’ ownanswers. 3 Listening to podcasts, watching English TV, taking opportunities to haveconversations.

3 Encourage students to look back at the Speaking lessons from each unit to remind themselves of each speaking skill and give examples in theiranswers.

4 Students discuss the question in pairs then elicit a few

responses. Encourage students to review the exam tips from the speaking lessons. Remind students of the Speaking file on page162.

5 After students have written down their two action points, ask them to share with a partner. Make a note to check in the next Independent learning section to ask who has takenaction.

UNITCHECK

SBpp 75–76

If possible, complete the Practice activities in class because they involve pair work, and Review Ex 1 because it features Listening practice. The other activities may be completed in class or set forhomework.

Practice 1 Possibleanswers at the gym. (workout) I’m exhausted from my . (intake) I’m applying for a scholarship for the August My parents always joke that they know where their get their good looks from.(offspring) of Starting a business usually involves an initial funds.(outlay) I had a job interview yesterday but I won’t know the until next week.(outcome)

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2 1 faint (chance), insatiable (desire), sentimental (value), soft

(touch), downward(spiral) 2 An idiom used to say it is a very suitable time for something to happen, especially when it should have happened sooner. (the time isripe) An idiom which means to give a warning that something may happen. (give a headsup) An idiom which means learn how to do something or use something. (get the hang ofsomething) An idiom used to say you are in a position where you are more advanced or more successful than your competitors. (ahead of thegame)

3 Possible verbs to use: clutter (up), flip (out), flood (with), cover (up), stumble(across).

Review 1

5.10 1 It’s going to getworse. 2 She says they will keep on postingthem. 3 Companies will start to losecustomers. 4 She says she’ll be spending all her time sorting outads. 5 She isn’t going to pay attention to theads. 6 Companies will get themessage.

2 1 will get, willexpect 2 will be helping, we’ve opened up, ‘re goingto 3 will have used, willexpect 4 I’ve sold, I’llgo 5 going to be, havebeen 6 will the ad be, I’ll haveto

GRAMMARFILE

SBp151

1 1 have risen, we’ll all beliving 2 does the exam finish,try 3 will win, willwant 4 will be, we land, goingto 5 I’ve finished, I’llshut 6 going to be, have beentravelling

2 1 will (all) be saying ​2 will have had ​3 will be getting ​

4 starts ​5 will get ​6 am going to try ​7 will meet ​8 are ​ 9 will be heading ​10 are starting ​11 are going to apply ​ 12 will be/are going tobe

3 1 is going to be along 2 the company will haveopened 3 will be consulting (with) localpeople 4 is bound to flood (again)unless 5 are to beheld 6 once you’ve landedto

4 1 of ​2 a ​3 more ​4 has ​5 in ​6 are ​7 will  ​8going/planning

Presentationtool:

Unit 5, Unit check

Workbook / Online Practice:

WB pp55

Audioscript: SBpp179–180

3 1 are we going to do ​2 will wait ​

3 was just going to do, will start ​4 will be ​5 will have done ​ 6 is going to take up/’s takingup

4 1 identify the reasonsfor 2 play a partin 3 investigate attitudestowards 4 provide the informationfor 5 demonstrate(d) an aptitudefor 6 create more opportunitiesfor

5 1 going(intention) 2 on (verb phrase +preposition) 3 nor (double negative) (or is alsopossible) 4 about (future in thepresent/past) 5 not (contrastlinker) 6 give (fixedphrase) 7 will/can(future/ability) 8 are (presentcontinuous)

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6 Image and reality

Lead-in SBp77 Ask students to look at the picture on page 77. Ask: What is the picture of? Elicit that it is of a chameleon /kəˈmiːliən/, a type of lizard that can change its colour to match itsenvironment. Read the quote aloud: Who I am depends on who I’m with. Ask: What does this quote mean? How does the picture relate to the quote? (Like the chameleon, a person changes to suit his/her environment – he/she behaves differently around differentpeople.) Put students into pairs to discuss the question. Elicit some ideas. Point out that someone who changes their ideas and behaviour to fit different situations can be described as a chameleon (although this can have a negative connotation that someone is a bit sly ordeceptive). Follow up by asking students: Is adjusting your speech and behaviour around different people a good thing to do or is itdishonest?

X 6

Image and reality READING

USE OFENGLISH

topic: methodacting skill: dealing with unfamiliarvocabulary task: multiplechoice

opencloze multiple-choicecloze

GRAMMAR mixedconditionals linkingexpressions

VOCABULARY words with similarmeanings phrasalverbs collocations

LISTENING topic: tricks andillusions skill: using key words to locateanswers task: multiple choice: longertext

SPEAKING topic: the importance ofhonesty skill: giving reasons andexamples task:discussion

WRITING topic: the arts ineducation skill: linkingideas task:essay

SWITCH ON video: medicalmiracles project: persuasiveadvert

Possibleanswer On the one hand, adapting your behaviour to the circ*mstances and company is part of being polite. For example, you might speak quite differently to your grandma or your boss, compared to your peers. On the other hand, if you actually lie about your opinions or pretend to be someone you are not, I think that is a step toofar.

extra: whole class Focus students’ attention on the unit title Image and reality, demonstrating the pronunciation /ˈɪmɪdʒ/ and /riˈæləti/. Write the following words and phrases from the unit on the board: dream, fallacy, authentic, candid, illusion, impression, be upfront about something,impersonate. Ask students to work in pairs to decide whether each word relates more to image or reality, using dictionaries ifnecessary. Ask: Can you think of any other words or phrases related to image orreality? image: dream, fallacy, illusion, impression,impersonate reality: authentic, candid, be upfront aboutsomething

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READING

SBpp78–79

Tostart Ask students to discuss in pairs: Do you prefer films that are based on reality or complete fantasy?Why? While students discuss the question, write the following phrases on theboard: • a riveting storyline (an engagingplot) • actors disappearing into roles (exceptionalacting) • an unusual shooting style (cinematography that differs from thenorm) • a massive promotional campaign (a huge amount ofadvertising) Elicit a paraphrase or meaning for each phrase. In pairs, students think of a film that exemplifies each phrase. Elicit a few examples foreach.

Powerup 1 Put students into pairs to discuss the questions. Elicit

some responses. Ask the follow-up question: What ways might an actor prepare for a role or to help them get intocharacter? Possibleanswers 1 One of the films that comes to mind would be Thor: Ragnarok. It had all the sweeping action sequences and fancy visual effects you’d expect from an epic blockbuster, yet also had an engaging plot, and even better, didn’t seem to take itself too seriously. The lead character, Thor, was played by Chris Hemsworth, and I think he and the other cast members gave a stellar performance. As for the music, I’d say the soundtrack added atmosphere and heightened the tension during keyscenes. 2 The actor I most admire is Emma Watson. As well as being an excellent actor, she uses her fame to advocate for causes like humanrights. 3 It means that when you watch the actor in role, the acting is so good that you only think about the character. Alternatively, it means that it is better to cast unknown actors so the audience is not distracted by recognising theactor.

Readon 2 Read the title of the article aloud: Why Hollywood went

method acting crazy. Ask: What do you think method acting is? Elicit some ideas then give students a few minutes to read the article to find out. Ask students what examples of method acting theygave.

exam tip Read through the exam tip with students. To work out meaning from context, encourage students to read around the word including sentences before and after. Ask students to re-read the final paragraph and deduce the meaning of stricken. Ask: Which tips in the box could help you work out themeaning? Stricken means to be badly affected by something: it is hyphenated with celebral palsy, which the character was affected by, and earlier in the sentence it says that he required a wheelchair. It is an adjective from an archaic past participle from the verbstrike.

exam task: multiplechoice 3

Give students five minutes to answer the questions. Ask students to compare their answers inpairs. 1 B (Refers back to the previous sentence: the proper relationship between audience and film actor’scraft) 2 C (In paragraph 2: got himself into character, partly through a series of in-character tricks andstunts) 3 B (In paragraph 3: … we seem to want to catch characters ‘atit’) 4 D (In paragraph 4: actor’s ‘central problem’: having to plausibly feel things while remaining in control of theircraft) 5 C (In paragraph 5: method is all about moments – it’s a technique that thinks in shots andclose-ups) 6 B (In paragraph 6: … its own kind of dramatic truth – and it’s an act you can’t be caughtin)

extra: whole class Ask: Did you find any unfamiliar words/phrases in the article? What strategies from the exam tip did you use to deduce themeaning? Elicit any words or phrases students couldn’t work out using the strategies. Ask if any other students can help teach the meaning of thesewords.

4 Students complete the sentences with the words

and phrases in bold. Students compare their answers in pairs then check as a class. As you go through the answers, elicit the adjective form of plausibly (plausible) and opposites of plausible (implausible) and tangible(intangible). 1 plausibly ​2 tangible ​3 disciples ​4 perspective ​ 5 part and parcel ​6 hybrid ​7 made a lot of ​8conjuring

Method acting (originally developed by Stanislavski) is a technique whereby the actor aims to achieve complete emotional identification with the part theyplay.

extra: whole class Ask students to discuss in pairs: Which actors are mentioned in the article as using method acting to get into character? Who was the most extreme? Which preparations do you consider reasonable and which are going toofar?

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6 Image and reality READING (Continued)

extra: fast finishers Ask students to choose three of the bolded words from the article and write a definition for them. Give students an opportunity to read out their meaning, and other students guess which word it is for. plausibly (reasonable and likely to be true or successful) tangible (clear enough or definite enough to be easily seen or noticed) disciple (someone who believes in the ideas of a great teacher or leader, especially a religious one) perspective (a way of thinking about something, especially one which is influenced by the type of person you are or by your experiences) part and parcel (a necessary feature of something) hybrid (something that consists of or comes from a mixture of two or more other things) made a lot of (talk about something a lot or make it seem more important than it is) conjure (make something appear or happen in a way which is not expected) If students have internet access, ask them to look up plausible, tangible and perspective in the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English www.ldoceonline. com and note down the collocations. Ask them to decide on which three collocations they would be most likely to use generally, and share these with theclass.

Sumup 5 Share the following summary for paragraph 1 as an

example: Spencer Tracy was a famous actor who gave advice to new actors including to ‘never let them catch you at it’ meaning that when in character, you should stay incharacter. Ask students to write brief summaries for the other paragraphs. Elicit some summaries for the individual paragraphs, and overallsummary.

Speakup 6 Put students into small groups to come up with

arguments for and against the statement. Remind students to give reasons and examples to support theirideas. Possibleanswers Cinema is better: special effects, more realistic, moreaction. Live theatre is better: more atmosphere, more personal/ intimate setting, you see people you know, local productions are sometimes better at reflecting local stories andvalues.

Funfooter Read the footer aloud. Ask students to discuss in pairs: Would you be willing to make drastic changes to your appearance for a job? Would it depend on the job? Elicit someideas.

Tofinish Ask students what their own response was to the article. If necessary, give prompts suchas: What I liked/didn’t like about the article was… I was surprised/shocked/interested by… I learned… I related to… Ask students to share their ideas in small groups. Alternatively, set up a forum or post on your private class online area for students to post their comment, and ask students to respond to at least two othercomments. In preparation for the Grammar lesson, ask students to read the Grammar file section on conditionals on page 152 and to revise the basic conditional forms. Also, students can go through the PowerPoint GrammarPresentation. Presentationtool:

Unit 6, Reading

Workbook / Online Practice:

pp56–57

Extra Practice App

Possibleanswers Paragraph 2: Jared Leto uses method acting and while filming a recent film, he played lots of nasty tricks on his fellow actors in keeping with the character of the Joker that he wasplaying. Paragraph 3: Many actors today go to great lengths to show that they are preparing for a role. Audiences now seem to like this devotion to the art ofacting. Paragraph 4: The new method acting is quite unlike the original method acting, where actors tried to find the motivation and emotions for the character from themselves and their ownexperience. Paragraph 5: The method seems to have adapted well for screen work, and actors use it to conjure up moments rather than live out wholelives. Paragraph 6: Really good method actors like Daniel DayLewis have ways of preparing, by involving themselves in a character’s life without telling everyone aboutit. Overall summary: This article is about how actors use a special method to get into character and give a convincingperformance.

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GRAMMAR

watch out for

SBp80

Tostart

Remind students that if the if clause comes first, there is a comma before the mainclause.

Before class, write the following notices on the board without theunderlining.

However, if the main clause comes first there is no comma before the ifclause:

1 Should you feel very unwell, please speak to thereceptionist. 2 Imagine you were having a quiet walk through the park and THIShappened! 3 Had David worked harder this term, his marks would have been higher. 4 Were you to agree to these terms, the money would be transferred into your accountimmediately.

If I were you, I’d buy your tickets before they all sellout. I’d buy your tickets before they all sell out if I wereyou.

3 Students write sentences then compare in pairs before checking as aclass.

1 If I hadn’t agreed to take on some extra work last week, I wouldn’t be (so) stressednow. 2 If Jon liked me, he would have invited me to hisparty. 3 If the car hadn’t broken down yesterday, we wouldn’t be travelling to the airport by taxitomorrow. 4 If the teacher hadn’t given us a surprise test after school, I’d be at homenow. 5 If I’d got the right grades, I would be starting university nextSeptember. 6 If Dad had got the heating fixed, it wouldn’t be freezing in my room rightnow!

Ask students to discuss in pairs: Where might you see these notices or comments? Elicit and underline the conditional forms in eachone. 1 doctor’s surgery  2 social media  3 schoolreport 4 formal email from a bank/company/solicitor,etc.

1 Students complete the example sentences. If you didn’t

follow the flipped classroom suggestion at the end of the Reading lesson, go through the Grammar file section on conditional forms on page 152 and ask students to complete Ex 1 on page 153 to consolidate basic conditional forms. Alternatively, recap information from the PowerPoint GrammarPresentation.

extra: fast finishers

extra: mixed ability

Write the following extra items on the board for fastfinishers.

If you have a weaker class, read the possible endings aloud out of order for students to write down, and then ask them to match the endings to stems 1–4. It is important that students understand the basic conditional forms before moving to the nextexercise.

7 I lost my voice. I didn’t get the part. (If I hadn’t lost my voice, I would have got thepart.) 8 The project didn’t have tangible results. The funding was cut. (If the project had had tangible results, the funding wouldn’t have beencut.)

Possibleanswers 1 there’s a lot of noise in the auditorium. (zeroconditional) 2 all the critics agree that his performance was outstanding. (firstconditional) 3 would probably be an artist. (secondconditional) 4 I wouldn’t have persuaded you to go and see it with me. (thirdconditional) Zero conditional: if + present tense + present tense (We use the zero conditional for general truths orconsequences.) First conditional: if + present tense + future form/might/ could, etc. (We use the first conditional for the consequence of a possible futureaction.) Second conditional: if + past simple + would/could/might + infinitive (We use the second conditional for hypothetical situations in thepresent.) Third conditional: if + past perfect + would have + past participle (We use the third conditional for hypothetical situations in thepast.)

explore grammar

SB p152

2 Read through the grammar box with the class. Ask

students to read the examples and match them with uses A–C. Elicit the answers then point out the alternative forms. Point out that form E is a common way to end formal letters and emails, e.g. Should you require any further information, don’t hesitate to contactme. A 2 ​B 1 ​C3

4

6.1 Ask: Have you ever been to a fancy-dress party? (If necessary, clarify that it is a party where people wear clothes that make them look like a famous person, a character from a story, etc.). Students read the questions then play the recording. Elicit theanswers. 1 She regrets agreeing to go to the fancy-dressparty. 2 He thinks Ben shouldn’t have asked her. If Ben were a really good friend, he would know herbetter. 3 The boy thinks the girl wants him to go to the party instead of her (but the girl wants him to help her find asuit).

5 Refer students to the audioscript on page 180 to identiy the conditionalsentences.

G: Really, if he weren’t such a good friend, there’s no way I’d begoing! B: Seriously, if he were a really good friend, he would know you better and he wouldn’t have askedyou! G: Mm, if I were to ask you if you could… B: You wouldn’t catch me at a fancy-dress party if you paidme! G: … if you could help me find a Catwomanoutfit?

Funfooter Ask: What do you know about cosplay? Elicit some ideas. Point out the footer. Ask: Can you guess how Takahashi Nobuyuki formed the word cosplay? (It is a blend of the words costume andplay.)

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6 Image and reality GRAMMAR (Continued)

6 Ask students to quickly read the text in Ex 6 to check

their ideas about cosplay and see what else they can findout. Ask students to complete the blog with the correct form of the verb. Students compare their answers in pairs then check as aclass. 1 have never heard 2 are 3 wouldn’t have had 4 had asked 5 go/were togo 6 will/would find 7 hadn’t bought 8 wouldn’tbe 9 want 10 will need to/need to 11 were to tell/told 12 would be 13 had foundout

Speakup 7 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs. Circulate,

listening to conditional forms, and noting down any areas which might require additional revision after theactivity. Possibleanswers 1 escapism, doing something different, a good way to provide a talking point at a socialgathering 2 • If I had to choose a character to cosplay, it would have to be the Hulk because I’d like to go around pretending to be strong andinvincible. • If I had to dress up as someone, it would probably be Rey from Star Wars as she’s one of my all-time favourite characters.

extra: whole class Ask students to discuss the following additional question in pairs: Some people enjoy dressing up to re-enact famous historical events such as battles. Would you like to take part in or watch such an event? Why/Why not? Which historical period (or event) re-enactment would you like to watch?Why?

Tofinish Students work in small groups. Read the first sentence of each situation and ask students to decide what they would do and write it down using a conditional. Then read the bracketed information about the situation. Ask: Would this new information change yourdecision? • You see someone shoplifting in the supermarket. (It’s afriend.) • You dropped your friend’s mobile and it smashed the screen. (You only dropped it because your friend knocked intoyou.) • You find someone’s wallet full of cash. (It belongs to someone who has picked on your friend in thepast.) Possibleanswer I would definitely tell the shopkeeper because stealing is just plain wrong. That said, if I had known that it was my friend doing the shoplifting, I probably wouldn’t have dobbed her in. Maybe I’d have had a word with herinstead. Presentationtool:

Unit 6, Grammar

Workbook / Online Practice:

p58

Photocopiable activity:

6A

Grammar reference and practice:

SB p152

Audioscript:

SBp180

VOCABULARY

SBp81

words with similarmeanings Tostart Ask students to brainstorm how many verbs similar to change they can remember from the Vocabulary lesson on page 39 and write these on the board (e.g. transform, adjust, amend, adapt to, alter, modify, revamp). Ask students to discuss in pairs what the differences are in meaning, then elicit the meanings. Ask: What were the most helpful strategies for remembering the differences between similar words? Tell students that in this lesson, they will be looking at some other words with similar but not identicalmeanings. transform = completely change the appearance, form, or character of something or someone, especially in a way that improvesit adjust = gradually become familiar with a new situation; to change or move something slightly to improve it or make it more suitable for a particular purpose; if you adjust something you are wearing, you move it slightly so that it is neater, more comfortable,etc. amend = correct or make small changes to something that is written orspoken adapt to = gradually change your behaviour and attitudes in order to be successful in a new situation; to change something to make it suitable for a differentpurpose alter = change, or to make someone or something change; to make a piece of clothing longer, wider, etc. so that itfits modify = make small changes to something in order to improve it and make it more suitable oreffective revamp = change something in order to improve it and make it seem moremodern

1 Read the quote by Shakespeare aloud. If students have

access to the internet, ask them to find the context for this quote and read the next part. Otherwise, read the next part of the quote aloud: They have their exits and their entrances and one man in his time plays many parts. Elicit some answers to thequestions. Possibleanswer This quote means that life is like a stage because we act out different roles, e.g. a baby, someone’s child, a school child, a worker, a friend, a partner, an elderly person,etc.

explorelanguage 2 Read through the explore language box with students. Ask them to work in pairs to complete the sentences, using dictionaries if necessary to clarify the difference between eachword. 1A B 2A B 3A B 4A B

delusion (mistakenbelief) illusions (something notreal) fantasy (something purelyimagined) fallacy (something often believed butuntrue) image (apicture) imagination (ability tocreate) reality (what is real andhappening) realism (way of thinking/portraying things based onfact) 5 A hallucinations (visual images induced by medication orillness) B dream(s) (when we’reasleep)

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extra: whole class Working in pairs, students select one pair of words from Ex 2 and write two example sentences. Then remove the target words to make gap fills to swap with another pair. Alternatively, collect the gapped sentences (checking them for correctness) and photocopy them together to redistribute as a revision exercise in the nextlesson.

phrasalverbs 3

6.2 Play the recording and elicit how the woman’s colleague sounds different atwork. He puts on another voice and tries to sound moreimportant.

4

6.3 Play the recording again for students to complete the sentences, then match the phrases to the meanings. Elicit theanswers. 1 on ​2 out ​3 for ​4 in ​5 up ​6on 1 put on – speakwith 2 make out –pretend 3 take (sb) for –mistake 4 take in –deceive 5 make up –invent 6 take on –adopt

extra: whole class

Speakup 6 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs, then elicit someideas.

Tofinish Put students into pairs and give them this situation to actout. Student A: You are having a hard time. Decide why you are having a hard time, then go to great lengths to hide it from yourpartner. Student B: You notice your friend seems to be putting on a brave front. Ask them what is wrong, and encourage them to drop thefaçade. As a follow-up, you could ask students to act out the followingsituation. Student B: You have a few questions about what we have covered so far in Unit 6 and want some general advice on how to improve. Ask the ‘teacher’ (Student A) yourquestions. Student A: You are the English teacher. Respond to the questions. If you don’t know the answers, try to point the ‘student’ to where they could findit. Presentationtool:

Unit 6, Vocabulary

Workbook / Online Practice:

p59

Audioscript: SBp180 Extra Practice App

Ask students to think of an example in the following categories and compare their ideas inpairs. 1 something you have made uprecently 2 someone you know who puts on a different telephonevoice 3 someone you have mistaken for someone elserecently 4 a different role you took onrecently 5 a time you were taken in by an untruestory

collocations 5 Ask students to read the text quickly for gist and then

complete sentences 1–6 with the collocations from the text. As you go through the answers, elicit what each collocation means. Point out the cedilla in façade and elicit what it means (the c is pronounced /s/ rather than/k/). 1 get intocharacter 2 the semblanceof 3 the façadeslips 4 through andthrough 5 gone to greatlengths 6 gives a convincingperformance

extra: fast finishers Write two extra sentences on the board for fast finishers to complete with collocations from Ex5: 7 She was devastated to lose her job but she’s been and no one would ever know. (putting on a bravefront) 8 I thought you said you were ill. So, seeing you at the cinema must have been ? (a figment of myimagination)

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6 Image and reality

LISTENING

3 Javier and Maria agree that videos which capture anillusion A are causing people to beupset. B are a valuable educationaltool. C are drawing a new audience into the artform. D are an effective way to raise discussion of certainconcepts. 4 Javier suggests that his livingarrangements A are responsible for the success of hisvideos. B allow the team to film until the video isperfect. C generate ideas that areunusual. D result in a wider variety oftopics. 5 Javier’s view of freebooting isthat A it needs to becontrolled. B it can be damaging for somepeople. C it is a bad way to achievepopularity. D it has different effects on differentpeople. 6 Maria and Javier both thinkthat A they will always disagree about what’sbest. B the audience for this type of video isgrowing. C people will always be able to sort illusion fromreality. D there needs to be more discussion about the problems these videosraise.

SBp82

Tostart If you have the facilities, search for a few optical illusions to the show the class. Ask students to discuss in pairs how they were created. Ask: Why do you think illusions like this are sopopular?

Powerup 1 Focus students on the picture and tell them it has

not been digitally altered. Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit some ideas on how the illusion wascreated. If students have mobile devices, give them a few minutes to find an illusion they like to share with a smallgroup. Possibleanswers 1 A picture of the empty table has been taken on the tablet. A coffee cup has been placed on top of the tablet, and another photograph has been taken from directly above to make it look like the cup is part of the photograph on thetablet. 2 One of the best illusions I’ve seen was a 3D pedestrian crossing. It was just painted on the road, but the way it was done in 3D made it look like there were rectangular blocks on the road. It looked really cool, and more than that, it had a useful function, apparently it was great for getting cars to slowdown!

exam task: multiple choice: longertext Go through the exam tip with theclass. Key words = making videos, Javierfeels B tells us that we’re about to hear the information we need because this is a question to Javier about putting together his incredible videos (putting together is another way of expressing makingvideos).

Listenup 2

6.4 Play the recording and elicit why Javier has beensuccessful. Possibleanswer Because he is technically very good, very creative and spends time on hisvideos.

3 Give students one minute to read the task and underline

key words. Point out that in the exam, students might not have time to underline the key words in all the options so they will need to underline the stems and then read the options as they listen. However, in this lesson, students are asked to underline stem options and think of different words and phrases to practise the skill of recognising paraphrasing, which they will need to be able to do quickly in the exam. Elicit the key words in each question stem, and what possible words or phrases could be used to express the idea of the key words. Possibleanswers 1 When talking about making his videos, Javier feels A gratified by the interviewer’s interest in what hedoes. B proud that the videos are a result of his technicalskills. C satisfied with the sophistication of thesoftware. D worried that people think he is beingdishonest. 2 Maria thinks that the types of videos which Javiermakes A have affected our everydaylives. B have challenged herprofession. C have changed the way wethink. D have prevented discussion of other importantissues.

4

6.5 Play the recording. Go through the answers as a class. To answer question 4, students need to infer the answer from severalsentences. 1 B (Many people think I use special effects programs but I don’t. For me, that would becheating.) 2 C (I think they alter our judgement and understanding of what’spossible) 3 D (I suppose what’s good is that at least the videos allow us to debate this kind of thing. … And surely, it’s a good thing that we aim to exploit the assumptions we make around the laws of physics in order to test them. And it’s in a way that can be understood and discussed by the man on thestreet.) 4 A (There’s so much interaction that we’re always creating something. We start off with brainstorming. That’s where we got those ideas – like seeing someone getting pulled along by a car or the video of an egg apparently with a chick inside! The part I enjoyed most was working out how we were actually going to do it. It just wouldn’t work so well if we weren’t together all the time. And we are constantly having to reshootthings.) 5 B (But I do understand how hard it is for other people who spend hours creating stuff and then someone just stealsit.) 6 C (I do think audiences are becoming more sophisticated and more discerning about what they want to believe … the discussion about reality will act as a kind of transparency for the truth and, ultimately, people are notsilly.)

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recording with the words in the box.

USE OF ENGLISH 1

1 a hit ​2 blame ​3 to ​4 in ​5to

Tostart

5 Ask students to complete the expressions from the

extra: fast finishers Ask students to find the expressions from Ex 5 in audioscript 6.4 on page 180 and deduce the meaning of each one from context, then check in the dictionary. Students choose three expressions to write sentences with. Then report back to theclass.

Speakup 6 Write seeing is believing on the board and ask: What

does this idiom mean? (It means that only visible proof of something is convincing.) Share the related idiom: I need to see it with my own eyes. Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs then elicit a fewideas. Possibleanswers 1 It is way too easy to photoshop something or change it slightly to give a better impression – after all, everyone doesit! 2 I’d say that in this age of fake news, that people are far more sceptical than they used to be, and we shouldn’t always accept things at facevalue.

If you have access to the internet in the classroom, do an internet search for ‘trick art’ before class and choose a few interesting images to display. Otherwise, use the picture on page83. Ask students to discuss in pairs: How do you think these trick artworks have been created? Elicit some ideas. (Usually, the floor and walls are painted in a way that creates an optical illusion. Sometimes the photo is taken from an unusual perspective or some objects are closer or further away to make it seem that they are differentsizes.) Ask: Have you ever been to a place where trick artwork was displayed? What is the appeal of visiting an exhibition likethis?

1 Put students into pairs to read the text and ask them

to discuss the purpose of the highlighted phrases, both generally and specifically for each highlighted phrase. Check the answers as aclass. The highlighted phrases connect ideas or information and act as signposts for thereader.

explore language

SB p152

2 Say: In Ex 1, linking expressions were used to introduce

Tofinish Students work in two groups to prepare a debate. Assign each student to group A or B. In each group choose a main speaker and a secondspeaker. Give students this statement to debate: We shouldn’t trust things we see inphotos. Group A: You are defending the motion. Think of arguments why altering photos is easy and can cause problems and how this could be controlled. Prepare questions to challenge the other team’sarguments. Group B: You are against the motion. Think of arguments why photos are valuable sources of information and evidence. Prepare questions to challenge the other team’sarguments. Have the class debate. Vote at the end for thewinner. Alternatively, have students prepare their arguments in groups, then ask each student (or a pair of students) to pair up with someone from the opposing team to have their debate against eachother. In preparation for the next lesson ask students to read the Grammar file section on linking expressions on page152. Presentationtool:

Unit 6, Listening

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Audioscript: SBp180 Extra Practice App

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a purpose, a reason and a focus. Two other purposes for linking expressions are limitation and reformulation. Go through the explore language box with the class. If you haven’t already referred students to the Grammar file on page 152 in preparation for class, refer them to it now as it includes a summary table of linking expressions and their purposes. Go through the notes and examples, then ask students to complete Practice Ex 4 on page 153. Ex 5 can be set for homework or completed by fast finishers inclass. 1 that is tosay 2 then again/having said that/inreality 3 having said that/then again/inreality 4 In other words/That is to say/To put itsimply

watch out for Make sure students are clear on the difference between the purposes of reformulation (when phrasing the same idea in a new way) and limitation (when discussing the limits of an idea). In Ex 2, students need to consider both grammatical correctness and the correct purpose of the linkingwords.

3 Say: Imagine you are a football goalie and facing a penalty kick. What techniques could you use to protect your goal? Students discuss in pairs. Then elicit some ideas. Give students a minute to read the text to find out what tricks are mentioned. Elicit the tricks mentioned in the text. Compare them to students’ideas.

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6 Image and reality

USE OF ENGLISH 2

USE OF ENGLISH 1 (Continued)

exam task: open-cloze Ask students to read the exam tip. Elicit that gap 5 is part of a structure referring back to an earlier part of thetext. They then wanted to find out whether the goalkeeper could also alter perceptions of his size so (4) to influence penalty-takers’ actions. (5) they discovered suggested that postures which make the goalkeeper seem bigger…

4

Tostart Ask the class: What board games are popular in yourcountry? Ask students to discuss in pairs: Do you play any board games or card games? Have you ever cheated in a game? Are you any good at games that involvebluffing?

1 Students discuss the question in pairs. Elicit some ideas

of meaning. Ask: What kinds of occupations are notorious for being economical with the truth? (possible answers: politicians, lawyers, salespeople, advertising executives). If they are economical with the truth, is this a moral failing? Or is it just part and parcel of the job that theydo?

Point out that this is an example of a Reading and Use of English, Part 2 task. Ask students to complete the article then compare their answers in pairs before checking as aclass. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

no (negative quantifier with uncountablenoun) to (correct preposition to followaccording) if/when(conditional) as (part of the fixed phrase so asto) What (backreference) while/whilst/whereas (contrastivelinker) In/Under (part of fixed phrase in/under thecirc*mstances) 8 by/through (preposition to showmanner)

Speakup 5 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit a

Being economical with the truth is a euphemism for lying, either outright or not being entirely honest, for example by failing to disclose the full story orexaggerating.

2

In the game of Monopoly, players compete to buy properties and bankrupt each other. Trivial Pursuit involves players or teams answering general knowledge questions in a range ofcategories. Possibleanswer My brother is exactly like her. You have to watch him like a hawk or he pinches money from thebank. I have to admit that I used to be a bit of a nightmare to play with myself at times. But I’ve grown out ofit.

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Ask: Do you find this surprising? Why/Whynot?

Focus students’ attention on the footer. Ask students to find and underline the linking expression in the same way as. Ask: What is the purpose of this linking expression? Elicit that it is used to show similarity. Elicit any other linkers students know to show similarity and write these on the board. Ask students to work in pairs. Say: Can you re-write the footer using any of the otherlinkers? Possibleanswers Linkers to show similarity: in a similar way, similarly, likewise, like (informal),as Experiments show that some mammals and birds are fooled by illusions in a similar way topeople. People are fooled by optical illusions. Similarly, experiments show that some mammals and birds are,too. People are fooled by optical illusions, and some mammals and bird are often fooledlikewise. Experiments show that some mammals and bird are fooled by illusions like/as peopleare. Presentationtool:

Unit 6, Use of English 1

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Grammar reference and practice:

SB p152

6.6 Play the recording and ask students to listen for what kind of player the girl is. Students discuss the question inpairs.

background

fewresponses.

Tofinish

SBp84

explorelanguage 3

6.7 Play the recording and ask students to complete the sentences. Check as a class. Read through the explore language box, eliciting the difference between honest (not hiding the truth or the facts about something, may be used to talk about people) and above-board (honest and/or legal). Ask students to discuss in pairs what each verb in this exercise means including subtle differences. Elicit the meanings. Then ask students to write their own sentences for each verb. If you have some weaker students, ask them to work in pairs to write thesentences. 1 deceiving (making someone believe something that is nottrue) 2 cheat (to behave in a dishonest way in order to win or to get an advantage, especially in a competition, game, orexam) 3 betray (in this context: to show feelings that you are trying to hide; generally: to be disloyal to someone who trusts you, so that they are harmed orupset) 4 pretended (to behave as if something is true when in fact you know it is not, in order to deceive people or forfun)

Extra Practice App

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4 Ask students to read the sentences individually and

add each bold word to the list in A–E next to words with a similar meaning. Students work in pairs for the discussion, using dictionaries if necessary. Alternatively, divide students into five groups. Assign each group one of the categories A–E. Ask them to discuss differences in meaning between words in their category then look up words to check. Ask pairs/groups to report back and explain the differences in meaning to the class. If technology is available, they could present this on a slide presentation such as Google Slides orPowerPoint. 1 D ​​2 E ​​3 B ​​4 A ​​5C

5 Give students two minutes to read the article quickly to

get the gist and find out what tests show about lying. Elicit the answer. Ask: Did anyone spot an idiom for lying? (tellingporkies). Lying can be a sign ofcreativity.

exam task: multiple-choicecloze 6

Read the exam tip aloud, then set a time limit of six minutes for students to complete thearticle. 1 D (other options do not collocate withlikely) 2 C (the other options need to be followed by apreposition) 3 B (cheat is used fortests/exams) 4 A (actually is incorrect because the sentence is introducing a new explanation that does not contradict previous position/statement; obviously is incorrect because the author doesn’t think it is obvious, we know this from remarkably in the previous sentence; deceptively is incorrect because it isn’tdeceptive) 5 B (the gap is followed by out so indicated/shown are not correct; the meaning of made out is to say something is true when it isnot) 6 C (convincing means something that seems true; other words do not make sense in thiscontext) 7 C (other words do not collocate withproblem) 8 A (a scammer is someone who cheats people out of money; a forger is someone who illegally copies documents, money, paintings, etc. and tries to make people think they are real; a dodger is someone who uses dishonest methods to avoid paying taxes; a prankster is someone who plays tricks on people to make them looksilly)

Speakup 7 Elicit the meaning of go hand in hand (if two things go

hand in hand, they are closely connected). Students discuss the question in pairs, then elicit a fewresponses. Possibleanswers • I’m inclined to think that creative types might be more economical with the truth. They might not even realise they’re doingit! • Sometimes creativity and deception do go hand in hand. Have you seen the movie Catch Me If You Can? That was based on a true story about a con artist who was basically a creativegenius. • Just because someone is creative doesn’t make that person deceitful necessarily. On the other hand, if someone’s deceitful, I guess she must be creative enough to think of ways to bluff her way out oftrouble.

Funfooter Read the footer aloud. Ask students to discuss in pairs: Are you able to tell when people aren’t telling the truth? What signs do you look for? Do you think people can easily tell if you’relying?

Tofinish Explain to students that you are going to play a game called ‘chocolate pudding’. Tell them you are going to read four comments aloud. In each one, a word from this lesson has been replaced with the words chocolate pudding. Put students into pairs for the game. Read each sentence aloud twice, then give students time to discuss with their partner and write down a word. The pair with the most words correct is thewinner. 1 My sister used to have an ‘invisible friend’ called Tommy when she was little. It was all chocolate pudding, of course, but he seemed very real toher. 2 The gran of one of my friends got taken in by a phone chocolate pudding recently and she lost a lot ofmoney. 3 If an online investment looks too good to be true, then it probably is! Check out that it’s chocolate pudding before spending any money. You could be breaking thelaw. 4 Dad once threatened not to pick me up after a party if it was too late. It was just a chocolate pudding of course and although it was three a.m. he still cameout! 1 make-believe ​2 scam ​3 above-board ​4bluff Presentationtool:

Unit 6, Use of English 2

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Audioscript: SBp180 Extra Practice App

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6 Image and reality

SPEAKING

SBp85

Tostart Put students into pairs to discuss whether they would lie in the following situations. This is a good opportunity for students to practise using appropriate conditionals as covered in the Grammar lesson on page80. • A friend has a new haircut – you hateit. • You’re invited to a film that you don’t want tosee. • You haven’t completed an assignment and one of your parents asks you aboutit. • You broke a vase, but no one knows it wasyou.

Powerup 1 Ask students to read the comments in pairs and think of some possible situations. Elicit someideas.

Possibleanswers 1 A child saying that her brother broke something when it was herfault. 2 She’d been out to the cinema with someone else and said she was athome. 3 He’d been to a late party on a school night when he’d told his parents he was staying at a friend’s tostudy.

3

6.8 Remind students that after the collaborative task, the Part 4 discussion will be on a similar or related topic. Tell students that they are going to hear two students answering a Part 4 discussion question about a similar topic to the collaborative task in Ex 2. Play the recording then elicit theanswers. Possibleanswer Should you always tell the truth to friends/family? Why/ Whynot? They talk about lying to a mother about handing in an assignment, and seeing a friend’s partner out with someoneelse.

exam tip useful language: giving reasons and examples 4 Read through the exam tip with the class. Go through

the phrases in the useful language box, pointing out that when introducing a reason using the first three phrases, we tend to pause between the first phrase and the reason: The reason I say this (pause) is because …. Refer students to audioscript 6.8 on page 180 to underline the phrases for using reasons andexamples.

Speakup

For instance; Take yesterday, for example; The reason I did that was; if, like; is a prime example; And that’s also because; Another example mightbe

exam task: collaborative task(decision) SB p164 There is no decision question as there would be in the Cambridge exam as this task is a lead in to the Part 4 discussion questions.

2

This exercise practises the decision phase of the collaborative task where, after discussing the individual prompts, students will be asked to make a decision together on a related question. Time students for one minute as they discuss the question in the centre of the mind map inpairs. Possibleanswer A: Looking again at these different people, for me, the most important would be either teachers or people in authority. You’ve only got to remember that you could get in serious trouble if they caught you lying tothem. B: It’s true, you might. However, I still stand by what I said earlier about complete honesty being more than simply making sure your facts are true. It’s also about being open and not having any secrets. I definitely don’t want to let my teacher or principal in oneverything! A: Do you think friendsthen? B: Yes, I do. I feel very strongly that everyone should have a friend or two that they can share everything with, I’d say it is essential forwell-being. A: Although it wasn’t my first thought, I can see what you’re saying. I wouldn’t say every single friend, but close friends. I’m probably more candid with my best friend than anyone else, Iguess. B: OK, so it sounds like we agree on friendsthen.

exam task: discussion There are four questions listed here for discussion whereas in the Cambridge exam the examiner has a choice of six questions to ask the candidates.

5

Remind students that during the four-minute discussion, they will be asked a series of questions which may be directed to one or both students. Circulate, listening for students giving reasons and examples, but allowing each other tospeak. Possibleanswer 1 A: I’m in two minds about this. I mean, on the one hand, I would expect politicians to be honest about policies and their behaviour. On the other, I think they might have to fib sometimes for the greatergood. B: In what kind of circ*mstances might they have tolie? A: Let’s take an example, what if politicians are making a trade deal, and if they disclose details, it might lead to getting a worse deal for the country. That said, I do think they’d be much better to say they won’t comment rather than outrightlying. B: I guess you’re right up to a point. But I’d really rather politicians were truly authentic and above-board, even duringcampaigns. A: You’re right, that would certainly be nice. Although, in reality, I’m not sure that’s ever going to happen… 2 A: I guess I can see what they’re saying, that maybe if you are upfront about everything, it doesn’t make you very popular. This is because people don’t always want to hear the cold, hard truth, especially aboutthemselves!

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B: To build on what Elias has said, I think the key is to be careful about what you say and diplomatic in how you sayit. 3 A: Absolutely. Why I think this way is because it is vital that children know that they can trust what you say. You don’t necessarily have to give a full and detailed answer, but don’t make up alie. B: I have a different perspective to Elias. In my view, it’s OK for people to not be completely honest with young children sometimes, this is basically to protect them from some of life’s harsh realities or let them enjoy some of the magic of made-up stories. 4 A: Personally, I think it’s better not have anything you need to hide, except for maybe a fun surprise for your partner. I think that keeping a secret, about say a personal failing, can be quiteexhausting. B: Although I generally agree that openness is important, I do think it’s fine to keep a few secrets now and then about trivial things. For example, does your partner need to know where you hide your secret stash ofchocolate?

alternative Put students into groups of three, and ask them to take turns to be the examiner. The ‘examiner’ can direct questions to each student and ask follow-upquestions.

game on Put students into an even number of groups of three to prepare their stories. Encourage them to think of interesting stories rather than mundane events. Groups of four can also work: three truths and a lie. Combine the groups to play the game. If time allows, ask groups to swap and play against another group to increase fluency andconfidence.

WRITING

SBpp86–87

Tostart Focus students on the picture on Student’s Book page 86 and ask: Have you ever tried pottery or used a potter’s wheel? (a piece of equipment that turns around, onto which wet clay is placed so that it can be shaped by hand into a pot). Would you like to? What benefits are there to learning an art like pottery at school? (e.g. fosters creativity, enjoyable, satisfaction of making something, gives different students a chance toexcel). Elicit some ideas, then ask: What other subjects might be included in ‘arts education’? (e.g. music, painting, drama, dance, film-making,literature).

extra: whole class Ask students to discuss in pairs: Which school subjects… • are considered traditional academicsubjects? • fostercreativity? • are the mostinclusive? • areemployment-focused? • did/do you enjoymost?

Powerup 1 Put students into pairs to read the quote and discuss the questions. Elicit someideas.

Possibleanswers • I’d guess that Einstein is trying to say that it is all very well to learn facts, but if you don’t have any creativity to apply those facts to solve problems, then they aren’t much use toanyone. • He probably means that high-achievers tend to value creative thinking above rotelearning.

Planon

Tofinish

extra: whole class

Ask students to reflect on their discussion in Ex 5. Ask: What is something you did well? What is something you want to work on for futurediscussions?

Ask: What useful aspects of essay writing have we already covered? Give students a few minutes to look back at the lessons on essays on pages 30–31 and 58–59, before sharing theiranswers.

extra: whole class Ask students to choose the question they found most interesting from Ex 5 and write an informal paragraph explaining their point of view with reasons and examples, using some of the useful language in Ex 4. Alternatively, if you have a private class online space, post each question from Ex 5 as forum activities/question posts. Ask students to respond to two of the questions, and to respond to at least two othercomments. In preparation for the Writing lesson, ask students to revise the Writing file section on essays on page165. Presentationtool:

Unit 6, Speaking

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Photocopiable activity:

6B,6C

Speaking file:

SBp164

Audioscript: SBp180

hedging, using point of view adjectives, structuring your essay, using a range of vocabulary andstructures

2 Remind students that an essay is the compulsory section

in the Writing paper. Give students one minute to read the task and answer the questions. Encourage students to underline keywords. The purpose of the essay is to discuss two benefits of teaching the arts and explain which is the most important benefit. The teacher will readit.

3 Students read the essay individually, then discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit theanswers.

1 offers a wider education; inclusive, all canexcel 2 Yes, when selecting the most important point and also giving reasons why the benefits areimportant. 3 Yes, because it needs to be in an academicstyle. 4 There are paragraphs for each point in the essay; ideas are connected with linkingphrases.

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6 Image and reality WRITING (Continued) Modelanswer Many young adults today are graduating from secondary school without knowing how to change a lightbulb, boil an egg or do CPR. In light of this, it seems like an excellent idea for schools to teach practical skills such as household repairs, budgeting, cooking and firstaid. One key benefit of teaching such skills would be that it would give each of us the chance to gain these skills before graduation. Undoubtedly, some students will have access to acquiring skills from their families. Yet, for whatever reason, not all students have equitable opportunities to doso. Another valuable benefit is that it would free up young adults to settle into new work or study without the added burden of learning practical skills at the same time. To some degree, there will always be new skills to learn, but by covering the basics, schools would equip their students to progress to the next stage of their lives with confidence in managing most day-to-daytasks. It seems that the latter is the most crucial benefit. The reason for this is that it is not unusual for recent school graduates to feel overwhelmed by the huge changes in their lives. Unquestionably, learning practical skills will help us to adjust more easily and achieve greater success in our chosenendeavours. Overall, I am in favour of introducing practical skills education in secondary schools. In my view, it is vital that we all receive a broad education which prepares us for all aspects of adultlife.

exam tip Read through the exam tip with the class, giving students time to complete the questions. For more information on essays, refer students to the Writing file on page165. 1 connect across sentences: The first of these; The secondbenefit connect within sentences:Whilst 2 introduce information: There is compelling evidence that; it is worth noting that; It is important to realisethat indicate the writer’s attitude/point of view: Unsurprisingly;Undoubtedly

4 Ask students to work in pairs to discuss the meaning of

each bolded phrase (or do this as a class), before matching the phrases with their function. Students complete the activity, then compare their answers inpairs. 1 C (If you do or decide something in light of something else, you do it after considering thatthing.) 2 E (What is equally important is used when introducing a second idea or statement that is as important as your firstone.) 3 A (The first thing indicates an introduction; remember here means to keep inmind.) 4 B (with someday/something in mind means considering someone or something when doing something, and taking suitableaction.) 5 F (By the same token is a formal phrase meaning for the same reasons; it is used when you want to say that something else is also true, especially something very different orsurprising.) 6 D (For this reason is used after giving a reason for something, before saying what action wastaken.)

Improveit 8 You could set this reflection task for homework.

Alternatively, ask students to work in pairs to provide feedback on the assessment points to each other, then give them an opportunity to make changes to their essay before handing it in. Collect in the essays (or ask students to submit essays to your private online class space) and provide feedback on the assessment pointslisted.

explorelanguage For question 1, students work in pairs to find the adverbs that describe the attitude of the writer. Elicit possible answers. 1 Unsurprisingly and undoubtedly are adverbs which tell us how sure the writer feels aboutsomething. 2 Possibleanswers A significantly, crucially,importantly B fundamentally, basically, inessence C amazingly, shockingly,remarkably D undeniably, absolutely,unquestionably

Writeon 5 Students work in pairs to read the task. Encourage students to underline keywords.

The essay needs to include two of the benefits of teaching practical life skills, withreasons.

6 Students work through steps 1–5 to plan their essays, then compare their ideas inpairs.

exam task: essay 7

SB p165

You could set this task for homework along with Ex 8. Encourage students to time themselves for 30 minutes. (They will have 40 minutes in the exam, but have already spent time planninghere.)

Tofinish Ask students to close their books. Put students into pairs. Say: We are going to have an anagram race. I’m going to write some anagrams (scrambled words) on the board, and the first pair to solve all five anagrams and bring me the words written correctly on a piece of paper, each one in a sentence will be the winner. As soon as I start writing on the board, you canstart. Write the following anagrams on the board, without the answers inbrackets. 1 2 3 4 5

arctic lily(critically) ruling sir spy(surprisingly) mundanely flat(fundamentally) ideal bunny(undeniably) nail mr potty(importantly)

To make other anagrams, search online for an anagrammaker. Presentationtool:

Unit 6, Writing

Workbook / Online Practice:

p64

Writing file:

SBp165

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SWITCH ON

SBp88

Medicalmiracles extra: whole class As a warm up, ask: What is an alternative therapy? (alternative medicine/therapy is a treatment that is not always based on scientifically approved methods). Ask: What alternative therapies have you heardof? Elicit therapies such as aromatherapy, homeopathy, acupuncture, hypnosis, reflexology, reiki, massage and meditation or traditional indigenousmedicines.

1 Put students into groups of three or four. Remind them

to use varying language for giving reasons and examples as covered in the Speaking lesson on page 85, and go over these with weaker classes before the discussion. Ask someone from each group to summarise thediscussion. Possibleanswers 1 My view is that being positive can help you feel better up to a point. That said, it would be naïve to ignore mainstream medicine for some sort of airy-fairy mind games. If it was that easy, do you think we’d still have any sickpeople? 2 My grandmother teaches yoga and meditation so I’ve spent a fair amount of time doing those. I don’t know that I would call them therapy but I suppose it did my mind and body somegood! 3 Some possible factors: status of the prescribing physician or therapist; cost of the treatment; word of mouth; testimonials; scientificevidence.

extra: whole class Focus students on the picture. Say: if this doctor offered you a performance-enhancing supplement that was perfectly safe, would you take it? What would you ask before takingit?

2

Play the video. In pairs, ask students to discuss what the placebo effect is, and write a one-sentence summary. Ask some pairs to share theirsummaries. Possibleanswers • The placebo effect is a phenomenon in which a person’s condition or performance responds to a placebo, such as a pill which in itself has no properties to induce thechange. • It’s a physical and mental response to a stimulus that appears to be genuine, but is in factfalse. • The placebo effect is when someone believes that a drug or treatment is genuine and will make them better, when in fact there is no active substance in thedrug.

3

Give students time to read the questions then play the video again. Students discuss the questions in pairs. Conduct classfeedback. Possibleanswers 1 The pill was given a clinical name (Neuroset). Jeremy is a doctor. Players were given more than one pill as studies had shown that would be more convincing. The pills included the colour red which has been found to meet expectations of their appearance. There was medical equipmentpresent. A uniformed medical officer dispensed the pills along with making notes and testing the players’ blood pressure. The pills were dispensed in a recognisably medical way in paper cups and with water. Jeremy’s language was very precise and informed. Jeremy told them what to expect so they would have already been anticipating thechange. 2 Embarrassed that I had been tricked, particularly on television. I would start to question other performanceenhancing food, drink or supplements I had taken, such as energy drinks, and wonder if they really worked. I would feel amazed and a little freaked out about how readily we were all prepared to believe something, just because it appeared to be genuine. I’d be intrigued that our performance had improved so significantly purely through the effect of ourbelief.

4 Check students understand unethical (morally

unacceptable). Put students into pairs. Assign each pair to be for/against the statement equally across the class. Ask each pair to decide on an argument with reasons or examples to support their position. Some students may like to write some notes whereas stronger students could be encouraged to speak without notes. Split the class up into for and against, and ask pairs from each group to take turns presenting their arguments. You could finish by having a classvote. Possibleanswers • It’s highly unethical. It’s deception. You are consenting to take one thing, but are being given something else. To me, that means your consent has not been truly given and it’s irresponsible to assume it’sOK. • By distorting what the players can achieve at ‘normal’ performance levels, it could adversely impact their game if they are unable to attain the ‘enhanced’ level without a placebo, which isunfair. • I don’t think it’s a problem. The subjects aren’t being harmed and if it results in something positive that they are happy about, then whynot? • I don’t think it is unethical. Some important research into the effectiveness of new drugs is done this way, from which everyonebenefits.

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6 Image and reality SWITCH ON (Continued)

Project 5 Clarify that a piece of persuasive media is essentially

an advertisem*nt. It may be covert, such as a blog post which appears at first glance to be independent but is in fact trying to sell a sponsored product, or it may be more open. Brainstorm possible types of media with the class then put students into groups to complete steps2–3. Types of media could include: videos, social media posts, television or radio programmes, audio clips, or newspaperarticles.

extra: project If students have mobile devices in class, have a trick photo competition. Show a few example pictures of ‘trick photography’ from an internet search such as a person ‘holding’ her tiny friends on her hand. Choose some examples that lookachievable. Ask students to work in small groups. Ask students to follow these steps (all discussion should be inEnglish): 1 Discuss possible ideas for a trickphoto. 2 Choose the bestidea. 3 Plan how it is going to work and who will take it andwhere. 4 Take thephoto. 5 Email the photo to you to display through the IWB, or upload it to your private online classarea. 6 Show the photos to other students and have them vote on the best one. Alternatively, choose awinner. Consider asking students to complete the Independent learning questions on page 88 for homework in preparation for the next lesson. Then use the class time for students to discuss their ideas with a partner and go over any areas identified asrevision. Presentationtool:

Unit 6, Switch on

Switch on videoscript:

TBp181

INDEPENDENT LEARNING SBp88

Grammar andvocabulary 1 After students have completed the questions individually, elicit what they would like to go over again. Alternatively, provide paper for students to write what they would like to go over without saying it in front of the class. Allow some time to go over areas identified after the independent learninglesson.

alternative: mixed ability Give stronger students the option to work through the Unit Check activities independently while you go over nominated content again with weakerstudents.

2 Students discuss the answers inpairs. Possibleanswers 1 Complete the unit check exs. Do allocated homework. Look for online practice apps/websites. Record vocabulary in a notebook. Write personalised examples for newgrammar/vocabulary. 2 Check pronunciation of words in the online Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Identify sounds that you have difficulty with, or ask the teacher to help you identify these sounds. Use pronunciationapps.

3 Brainstorm some ideas as a class, then ask students to pick three each to do, and write them down. Students share inpairs.

Possibleanswers 1 Before I start my homework, I’m going to spend some time looking over the previouslesson. 2 If I get an exercise wrong, I’m going to make sure I understand why. If not, I’ll ask theteacher. 3 When the teacher gives me feedback on my written work, I’m going to spend some time reading the feedback. I’ll review the feedback before the next writingtask.

UNITCHECK

SBp89

If possible, complete Practice Ex 1 in class because it consists of pair work, and Review Ex 1 because it features audio. The other exercises may be completed in class or set for homework. Check the answers in class or provide the key for students toself-check. Relevant Unit check exercises may also be set for fast finishers during otherlessons.

Practice 1 Students’ ownanswers. 2 betray, bluff, cheat, deceive, fake, falsehood, fib, forge, fraud, hoax, scam, tell a whopper, tellporkies

3 1 compelling 2 convincing 3 prime 4 brave 5candid

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Review 1

6.9  1 F ​2 T ​3 T ​4 T ​5T

2 1 is ​2 Were ​3 would be ​4 is, looking for ​5 filters  ​ 6 thinks ​7 blink ​8 tomake

3 1 in case ​2 otherwise ​3 on condition that ​ 4 in the event of ​5 but for ​6providing

4 Possibleanswers 2 If we don’t have any controls on news stories, it may badly affectpeople. 3 He was only allowed to see the magicians’ tricks if he didn’t tellanyone. 4 All the performers must gather in the hall if they hear analarm. 5 We would have been at the fancy-dress party if we had had something towear! 6 We should win if last year’s winners don’t enter thecompetition.

5 1 On the contrary ​2 That is to say ​3 What’s more ​ 4 so as ​5 except that ​6 under thosecirc*mstances

6

1 has/should(conditional) 2 way (fixedphrase) 3 have(conditional) 4 should/will(conditional) 5 if/when(conditional) 6 it (backreferencing) 7 with/like(comparative) 8 should(conditional)

7 Possibleanswer Reasons online media should check news is because untrue storiesmay: • make people believe dangerous stories, e.g. inaccurate healthinformation • damage people’s reputations, e.g. saying a popstar has committed acrime • bias people’sdecision-making • lead to unnecessary unrest andprotests • make people upset unnecessarily, e.g. fake deathreports.

GRAMMARFILE

SBp153

1 1 continues, willbe 2 wouldn’t have crashed, hadn’tdownloaded 3 would be, were (would have been, hadbeen) 4 read, wouldincrease (read, will increase) 5 will miss,arrives

2 1 If I’d been taught English at primary school, I would be

fluentnow. 2 If Harry hadn’t gone to university for five years, he wouldn’t be earning a lot of moneynow. 3 If I hadn’t lost my phone yesterday, I wouldn’t be going shopping for another onetomorrow. 4 If Marie enjoyed romantic films, she would have gone to see About Time with Ronnie lastnight. 5 If my cousin had learned to swim when he was younger, he wouldn’t have a terrible fear of waternow. 6 If I didn’t have a meeting in London early this morning, I would have stayed at my friend’s house lastnight.

3 1 would be happier if theydid 2 were to have anaccident 3 wouldn’t be having problemshad 4 should you needto 5 I would have watched theshow 6 the whole class were tofail

4 1 no matter ​2 As a result ​3 In contrast ​4 whereas ​ 5 inreality

5 1 When/Although (sequencelink) 2 one (fixedphrase) 3 could (ability in thepast) 4 although/though/but (contrastlinker) 5 after (sequencelinker) 6 were/wanted(condition) 7 It/This (back-referencing to cheatingbehaviour) 8 if(condition) Presentationtool:

Unit 6, Unit check

Workbook / Online Practice:

p65

Audioscript: SBp181 Extra Practice App

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7 Be seen, beheard

Lead-in SBp91 Point out the unit title Be seen, be heard. Say: This unit is about different ways of expressing ideas that are important toyou. Ask students to look at the picture on page 91. Read the quote aloud: I like to make my voice heard. Ask: What does this quote mean? (Possible answers: I like to stand up for what I believe in. I’m someone who isn’t afraid to share my ideas and opinions. It’s important to me that I succeed in getting other people to hear what I have to say.) Share or elicit the meaning of the phrasal verb speak out (to publicly speak in protest about something, especially when protesting could be risky ordangerous).

X 7

Be seen, beheard READING

USE OFENGLISH

topic: the arts and socialissues skill: identifying and avoidingdistraction task: multiplematching

key wordtransformation wordformation

GRAMMAR pastmodals reportedspeech

VOCABULARY

SPEAKING topic: getting thenews skill: constructing anargument task: longturn

WRITING

recording headwords nounendings

topic: studentconsultation skill: using appropriatelanguage task:proposal

LISTENING

SWITCH ON

topic: how ideasspread skill: makingpredictions task: multiple choice: shorttexts

video: in thestreets project: comedysketch

Put students into pairs to discuss thequestions. Possibleanswers 1 • Undoubtedly, the quote applies to me. Once I get started on a topic I’m passionate about, I can’t stop until people take on board what I’msaying! • For me, it largely depends on who I’m with. I tend to be more vocal about my opinions with my family and friends rather than people I don’t know sowell. 2 bullying, maltreatment of animals, climate change, human rights, poverty, closure of afacility; I believe it’s important to stand up for what you believe in and to try to make a difference, so you can’t just ignore issues and injustice. 3 On the one hand, media coverage is a useful way to raise awareness of an issue which may in turn encourage people to donate to a cause or help in some other way. On the other hand, saturated media coverage tends to lead to people getting apathetic about issues, doesn’t it? Rather than being shocked, we get quite used to seeing people in crisis, and then don’t do anything aboutit.

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READING

SBpp92–93

Tostart Ask students to work in pairs and name their favourites in the following art categories: poem, novel, song and film, giving a reason for eachchoice. Then ask them to discuss: Do any of your favourites have a message for society? If so, what do you think that message is? In what way do you think the art you consume affects your life? Elicit someideas.

1 Ask students to discuss what they think the quote means and whether they agree with it. Elicit someideas.

background Martin Luther King (1929–68) was a US religious leader who became the most important leader of the Civil Rights Movement and worked hard to achieve social changes for African-American people. He was known for being a great public speaker, and many people remember his famous speech that starts with the words ‘I have a dream’. He encouraged people to try to achieve changes without using violence, and in 1964 he won the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1968 he was shot and killed in Memphis,Tennessee. Possibleanswers If an injustice isn’t righted, it will set a precedent and pave the way for moreinjustice. Society is interconnected, so even if an injustice doesn’t affect us directly, we should take astand.

2 Ask students to work in pairs to think of another famous person who has spoken out against injustice and share with their partner whether they admire them or not and why. Elicit someideas.

Possibleanswer Emmeline Pankhurst (1858–1928) was a famous member of the British suffragettes (this comes from the word suffrage which means the right to vote in national elections) and fought for women’s rights, especially the right to vote. She was put in prison many times for her actions. I admire her because even after being sent to prison, she persevered with speaking out for women’ssuffrage.

Readon 3 Ask students to read the introduction. Elicit some

predictions of what the rest of the article mightcontain. Possibleanswer I’d expect the article to go into detail about how various art forms can highlight social issues and affect people’sopinions.

4 Give students two minutes to read the article for gist and match the pictures. Ask: How does each picture relate to fightinginjustice? 1 B (The novel highlights the plight of thehomeless.) 2 A (Soldier poets highlighted the hideous reality ofwar.) 3 D (The film, 99 homes, shows the social effect of housingforeclosures.) 4 C (Songs have been used to speak out about issues since as early as the Peasants’ Revolt in England,1381.)

exam task: multiplematching Read through the exam tip with students. When they read question 3, encourage them to underline key words. Ask students to read the highlighted sections and discuss with a partner which fits question 3. Elicit theanswer. The words that point you to the correct answer are in B: accommodate, differing, recent popularshift.

5

Give students eight minutes to re-read the article and answer the questions. Ask students to compare their answers in pairs before checking as aclass. 1 B (through their work, many authors also want to bring issues that they regard as important to our attention. They do this by ensnaring us with the story while informing us, sometimes almost unobtrusively, about wider social issues … Other writers unashamedly set out to paint the issue very clearly from theoutset) 2 C (were created by the people who were struggling against poor working conditions and oppression … However, today’s writers are not necessarily those affected by the social problems, but ones wanting to raiseawareness) 3 B (accommodate … differing … recent popularshift) 4 A (The work of these poets has touched successive generations, and even those of us who profess to have no interest in poetry ingeneral) 5 D (While reading a story allows us to create the pictures for ourselves, film gives us the picturesdirectly) 6 C (Music undeniably has a particular power to move people. It taps into our body rhythms and the refrains drill messages into ourbrains.) 7 D (Weaker films in this genre often feature monologues where the audience is almost lectured at but the better of these films…) 8 A (Ironically, at times the rhythms of the poetry provide an echo of the rhythm of the marching bands and patriotic songs that encouraged soldiers to fight in the firstplace) 9 D (More recently, Suffragette illustrates fights women have had – and are still having – for equality…) 10 A (War poetry was not new in 1914, but previously it had served mainly to glorify war and promote patriotism. Then soldier poets like Wilfred Owen felt they needed to write about the atrocities they werewitnessing)

6 Read the first meaning as an example and ask students to

scan section A for a word with that meaning (inaccessible, line 2). Students find the remaining words then compare their answers in pairs before checking in a dictionary. Finally, run through the answers as a class, demonstrating pronunciation (see underlining in key forstress). 1 inaccessible ​ 2 successive ​ 3 profess  ​4 accommodate ​ 5 entice ​ 6 unashamedly ​ 7 refrain ​ 8galvanise

extra: fast finishers Ask fast finishers to select a few more words or phrases in the text that were new or interesting to them. Ask them to deduce meaning from context then use a dictionary to check. Students write additional questions for Ex 6 using the definitions for their selected words. Give students a chance to share them with the class for other students tocomplete. 119

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7 Be seen, beheard

GRAMMAR

READING (Continued)

Sumup 7 Start by asking students to cover the article. Elicit what

they remember about war poetry as a class. Then ask students to discuss what they remember about the other three art forms in pairs. Elicit someideas.

Speakup 8 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit some

ideas and ask some follow-up questions such as: Which of the art forms do you think is most effective at influencing society? Which art form is mostinaccessible? Possibleanswers 1 I admire film-making because it takes so much organisation to make a successfulfilm. For me, poetry is the most admirable because it seems less commercialised than the other artforms. 2 On the surface, politicians appear to have more influence. However, if you look deeper, I think artists play a much bigger role in influencing oursociety. In reality, politicians are much more influential in achieving change because they are taken more seriously and have legislativepowers. Perhaps politics is a form of art in a strange sort of way? Some politicians certainly know how to put on ashow!

Tofinish Students work in small groups to complete the following task: Research a modern artist in one of the genres from the article who has used his/her work to speak out about injustice. They could use pictures, clips or recordings to present their artist(s) to theclass. In preparation for the Grammar lesson, you could ask students to complete Ex 1 on page 94, read the Grammar file on past modals on page 154 and complete Ex 1 on page 155. Students can also go through the PowerPoint GrammarPresentation. Presentationtool:

Unit 7, Reading

Workbook / Online Practice:

pp68–69

Extra Practice App

SBp94

Tostart Elicit what a modal verb is (modal verbs are a type of verb used with other verbs to express ideas such as possibility, permission, or intention). With books closed, ask students to work in pairs to list as many modal verbs as they can think of in one minute. Elicit some ideas. e.g. (can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, ought to, used to, need, had better anddare).

explore grammar

SB p152

1 Students match the modals with the ideas, if

necessary using the Grammar file on page 154 or PowerPoint Grammar Presentation to help them. Ask students to compare their answers in pairs then conduct classfeedback. 1 B 2 D 3 A 4 C 5 F 6E

watch out for could have and couldn’t have are not exactopposites. To express negative certainty in the past, we use couldn’t have, e.g. She couldn’t have read the letter. (I’m sure she didn’t read it.) However, to express positive certainty in the past, we use must have, e.g. She must have read the letter. (I’m sure shedid.) Could have is used to talk about possibility and unfulfilled ability in thepast. Must for obligation is expressed in the past using had to, e.g. You must remove your shoes. (present obligation) = We had to remove our shoes. (pastobligation)

2

7.1 Tell students that they are going to listen to a conversation about a school meeting. Ask students to read the questions then play the recording for students to answerthem. 1 2 3 4

bullying He hasn’t phoned to let her know whathappened. Nobody has wanted to deal with the problembefore. The school council were concerned and raised the issue earlier in theyear.

3 Students work in pairs to discuss the modals. Elicit theanswers.

1 Because of timing it’s probable that it has finished. I would be surprised if it hasn’t finished. (also: ought to havefinished) 2 I’m annoyed that he hasn’t phoned me. (also: could havephoned) 3 Based on experience, I’m cross with myself for not knowing. (also: should haveknown) 4 An implied conditional – if I hadn’t had some problems, I would havegone. 5 There was the opportunity to put a stop to it. They had the means to put a stop to it, but theydidn’t. 6 This use gives an (unfavourable) comparison to show pointlessness of an action. (also: could just as well have beentalking)

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watch out for Oughtn’t, the negative form of ought, is rarely used in every-day spoken English. In informal situations we use shouldn’t or it’s better not to ….

extra: whole class Remind students of the pronunciation of the weak form of have /v/, /əv/, /həv/ in the past modal sentences in Ex 3. If necessary, drill the pronunciation using a build-upapproach. Say: /əv/ (studentsrepeat) should /əv/ (have) (studentsrepeat) it should /əv/ (have) finished by now (studentsrepeat)

4 Give an example for the first sentence, say: I would have spoken to you about it, but you didn’t come to class that day! Working in pairs or individually, students complete the sentences with their own ideas. Elicit someideas.

Possibleanswers 1 you’d gone out  2 was only five minuteslate 3 they’ve been in a meeting  4 I’m reallygrateful 5 they’d have been furious that I hadn’t consulted themfirst 6 now we’re caught up in all the rush-hourtraffic

5 Ask: What is an online petition? Where might you see them? Have you seenany?

A petition is a written request signed by a lot of people, asking someone in authority to do something or change something. Nowadays, people often ‘sign’ petitions online by entering their name and details. Petitions may be circulated through social media, websites or viaemail.

Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs then elicit someresponses. Possibleanswers A: Surprisingly, I’ve never actually signed an online petition. I’ve had lots of requests, but I don’t honestly believe they make much of a difference. B: It’s funny you should ask because I actually signed one just this morning about the treatment of refugees. Whoknows if it will actually make a difference? Signing is quick and free, perfect for an armchair activist like me.

6 Ask students to quickly read the text in Ex 6 to find out

what another teen thinks about petitions. Then focus students on the first gap as an example. Model reading the whole sentence with the gap, then elicit the modal and verb form (have to admit). Students complete the remaining gaps, then compare in pairs before checking as aclass.

1 have toadmit 2 should, shouldn’tsign 3 would havebeen 4 may/might/could even have been approached (similar meanings – could is slightly morecolloquial) 5 can/might hook (might stresses the probability; can stresses thepossibility) 6 has to/needs to/must have (must is the strongestform) 7 mustn’t/shouldn’t/can’t forget (must isstronger) 8 must have beensuffering 9 may/might have been (similarmeanings) 10 should havedone

Speakup 7 Ask: What were the main points made about petitions

in the comment in Ex 6? Elicit the answers. Then ask students to discuss in pairs whether they agree with the points, and how bullying should be dealt with andwhy. Possibleanswers The purpose of online petitions is to raise awareness ofissues. The way signatures are gathered has changed overtime. With enough signatures, a petition can force a parliamentary debate in theUK. Sometimes petitions are started by people who have a specific issue they care about or have tried other avenues with nosuccess. Despite petitions not always achieving the desired change, there is still value in knowing you’ve expressed your point ofview.

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Check students understand the meaning of sarcasm (a way of speaking or writing that involves saying the opposite of what you really mean in order to make an unkind joke or to show that you are annoyed, e.g. ‘Good of you to arrive on time,’ George said, with heavysarcasm. Ask: Can anyone remember a synonym for sarcasm that was covered in Unit 4? (irony). Ask students to discuss in pairs: Do you ever use sarcasm? How easy is it to tell whether other people are making serious or ironic comments? Do you think we should have a ‘sarcasm’ font? Why/Why not? Elicit someideas.

background Sarcasm is popular in British and American humour. In Britain, sarcasm is often delivered with a completely straight face. In the USA, people are, in general, more likely to follow up a sarcastic comment with a laugh or a comment so you know they arejoking.

Tofinish Organise students into pairs. Ask them to talk aboutsomething: 1 your partner may not have heardabout. 2 you think should bebanned. 3 that should have happened bynow. 4 you ought to have done yesterday butdidn’t. 5 you could have done recently butdidn’t. 6 you dared not do when you were achild. Presentationtool:

Unit 7, Grammar

Workbook / Online Practice:

p70

Photocopiable activity:

7A

Grammar reference and practice:

SBp154

Audioscript: SBp181

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7 Be seen, beheard

VOCABULARY

SBp95

3

recording headwords Tostart

1 someone who’s written about somethingcontroversial 2 She is reacting/responding to a disagreement or row withsomeone. 3 a forum where people can express theiropinions

Write word on the board and elicit any expressions students know that contain word/words, e.g. have the last word, wordy, the word on thestreet.

1 Read the proverb aloud and ask students to discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit a fewresponses.

The proverb suggests that in trying to affect change, communication, especially writing, is more effective thanviolence.

2 Students match the phrases with their meanings then compare their answers in pairs, discussing a possible reason/context for the comments before checking as aclass.

(Possible context inbrackets) 1 G (describing an articulateteacher) 2 E (someone helped the speaker in a generousway) 3 H (a school being closeddown) 4 B (someone talking about a new café that has openedrecently) 5 D (someone talking about climatechange) 6 F (someone got fired for noreason) 7 C (someone has just had a heatedargument) 8 A (a friend had promised to go with you to an event and is now pullingout)

extra: whole class Ask students to work in pairs to think of an example of… 1 2 3 4

something you’ve heard about by word ofmouth. someone you know who has a way withwords. a time when words failedyou. whether it’s important for you to always have the lastword.

explorelanguage Ask students to read the explore language box. Point out that using a ‘head word’ is a way of grouping words, phrases or expressions. It may be used in conjunction with a mind map, with the headword forming the centralbubble.

extra: whole class

7.2 Tell students that they are going to hear three conversations between teens relating to communication. Ask students to read the questions then play therecording.

4

7.3 Play the recording again for students to complete the phrases. Elicit the answers and the meanings of eachphrase. 1 take notice (to suddenly start paying attention to someone or something, because they have done something surprising orimpressive) 2 spotlight (give a lot of attentionto) 3 way (to do what you want to, even though someone else wants somethingdifferent) 4 tied (unable to talk in a relaxed way because you feel nervous orembarrassed) 5 as it is (to say exactly what you think or what is true, without hiding anything that might upset or offendpeople) 6 back (stop yourself from feeling or showing a particularemotion) 7 over you (to treat you badly by always making you do what you want themto) 8 say (to have the opportunity to give your opinion aboutsomething)

5 Refer students to the audioscript on page 181 for

examples of conversations before they write their own. Students work in pairs to write their conversation using phrases from Exs 2 and 4. Circulate, checking that the phrases are being used appropriately. Ask students to practise their conversations in their pairs and with expression before sharing with the class. When students share, ask the others to listen for the phrases and decide thewinner. Possibleanswer Parent: I’m afraid there’s no way you’re going out while your room looks like, for want of a better word, adisaster. Teen: You can’t go back on your word now, you promised me I could go to thisconcert! Parent: I’m not going to let you walk all over me. When your room’s tidy, by all meansgo. Teen: There are no words…

Ask students to create a mindmap for the expressions in Ex 2 with word. Point out that they can use pictures, symbols, grouping and colour to make itmeaningful. If students have mobile devices with internet access, they could image search for ‘mind map English vocabulary’ to see some examples. Students may also like to try making their mind map using an online mind mapmaker.

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6 Ask students to read the blog title and ask: What is a

wordsmith? (someone who is clever at using language). Ask students to read the blog for gist without worrying about the gaps yet, and to find out why Bob Dylan won the NobelPrize.

background Bob Dylan (1941–) is a US singer and songwriter who has had a great influence on popular song writing. His early songs, in the 1960s, were often protest songs on the subjects of war and the civil rights movement in the US. He has continued to perform and make records, but his music was most popular in the 1960s and1970s. Possibleanswer He won the Nobel Prize for Literature for his song lyrics, which he has used as a way to highlight injustice and encourage socialchange.

7 Students complete the blog with the words from Exs 2 and 4 then compare answers inpairs. 1 In aword 2 shone thespotlight 3 Words,failed 4 put intowords 5 sit up and takenotice 6 holdback 7 have theirsay 8 way withwords

Speakup 8 Students discuss the questions in pairs. If necessary, clarify prose (written language in its usual form, as opposed topoetry).

Tofinish Students discuss the following questions in small groups, givingexamples. 1 What is the best way to overcome gettingtongue-tied? 2 Have you read anything recently that has made you sit up and takenotice? 3 Do you think songwriters have a duty to shine a spotlight on contentiousissues? Presentationtool:

Unit 7, Vocabulary

Workbook / Online Practice:

p71

Photocopiable activity:

7B

Extend vocabulary:

SBp160

Audioscript: SBp181 Extra Practice App

LISTENING

SBp96

Tostart Write on the board the following saying: Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. Ask students to discuss in pairs what the quote means (when someone copies someone else, it is a way of paying them an indirect compliment). Ask students to work in pairs to think of situations where copying an idea would be flattering, annoying or wrong. If necessary, prompt the discussion with some sample situations, e.g. someone buys the same jacket as you, someone copies your homework assignment, someone decides to go to the sameconcert.

Powerup 1 Give students a minute to read the text. Then ask them to discuss the questions inpairs.

Possibleanswers 1 • I think ideas spread by word of mouth or on the street. People see what people around them are doing or trends that they’re following, and that’s how ideas becomepopular. • It’s all about commerce. Someone finds a good idea and wants to make money with it so they look for a new market to sell the idea or productin. 2 • Scandinavian design has become really popular globally, perhaps it is because of Ikea? Or maybe Ikea is popular because of Scandinaviandesign? • What about the idea of democracy? It’s been around for a while now but we can trace it back to ancientGreece. 3 • I’m a total copycat but I think fundamentally everyone is. It’s almost impossible to come up with anything entirely original because we are surrounded by ideas all thetime. • I find blogs and bookmarking sites like Pinterest a great source of inspiration. Why reinvent the wheel when there are so many great ideas already outthere!

Listenup 2 Point out that before listening to a recording, students

can get lots of clues about it from reading the task questions. Students read the task questions and discuss the topic, formality and key words in eachone. 1 Conversation 1: using ideas forinspiration Conversation 2: signing a petition aboutideas Conversation 3: thinking collectively (as a group as opposed to asindividuals) 2 Conversation 1 might be more formal as it is onTV/radio. Conversations 2 and 3 are probably more informal because they are taking place betweenpeers. 3 1 What is the woman’s attitude towards using the ideas ofothers? 2 What is the man surprisedby? 3 Why did the man start thepetition? 4 What is the woman’s attitude towards the copying ofideas? 5 The man believes in the theorybecause 6 What do the students agree about thetheory?

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7 Be seen, beheard LISTENING (Continued)

exam task: multiple choice: shorttexts In the Cambridge exam the three conversations would be on different topics. Here they are all related to the lesson topic of copying ideas. Point out that even though students haven’t listened to the recording yet, they have been able to deduce a lot about what it is about. The context sentence is the initial sentence under the heading for the conversation: You hear part of a discussion programme about using others’ ideas forinspiration. Elicit possible answers to thequestions. Possibleanswers 1 An interviewer and an expert or twoexperts. 2 Words related to copying, using andinspiring. 3 Using ideas is OK and inspirational. / Using others’ ideas is not OK, and notfair.

3

7.4 Play recording 7.4 twice for students to answer questions 1–6. Go through the answers as a class, eliciting why students chose each answer. For any incorrect answers, go over why they werewrong. 1 B (… taking the nub of someone else’s idea and building on it has always been part of innovation, hasn’tit?) 2 C (Yet, it’s astonishing that when we talk of the masses of music or movie downloads from the internet, the most frequently used word ispiracy.) 3 C (.. so we’re trying to get them to use some of those funds to reinvest inus.) 4 B (But I do think we need artists to continue to put their ideas out there. Art has always relied on publicview.) 5 A (When I go to conferences I always get frustrated because someone else has gone down exactly the same path as me on an idea…) 6 A (Mind you, I’m not sure you could ever really prove it … He was saying, wasn’t he, that it’s a theory that appeals and makes sense to us but when they tried to prove it, theycouldn’t.)

extra: whole class If it won’t disturb students while they are listening, write the following phrases on the board during the recording in Ex3: 1 2 3 4 5 6

building on(something) mine (something forideas) make money outof put (something) outthere go down apath put (something) downto

When students have finished Ex 3, ask them to find and underline the phrases in audioscript 7.4 on page181. While they are finding them, write the following definitions on the board and ask students to match the phrases with thedefinitions.

A determine a reason forsomething B make something available toothers C using something as a foundation for somethingelse D make a profit from anactivity E search through something in order to take away the goodbits F to choose a particular course ofaction 1 C 2 E 3 D 4 B 5 F 6A

Speakup 4 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit a few ideas for eachone.

Possibleanswers 1 • I agree up to a point. What I’d say is that general ideas and concepts belong to everyone, but specific ideas like a logo or some song lyrics usually have an owner. It might be nice to think ideas belong to everyone, but legally they don’talways. • I do believe that people should be free to use and build on any idea they like. Lots of people around the world seem to agree with me, as they share their content freely on certain websites for others to use andchange. 2 • Yes, I think new technology will develop to better control and monitor copying. For example, lots of universities already use certain digital tools to detect plagiarism off the net forassignments. • I don’t think you can ever entirely control copying online. I mean, as more technology develops to control or monitor copying, more corresponding technology will develop to avoid detection. Maybe the way we view ownership of content is going to change anyway. I think more people will realise that they can’t control copying so will release and allow content, like songs and videos, to be shared and copiedlegally.

Tofinish Ask students to work in pairs. Depending on the time available, ask students to either select one of these problems or discuss each one inturn. • Someone copies a photo of you on social media without yourpermission. • A phone company copies features from a competitor’s phone. • A fashion designer copies a leading brand’s design oftrainers. • A musician uses a sample of someone else’s music without creditingthem. Students decide how the situation should be dealt with, then share their ideas with another pair or theclass. Consider asking students to read the Grammar file about reported speech on page 154 in preparation for the Use of English 1lesson. Presentationtool:

Unit 7, Listening

Workbook / Online Practice:

p72

Audioscript:

SBp181

Extra Practice App

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USE OF ENGLISH 1

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Tostart Write said on the board. Ask students to work in small groups to brainstorm alternative verbs which can replace said when reporting speech, e.g. advise, suggest, cry, whisper, reveal, recommend, claim, explain, yell,grumble.

1 Put students into pairs to read and discuss the questions. Elicit theanswers.

1 B ​2 C ​3 A ​4 written: A and C ​spoken:B

explore language

Several of the transformations here are related to the lesson focus of reported speech (reporting verbs) and in the Cambridge exam there would be fewer. Go through the exam tip. In the example, model the steps students could use to complete the answer. Ask: What reporting verb means ‘said he would only’? (insisted); What structure follows the verb + on? (the -ing form); Which word in the first sentence do you need to change? (have –having).

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Go through the explore language box, referring students to the Grammar file on page 154 if they haven’t already read it in preparation forclass.

2 Read sentence 1 aloud. Elicit which reporting verb would

be appropriate here (swear), then elicit the new sentence starting with he as the subject. Students report the remainingsentences. 1 He swore he had not intended to copy mywork. 2 She really hoped he would attend herpresentation. 3 The lecturer announced that next week’s lecture had beencancelled. 4 He asked (me for) permission to use myphoto. 5 He admitted that he had taken the file from my deskearlier. 6 She checked how (I thought) we/they could copyright our/theirwork.

extra: fast finishers Write up these two additional questions for Ex 2 on theboard. 7 ‘Have you been able to finish your project?’, heasked. 8 ‘There will be a test next week,’ the teacher said tous. 7 He checked if/whether I had been able to finish myproject. 8 The teacher announced that there would be a test nextweek.

3 Students divide the verbs into positive, negative or

neutral. Point out that context will always be important in determining whether any of the verbs has a positive or negative meaning, e.g. She convinced me to enter the Science Fair with her and we won first prize. (convince has a positive meaning); She convinced me to lend her some money but never paid it back. (convince has a negativemeaning). Suggestedanswers + encourage, expect, hope, reassure,recommend +/– advise, emphasise, reveal, believe,convince, – grumble,worry

exam task: key wordtransformation

Set a time limit of ten minutes for students to complete the exercise. Remind students that each transformation is worth two marks so there is an opportunity for partialcredit. 1 has reported thatfewer (In the first sentence, says is used to report something that has been said recently. To convey this in the second sentence, we use the present perfect form has reported. Using the past simple form reported would lack the emphasis conveyed by says. Reports would not be possible because the sentence must use the key word reported without changing it. Fewer is used with the countable noun adults. Less would not be possible because it is only used with uncountablenouns.) 2 insist on ustaking (insist on means to say firmly and often that something is true, especially when other people think it may not be true. This conveys the ideas from the first sentence of it is essential and according to. If us is omitted from the second sentence, it would have a different meaning from the first sentence which says it is essential for us. It is also crucial to use the key wordon.) 3 (has) claimed that most (ofthem) (that cannot be omitted because of the relatively formal register of the sentence. Young people is omitted after most because repeating it would sound clumsy and it isunnecessary.) 4 need to domore (need is followed by to-infinitive to express an active meaning. Need + -ing form is used for passive meanings, e.g. The car needswashing.) 5 they should notshare (the subject they is necessary to express the advice, or it would sound like sites are giving advice to ‘people who shouldn’t share their passwords’ which doesn’t have the same meaning as sentence 1 and doesn’t make sense. They is used rather than people to avoid repetition. Not must go between should and share. Modals, such as should, are followed by the infinitive withoutto.) 6 confessed tousing (confessed expresses honestly and said from the first sentence, using the key word to. We cannot use admit with to. We use the -ing form after prepositions liketo.)

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7 Be seen, beheard

USE OF ENGLISH 2

USE OF ENGLISH 1 (Continued)

Speakup 5 Clarify that protecting online privacy means ensuring

online content like messages, photos, videos, browsing history are not shared with others without permission. Elicit possible parties who could have a role in protecting online privacy of students, e.g. students themselves, parents, schools, website providers/social media sites. Students discuss the questions in pairs. Ask a few students to report what their partner said using a reportingverb. Possibleanswers • Students, because they should know to keep passwords private, ensure they are using security settings, not open unknown links,etc. • Parents/schools, because they have a responsibility to teach young people about how to keep themselves safe, which includes onlineprivacy. • Internet providers/social media sites because they own the site, they should make sure that it is secure, and that privacy settings are easy tounderstand.

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Ask: Why do you think so many people share their passwords? What possible problems are there with sharingpasswords?

Tostart Give students two minutes to remember as many reporting verbs from the lesson on page 97 as they can. Tell students there are 22. Which pair can find the most? Then, ask students to write down the noun form for as many as possible. In some cases, there may be no noun form or more than one noun. Elicit the nounforms. Possibleanswers admit – admittance,admission advise – advice,advisor allege –allegation announce – announcement,announcer emphasise –emphasis encourage – encouragement,encourager expect –expectation insist –insistence reassure –reassurance recommend –recommendation say –saying Verbs with the same noun and verb forms: check, claim, grumble, hope, regret, report, reveal,worry Verbs with no specific noun form: ask, convince,swear

1 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit

some ideas for each. Ask: What verbs do speech and presentation come from? (to speak, to present). Then ask: What other noun forms do these verbs have? (speaker,presenter)

Tofinish Ask students to think of something that someone has said to them recently in a real conversation and write it down using one of the reporting verbs. Students share their reported speech in pairs. Invite a few to share their reported speech with the class, if timeallows.

1 We give a speech at an event, e.g. a wedding, an award ceremony, after adinner. We give a presentation in a formal situation when we want to conveyinformation. 2 I had to give a presentation for my history class recently. We all had to choose a historical figure that we admired and give a two-minute talk about their life, with photos or slides to support what we were saying. I wasn’t that keen on doing it myself because I often get tongue-tied in front of people. That said, it seemed to go OK. I guess it helped a lot that everyone watching had to give their own presentation, so they were a kindaudience.

extra: whole class Students work in A/B pairs, for a role-play of a famous person and ajournalist. 1 Student A should choose a famous person to be and tell StudentB. Student B should think of three questions to ask. Then, interview A for a maximum of three minutes and makenotes. 2 Swaproles. 3 Each student should individually write a report of what they asked and what their partner said using reporting verbs. They should try to use verbs which reflect their interpretation oropinion. 4 Students then show their partner their reports. Ask: How accurate is it in representing what you originallysaid? Presentationtool:

Unit 7, Use of English 1

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Grammar reference and practice:

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Extra Practice App

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extra: whole class Have a class discussion by asking the following questions: What is the voting age in your country? Has it always been this way? Do you think it should be higher or lower, why? Who has an interest in maintaining the status quo? Who has an interest inchange?

2

7.5 Ask: What words or phrases would you expect to hear in a talk about the voting age? (e.g. election, prime minister, politics). Play the recording, then elicit whether it was a good talk or not, andwhy. It’s not good: there are hesitations, the speaker laughs at his jokes, repeats himself, speaks too close to microphone, reads notes rather than talking directly and soundsunnatural.

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3

7.6 Play the talk again for students to write the noun form of the verbs. Refer students to the audioscript on page 181 to check theiranswers. 1 election ​2 ignorance ​3 involvement ​4 representation ​ 5 decision ​6 refusal ​7 offence ​8 failure ​9 passage ​ 10qualifications

explorelanguage Read through the explore language box. Elicit any verbs/ nouns which end in –ify/-ication, e.g. clarify/clarification, modify/modification, notify/notification,verify/verification. Elicit some other examples of stress changing in two syllable noun/verbs, e.g. present, research,record.

4 Students could complete the table individually or in pairs, using dictionaries ifnecessary.

1 domination, duplication,substitution 2 dependence,dominance 3 commitment,treatment 4 approval,dismissal 5 confusion 6 offence 7 closure, posture,pressure 8 breakage 9 clarification,identification

Speakup extra: whole class To provide students with some useful vocabulary for Ex 6, refer them to the Extend vocabulary section for Unit 7 on page 160, which has adjectives to describe communication. Ask students to work in pairs to look up any unknown words in a dictionary, then draw a mind map, grouping the words in a meaningfulway.

6 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Ask a few

students to report what their partner has said. Students should try to use some of the reporting verbs from page97.

extra: whole class Ask students to work in pairs to improve the talk on voting age in Ex 2. Students can look at the audio script on page 181 to start with, then try and improve it. If students have access to their smartphones in class, encourage them to record themselves giving a better version of thetalk.

Tofinish

exam task: wordformation

Students work in pairs to test each other on the nouns in Ex 4. Student A closes the book. Student B calls out one of the verbs, and student A must call out the corresponding noun. Ask students to see how many they can do in a minute, thenswap.

There is a greater focus on noun formation than would be in the Cambridge exam because of the lesson focus.

Presentationtool:

Unit 7, Use of English 2

Read through the exam tip. Summarise the tip as a threepart checklist for students touse:

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Extend vocabulary:

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1 Think about wordclass.

Photocopiable activity:

7C

2 Think aboutaffixes.

Audioscript:

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3 Check yourspelling.

Extra Practice App

5

Give students eight minutes to complete the blog. Remind students that reading the whole text quickly for gist first will help them answer more efficiently. If they finish early, they should check their answers very carefully for affixes and correct spelling. Conduct classfeedback. 1 pressure (the quantifier a lot of requires a noun, also take the pressure off someone is a fixedphrase) 2 ensure (the form used here is going to + verb with infinitive withoutto) 3 emphasis (give emphasis to something is a fixedphrase) 4 monotonous (we need an adjective between the article and theverb) 5 involvement (noun, following an article and coming before apreposition) 6 loosen (part of the phrasal verb loosenup) 7 inhibition(s) (noun, following the preposition of and determinerany) 8 posture (a noun subject is required in the phrase is important. Posture means the way you position your body when sitting or standing, so it links with the ideas of not slumping yourshoulders.)

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7 Be seen, beheard

SPEAKING

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Tostart If possible, show a few pages of different newspapers in English online, or bring in some different newspapers (e.g. a tabloid and a broadsheet, with nothing toocontentious). Ask students to work in pairs and look at the front pages of different newspapers. Ask them to discuss: Which would you prefer to read? Why? Is there any difference in the way they report the news?Why? If you don’t have newspapers or internet available, ask students to discuss: How do you find out what is happening locally and around theworld?

Powerup 1 Put students into pairs for the discussion. Elicit a fewideas.

Speakup 2

7.7 Students discuss possible questions they might be asked in pairs. Elicit some ideas. Then play the audio for students tocheck. Compare two of the photos. Why might the people be getting news in these ways? How accurate do you think the information mightbe?

3

7.8 Encourage students not to time the student or count, and instead guess how long they think it is. Play theaudio. Yes, she answers all the questions. She speaks for about aminute.

4

7.9 Give students time to read the things the student talks about and see if they can number them from memory, then play the recording for them tocheck. 1 B 2 F 3 D 4 C 5 A 6E

5 Point out the words and phrases listed in Ex 5 are

examples of suitable language to help structure a long turn. Ask students to see what they can remember, then check their answers in audioscript 7.8 on pages181–182. 2, 7, 9, 10,12

exam task: longturn

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As the focus is on developing the long turn there is no Listening Candidate question in the tasks. Ask students to read the tip. Check students know that a discourse marker is a word or phrase that acts as a conversation signpost for the listener. Refer students to the Speaking file on page 162 for more information on the Long turn, including usefullanguage.

6

Write up the speaking task from Ex 2 on the board: Compare two of the photos. Why might the people be getting news in these ways? How accurate do you think the information mightbe? Students work in A/B pairs and complete the speakingtasks. The student not speaking should time their partner for one minute.

Possibleanswers Page99 I’m going to compare the pictures of the woman reading news on a tablet, and the man reading a traditional paper newspaper. A similarity would be that both people look like they are getting their news from a published newspaper. Obviously, the woman is reading online, whereas the man has his paper copy, but they could be different versions of the samepublication. There could be lots of reasons why the woman likes to get her news online. For example, it’s extremely convenient. Another reason could be that content is free, or maybe she’s environmentallyconscious. Perhaps the man has just picked up the paper on his way somewhere, so again, it’s about getting the news in a way which is convenient. Perhaps it’s a morning ritual. He might have to use a screen a lot for work, so likes to read the physical paper to give his eyes arest. It’s highly likely that these papers are generally accurate, although you do have to be aware that editors might put a certain spin on things. There might also be stories in the printed version that were accurate at the time of print, but become out of date over the course of the day. So of the two options, I’d rate the online version as moreaccurate. Page173 So, in this first picture, it looks like the interviewee has won a sports trophy and is being interviewed about his win, he’s the sole focus. If we compare that to the second picture, it looks like it is a panel presentation where a number of speakers are sharing the spotlight. One similarity might be that both the winner, and the panel, are being asked about things that they are good at or have expertisein. In all probability, the winner is being asked about how he feels, and what this win means to him, they always seem to get asked things like that. I’m not a hundred percent sure about the panel, but they are probably being asked about their work. For instance, they could be being asked questions like: How did you get into this field? What are some new innovations we can expect? What are the biggest challenges in your industry right now? Those sorts ofthings. The winner looks a little overwhelmed to be honest, but I’d imagine he is feeling quite proud of what he’s achieved, maybe it hasn’t sunk in yet. The panel members probably feel pleased to be asked to share their experiences. While they look like they’re feeling calm, some of them might be feeling a bit nervous on the inside, if they aren’t used to being interviewed in front of anaudience.

extra: mixed ability Put students into mixed-ability pairs. The stronger student goes first, so the weaker can benefit from hearing a model.

extra: whole class Ask students to work in pairs. They should write a list of six items or topics from one of the previous units in this book. Then, they swap their list with another pair. Ask them to take turns to talk for one minute about the topic. They should time their partner and say stop when he/she has filled aminute.

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Speakingextra 7 Remind students of the useful language box for

discussions on page 164. Ask students to re-read the phrases and decide on a few to try to use. Students discuss the questions in pairs. Ask a few students to report something interesting their partner said using the reporting verbs from page97. Possibleanswers 1 Mmm, let’s see, I get most of my news from social media and online news websites, and I also occasionally catch the news on theradio. 2 Well, that’s something I haven’t thought about before. I guess all reporters have their own opinions and it must be hard to report without any bias. That said, most reporters are good at appearingobjective! 3 Definitely pictures. They say a picture is worth a thousand words and it’s absolutely true. Think about a picture of a crisis or emergency – it’s hard-hitting in a way that wordsaren’t. 4 Absolutely. It makes me feel involved and part of the globalcommunity. 5 I wish good news stories did get more of the spotlight but it is a sad reality that people are much more fascinated by the awful things in the world. Maybe watching the bad news makes us feelthankful. 6 I’m afraid that question is a bit beyond me! I guess paper newspapers will disappear completely, and perhaps news will get faster or more personalised, if that’spossible!

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Ordinari Post Tijdender (Regular Mail Times) is a government gazette. Ask: What do you know about the history of newspapers in your country? Who owns the media outlets? How does this affect the way news is reported? If students don’t know who owns the major news outlets, see if they can find out in a fewminutes.

Tofinish Tell students that they are going to play a game called ‘Speak for one minute’. Invite students to give you a topic from one of the units so far, e.g. subcultures, optical illusions. Students time you for a minute speaking about the topic. Try to use discourse markers and linking words, and not to hesitate too much. Ask students to look back through the book and choose four topics to give their partner to speak for one minute about. Students take turns to time each other. Can students speak ‘off the cuff’ (without preparation) and without too muchhesitation? Students could record themselves on their phones and then listen to their speech, checking their hesitation, use of linking words and discoursemarkers. Presentationtool:

Unit 7, Speaking

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Speaking file:

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Audioscript: SBpp181–182

WRITING

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Tostart Ask students to discuss this question in pairs: Think of three things you like about your school/college, and three ideas you have for making it even better. Elicit some ideas. Ask students to discuss in pairs: Which do you think are the best ideas for change? Consider the following criteria: impact on students, cost,practicality.

Powerup 1 Put students into pairs to discuss the questions. Elicit someideas.

Possibleanswers 1 It’s crucial to consult students about decisions that affect us. We have an entirely different perspective to teachers andmanagers. Where possible, I’d suggest a consultation should take place. Student involvement can lead to more students buying into the changes. 2 student council, student/class representative, focus groups,teams 3 A student representative should gather feedback from students, collate it, and present it to teachers and managers. I’d say the role should involve shining a spotlight on issues that are important to students. More than anything, I think the role is about communication. Making sure students are aware of upcoming changes, and that teachers are aware of students’ concerns. If I had a good idea, I’d hope the student representative would help me beheard.

Planon 2 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit theanswers. The style is thesame. A report discusses the past, and makes recommendations about the future. A proposal discusses the present situation, and makes recommendations about thefuture. There are more opinions in a proposal, as you give your reasons for your ideas. A report mostly presents factsobjectively. A proposal is persuasive throughout. A report is persuasive only when making arecommendation.

3 Students read the task individually then discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit theanswers.

Who will read it: the principal (head teacher) of yourcollege. Why: the principal is interested to find out about what changes students would like, and would like suggestions from students about ways to support otherstudents. What the principal needs to know: in the task, you will be suggesting a forum, so the principal needs to know the purpose of the forum (why it should exist), how it could be organised and the possible benefits for students andcollege.

4 Students read the proposal individually, then discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit theanswer.

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7 Be seen, beheard WRITING (Continued) 1 to propose something and persuade thereader 2 It’s formal because it’s like a business idea and it’s addressed to someone you don’t know very well, or someone who is senior to you in someway. 3 They organise theinformation. 4 Yes, throughout (e.g. in your rationale for theidea).

extra: whole class Ask students to find and underline the phrases in the proposal in Ex 4 for giving opinion. Emphasise the importance of using a range of phrases to avoidrepetition. Elicit We think … ; We suggest … ; We are of the opinion … ; We believe….

5 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit theanswers. 1 Yes. 2 No – it’s a summary, therefore, it should summarise theinformation. 3 No – the summary should besuccinct. 4 The writer’s view should be clear, but not too personal orover-emphatic.

6 Ask students to read the summaries and decide which are

effective using the answers from Ex 5. Elicit whether each one is effective. Point out the different phrases students could use to introduce a summary: In conclusion, To sum up, Insummary. Only B because it relates back to the objectives, but in summary form. A and C are toovague.

exam tip Read through the first sentence of the exam tip with the class, reminding students that appropriate language for the proposal means formal language. Give students time to read the questions and discuss the sentences in pairs, then elicit the answers. For more information on proposals, refer students to the Writing file on page168. 1 is most effective because it is a politesuggestion. 2 is much too strong and soundsangry. 3 is too strong and impliesfault.

useful language: modals; reporting verbs Ask students to read the useful language box. Point out that should is used here to introduce a general idea rather than a specific idea and is therefore morepolite.

7 Ask students to re-read the sentence then ask the

question: Why does the writer use the verb suggest? Elicit the answer. Share the following sentences for comparison which sound more forceful, and consequently are less persuasive: The forum should/has to/must be made up of one representative from each yeargroup. Suggest gives an opinion in a politeway.

8 If students have internet access, they could look up suggest in the online Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English: www.ldoceonline.com. The entry for suggest includes a thesaurus section. If you do not have online access or a thesaurus available, write the suggested answers on the board for students to use to writesentences. Possibleanswers advocate, advise, propose,recommend We advocate for elections to be held annually in September for eight places on theforum. Many students have advised us that they would like to see a representative from each yearlevel. It is proposed that meetings should take placemonthly. Our class teacher has recommended that we set up a social media page for the forum so that we can give regular updates on progress and events, and forum members can be easily contacted by otherstudents.

Writeon 9 Encourage students to underline the key points to include then discuss in pairs. Elicit what needs to beincluded.

purpose of the council, how students will be elected to the council, benefits of the council for students andcollege

10 Students plan steps 1–4 individually. Then in pairs, students check their ideas (step5).

exam task: proposal 11

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You could set the writing for homework along with Ex 12. Encourage students to time themselves for 30 minutes. (They will have 40 minutes in the exam but have already spent some timeplanning.) Modelanswer Proposal for studentcouncil I am writing this proposal to the college principal to suggest the creation of a student council at ourcollege. Purpose of thecouncil The key objectives would be for students to have a channel to suggest changes in the school, and for event planning during theyear. How elections would takeplace In essence, we advocate for elections to be held annually in September each year for eight places on the council. We propose that voting would be online to minimise expense and streamline administration. At this stage, we are still considering the best way to ensure that the council has a gender balance and adequate representation for minority groups within ourschool. Benefits of thecouncil We are of the view that a student council would benefit both staff and students. Students would have a forum to raise concerns and make suggestions about the school. In addition, they would be able to plan events that would suit the current student body, in turn gaining valuable experience in organisation. Equally, staff would benefit from having a formal communication channel with a group of student representatives to make sure that they are in touch with the studentvoice. Summary Overall, we believe that this suggestion would assist our school in having a positive atmosphere where students feel that their voices areheard.

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Improveit 12 You could set this reflection for homework. Collect in the essays and provide feedback on the assessment pointslisted.

SWITCH ON In thestreets

1 Start by telling the class about a time that you were told

you weren’t allowed to do something and you felt it was unfair or illogical. For example, say: I had to sit an exam when I was 15, and the invigilator confiscated my drink bottle because I could have hidden notes in it apparently. The water bottle was completely transparent and so there was no logic to it at all. I thought it was extremelyunfair.

13 If you have a mixed-ability class, try to pair students

with similar abilities for this exercise. If students feel uncomfortable comparing their essays in this way, set the following as an alternative: students read each other’s proposals and find three examples of persuasivelanguage.

Tofinish Say: Imagine that you have received a reply to your proposal from the principal, inviting you to give a one-minute pitch. Ask students to work in new pairs to practise summarising their plan (or written proposal if they have written it already) into a one-minute pitch (speech). Invite a few volunteers to share their pitch with theclass.

extra: whole class Ask students to form groups to role-play a student council meeting. Nominate a student to be the chairperson of each group, making sure that there is a genderbalance. Tell students they need to imagine the school has received a donation of $2,000 and the student council has to make a decision about what to do with that money. Tell students to start by brainstorming possible ideas, then discuss which is the best and why. Finish by asking the chairperson from each group to share their ‘decision’ with theclass. Other alternative/additional suggestions for discussion within the ‘studentcouncil’: • make a plan for making new students feel welcome atschool. • make a plan to connect with the localcommunity. Presentationtool:

Unit 7, Writing

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Writing file:

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Put students into pairs to discuss the first question and prepare for question 2. Then combine pairs into groups of four to share their ideas and discuss question3.

extra: whole class Tell students they are going to watch a clip about banning slang words (very informal, sometimes offensive language that is used especially by people who belong to a particular group). Ask: Why might a school ban slang words? Do you think it would be a good idea to ban slang words? Why/Whynot?

2

Play the clip. Elicit the reason the school banned slangwords. The school wanted to ban the use of slang words at school and at home because they believed that using them was causing children to spellincorrectly.

3

Give students time to read the questions then play the video again. Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs then elicit someanswers. 1 Jonathon Green believes that children are speaking English, even when they are using slangwords. He believes that young people who are using and creating the slang are beingcreative. He believes that young people know when to use slang and when not to useslang. He thinks even if the ban of slang words was put in place – it wouldn’t work because people would take no notice ofit. 2 1 C ​2 D ​3 B ​4A Other slang from theclip: wagwan – what/how are youdoing? fam – family, mypeople woz –was/were giz it ere – please give it tome ya sweet – you’recool

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7 Be seen, beheard SWITCH ON (Continued)

4 Ask students to discuss the question in pairs, justifying theirchoice.

Possibleanswers • I understand that David Lammy wants young people to be able to express themselves in a coherent way. However, I do not think banning slang language will achieve this. Jonathon Green says that slang language is creative and I think that’s true. I also think that students would ignore the ban. I think that Jonathan Green presents a realistic picture of the use ofslang. • I agree with David Lammy. School is a situation where everyone (pupils, teachers and parents) should use a common, accepted language. As the teacher says later in the clip, kids invent slang – a special language exclusive to their group – to give themselves a sense of identity so it excludes people who are not in their group. Kids need to be flexible and skilled in all the forms of language that they use but, because they will need to operate in the wider world when they leave school, they need to be skilled in the use of normal English too. Also, they need to be careful that using slang doesn’t affect their ability to spell correctly because this could have a negative impact on their performance in (written)exams.

extra: whole class Say: At the end of the clip, the narrator asks whether certain accents are more acceptable than others. What do youthink?

Project

extra: whole class If the students enjoy this process, suggest setting a date to perform their sketch to other school members and/or invited guests, e.g. parents, friends. Groups could expand their scripts and practise their scenes so that they can perform without any notes. Assign a person/group to create an introduction, explaining what code-switchingis.

extra: project Ask students if they ever watch video channels like Korean Billy (which was featured in the Switch on video). If students have internet access, ask students to search for ‘Korean Billy’ on YouTube and choose a video to watch. Ask students to discuss in groups what they learned and whether videos are an effective way tolearn. Students work in pairs/small groups to create an explanation video in a similar style. They could look back and choose some related idioms or collocations from the wordlists in this course so far. You may like to assign each group a unit to choose from so that everyone chooses different expressions. Students could upload their videos to your class online space. An alternative is for students to perform the video explanation for the classinstead. You could ask students to complete (and reflect on) the Independent learning questions on page 102 for homework in preparation for the next lesson. Then use the class time for students to discuss theirideas. Presentationtool:

Unit 7, Switch on

Switch on videoscript:

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5 Check students understand comedy sketch (a short

humorous scene in a television programme, in a theatre, etc., that is part of a larger show). If students don’t have access to research in class, they could use slang from the Switch on video and any other slang words they know. For the script, give students some examples of storylines involving formal language and slang. For example, it could be set at home with a parent overhearing their child speaking on their mobile to a friend and asking what they’re saying, or at a school where slang is banned so students are speaking in slang then change to standard English when a teacher walks by. Encourage students to practise acting out their scripts so that they can perform clearly and fluently. If students have a recording device on their phone, you could give them the option to video their play and upload it to your private class online space instead of performing itlive. While students are watching others’ sketches, ask them to take noteson: • whether they have encountered this kind of situationbefore. • any moments in the script which used language in a fun or interestingway. • whether it made them consider an aspect of code-switching which they hadn’t consideredbefore. Elicit some feedback on the above points after eachperformance.

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INDEPENDENT LEARNING

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Reading andwriting 1 Ask students to reflect on this question individually. If

necessary, remind students that global comprehension is about understanding the main ideas in a text, including the attitude of the writer; and reading for detail is about understanding specificdetails.

2 Point out that recognising paraphrasing in written text

will particularly help students in Reading and Use of English Parts 3, 5, 6 and 7. Assign pairs to brainstorm paraphrases for one of the following functions: giving an opinion; explaining; giving a recommendation; speculating. Then conduct class feedback, and invite other members of the class to add any additionalideas. Possibleanswers opinion: in my view; personally; I think; I believe; as far as I’m concerned… explaining: that’s why; the reason is … ; the main reason is … ; I say this because… recommendation: I recommend; I’d suggest; You should… speculating: could; might; may; I guess; I suppose…

3 If students find this challenging, brainstorm tips as

a class, then ask students to choose the three most applicable tips to them to writedown. Possibleanswers Remember to read texts quickly for gistfirst. Use clues like headings, subheadings and pictures to help understand thetext. Don’t panic with unknown words. Instead use strategies such as deducing from context, looking for a root word, thinking of any similar words in your ownlanguage. Read more in English to practice. For example, subscribe to blogs, read online newspapers in English, read novels or magazines inEnglish. Learn speed-reading strategies or try an online speedreadingprogramme.

4 For considering types of writing, students could use the

6 Before they set their goals, encourage students to review

the feedback provided on previous written work in this course by you, classmates and their own self-assessments. Students set their own goals then compare their answers inpairs. Possibleanswer When writing proposals, I will try to use persuasive language that is polite rather thanforceful. I could improve my ability to write proposals by re-reading the model answersprovided. I will try and improve my writing by using a variety of phrases instead ofrepetition.

extra: whole class If students wish to have extra practice of the genre they have identified in Ex 6, ask them to look at the relevant model answer of the genre in the Writing file on pages 165–169. Encourage students to write their own answer in response to the task within a 40-minute time limit. They can do this forhomework.

UNITCHECK

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If possible, complete Practice Exs 1–3 in class because they involve pair work, and Review Ex 1 because it features audio. The other exs may be completed in class or set forhomework. Relevant Unit check exercises may also be set for fast finishers during otherlessons.

Practice 1 Possibleanswers for want of a better word, go back on your word, have a way with words, have the last word, in a word, put into words, word of mouth, words fail me,wordsmith • It often isn’t easy to put into words exactly how youfeel. • News spread so quickly through word of mouth that I hardly needed to announceit. • How am I? Well, in a word,busy. • I can’t believe you actually said that to his face. Words failme.

2 3   Students’ ownanswers.

list of genres in Ex 5. Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit someideas.

5 Refer students to the Writing file on pages 165–169 to remind themselves of the skills required with the differentgenres.

alternative Divide the writing genres among the class. Pairs or small groups review the skills required in each genre (using the Writing file), then report back to theclass. All genres involve: understanding the task, identifying audience, identifying and using appropriate formality, organising a piece of writing in a logical way, using a variety of vocabulary and structures, correct grammar and spelling, following the conventions of thegenre.

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7 Be seen, beheard

Review 1

7.10 1 2 3 4 5

almost sure – he says musthave because she would have phoned if she was atcollege no, because the boy isstarving put dinner in theoven now – he says mustbe

2 1 must,should 2 didn’t dare to tell,would 3 might, we’dbetter 4 is supposed to,couldn’t

3 1 have finished 2 have been talking 3 have been tempted 4 be waiting 5 better findout

4 1 reassured me (that) there would be a lot of new students 2 3 4 5

who wouldn’t knowanyone. warned me not to tell dad because it was asecret. requested that they have seats next to eachother. expected them to be more excited about theevent. advised me to enter my song for acompetition.

5 1 have 2 not 3 them 4 out 5 could/might 6 to 7 need/ought 8how

6 Modelanswer I was lucky enough to interview J. K. Rowling about her writing. I asked her if she realised what a big influence she had had, especially on getting boys to read. She explained that she was very pleased about this, but she confessed that it hadn’t been a priority for her when she started writing. I expressed my surprise that she had managed to write so much over the last few years and she pointed out that it had been very hard work. As she says, she could have written something much simpler but she herself got lost in Harry’s world and wanted to write about it completely. I suggested that she must have been very tired when she reached the end, and she laughed. We discussed what a huge influence writers can have on children, especially at certain ages, and she said she knew this was a responsibility which she took very seriously, but she hoped she had opened new worlds for the people – adults and children – who read her books. I also asked whether she had any new books that were about to come out. She admitted that she did have one that was almost written. I am so pleased I had the opportunity to talk toher.

GRAMMARFILE

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1 1 A 2 A 3 B 4B 2 1 could havebought 2 may not haverealised 3 would havedonated 4 shouldn’t havefollowed

3 1 should have held a generalelection 2 3 4 5 6

must have been playingtennis might/could/may have been given alift needn’t have had themeeting could have had his legbroken may/might ( just) as well have done

4 1 He promised (that) he would helpme. He promised to helpme. 2 She agreed (that) she would come with me onFriday. She agreed to come with me onFriday. 3 He insisted (that) I attend themeeting. He insisted on my attending themeeting. 4 He hoped (that) he could get timeoff. He hoped to (be able to) get timeoff. 5 She denied (that) she had toldhim. She denied tellinghim.

5 1 They promised (that) they would see me the following

week. / They promised to see me the followingweek. 2 He complained (that) he had hurt his knee playing football. / He complained about hurting his knee playingfootball. 3 He apologised for not being able to help that/this week. / He apologised that he wasn’t able to help that/thisweek. 4 He asked (if I knew) what we needed to do and I replied (that) I didn’t know yet/at thattime. 5 They mentioned (that) they might/may go to see their grandparents that/thisweekend.

6 1 has 2 me 3 would 4 in 5 but/although 6 been 7 about/with 8what/all

Presentationtool:

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Lead-in SBp105

Healthy body, healthymind

X 8

READING

USE OFENGLISH

topic: healthcampaigns skill: differentiating between similaropinions task: cross-text multiplematching

opencloze multiple-choicecloze

SPEAKING

thepassive beingconcise

topic:health skill: interrupting, asking forclarification task: collaborativetask

VOCABULARY

WRITING

expressingemotions adjective + nouncollocations

topic: healtheducation skill:cohesion task:essay

GRAMMAR

LISTENING topic: food andculture skill: understandingparaphrases task: sentencecompletion

SWITCH ON video: frozenlands project: culturalstudy

Ask students to look at the picture on page 105. Ask students to tell their partner whether the burger is something they would like to eat and why. Read the quote aloud Everything is fine in moderation. Ask: What does this quote mean? (if you do something in moderation, such as drinking coffee or eating certain foods, it is OK as long as you do not do it too much or too often). Put students into pairs to discuss the questions. Elicit someideas. Focus students’ attention on the unit title: Healthy body, healthy mind. Ask: What does this title imply? (There is a connection between physical and mental wellness). Ask: Do youagree?

extra: whole class Ask students to discuss the following questions in pairs, then elicit a few ideas for each. These discussion questions could also be used as alternative ways to start or finish your class throughout thisunit. 1 How important is it to have a good balance between work and play in ourlives? 2 Do you think it’s a good idea to find time every day to relax and do nothing? Why/Whynot? 3 Would you say that there is a link between health andhappiness?

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8 Healthy body, healthymind

READING

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Tostart Ask: What do you know about depression? What different attitudes do people hold towards mentalillness? Elicit that depression is a medical condition that makes you very unhappy and anxious in a way that affects your life; a feeling of sadness that makes you think there is no hope for thefuture. If possible, take this opportunity to let students know about support services at the school and/or in your area or suggest possible people that students could approach if they want to talk about an issue or aren’t feeling OK, e.g. school teacher or counsellor, telephone counselling service, friends and familymembers.

1 Ask students to discuss the question. Then elicit someideas.

alternative Draw a mind map in the style of a Speaking exam collaborative task and select five of the issues in Ex 1 to put around it. Students discuss the question in pairs as if it is a collaborative task. Then give them one minute to make a decision about the following question: Which issue would you recommend for a health campaign for young people in yourarea? Possibleanswers • I’m pretty sure that all of these health issues affect young people in some way. Perhaps the most serious issue is depression. I say this because I’ve known quite a few people who suffer from depression and anxiety, and it can be absolutelydevastating. • When I look around my friends, I’d say physical fitness is right up there as one of the most important issues. Someof us are couch potatoes and others work out to the point ofobsession. • Skin complaints and acne tend to affect adolescents more than adults, at least in myexperience.

2 Ask students to think about campaign advertising they

may have seen in different mediums, e.g. social media, television, posters/brochures. Elicit some ideas then ask some follow-up questions such as: Did the campaign have a slogan or symbol? Who was the target audience? Did the campaign have any celebritybacking? Possibleanswers One campaign I saw relating to depression was ‘R U OK?’ day. It was encouraging people to ask others how they were really feeling. It did actually remind me to be in touch with a few friends I hadn’t seen for awhile. There’s a campaign about the importance of vaccination going on at the moment. I think the government is trying to correct some misinformation spread by anti-vaxers. I’m already fully vaccinated so it didn’t change anything for mepersonally.

extra: whole class If you have access to the internet in class, search for and play a clip called ‘I am whole’ with Jordan Stephens. Ask students to discuss in pairs what they thought of the clip. If necessary, scaffold the discussion with some questions such as: What is your initial impression of the video? Who do you think the video is targeting and what do you think they are trying to achieve? How authentic (real) is the campaign? Do you think the clip iseffective? Alternatively, post the questions and a link to the video in your class online area and ask students to watch it for homework, and post a short (50-word) comment about the video, using the questions as aprompt.

Readon 3 Give students five minutes to read comments A–D to find out anything the commenters liked/disliked about the campaign and/or videoclip.

Possibleanswers A Likes: length (The short but punchy clip serves to illustrate the main point of the campaign extremely well); circle on palm symbol, celebrity involvement, based on truefacts B Likes: the campaign concept of removing stigma/shame of depression, motto and symbol, campaignoverall. Dislikes: the video cliplength C Likes: the clip increases empathy in those who don’t suffer from depression, the campaign highlights an important issue, interesting comment thread onwebsite. Dislikes: Some aspects seemedunder-researched. D Likes: powerful video, use of celebrity role models, simplicity, good medium for reaching youngpeople.

exam task: cross-text multiplematching In the Cambridge exam there would not be such a long lead-in. Here included to engage students. Read the exam tip introduction aloud before doing the task. Remind students that scanning is when you search a text for specific information. Ask: What strategies could you use to scan the text for references quickly? (e.g. identifying and underlining key words in the questions, thinking about paraphrases/synonyms to look for, using your finger to guide your eyes over the page quickly). Ask students to work in pairs to answer the questions, then elicit someresponses. 1 Text A: positive (short but punchy clip, illustrates … extremelywell) 2 Text B: negative (I fear that something has been lost in the brevity of the video … time constraints means it has to oversimplify the issues involved … would have more impact were the celebrities to talk a little about how they or people they have known have been touched by theissues.) Text C: positive (as the excellent campaign videodemonstrates) Text D: positive (Here, however, the balance is just right. The video isn’t wordy and it speaks directly to those who need to understand what having such problems means, through a medium that young people willappreciate.)

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4

Students answer the questions, then compare their answers inpairs. 1 B B has a negative view of the video (something has been lost in the brevity of the video), compared to the positive views by A (short but punchy clip), B (as the excellent campaign video demonstrates) and D (the balance is justright.) 2 C (depression is something that affects an increasing number of people, including children, and they need to be supported, not punished for it – TextA) (although I hate to mention this, some sufferers are vilified as the excellent campaign video demonstrates – TextC) 3 A (I was also impressed by the care the developers of the campaign have taken to getting at the true facts – TextA) (Although some information highlighted in the campaign was, to my mind, a little under-researched – TextC) 4 C (… campaign does really well is to make those of us who are lucky enough not to suffer from depression realise how devastating an illness it can be – TextC) (it speaks directly to those who need to understand what having such problems means – TextD)

5 Students find words and phrases in the text to complete

the sentences. To support weaker students, you could give them the words and phrases out of order or the initial letters, if necessary. Check the answers. Check students understand no holds barred (when there are no rules or limits on what you are allowed to do, e.g. It seems there are no holds barred when it comes to making aprofit). 1 holds barred ​2 brevity ​3 time constraints ​4 laudable ​ 5 vilify ​6wordy

Sumup 6 Read one of the summaries in the answer key below

and ask students to guess which comment you are summarising. Encourage students to paraphrase as they take turns to summarise comments and guess inpairs. Possibleanswers A The commenter likes that the campaign is direct and thinks the message is well-supported by the video clip. He/ she suggests that the clip is well-researched and would be encouraging for people suffering fromdepression. B The commenter applauds the idea behind the campaign and hopes it shines a spotlight on depression. However, he/ she found the video too short and simplified. He/she would have liked to have seen more personal experiences in the clip for greaterimpact. C The commenter emphasises how important it is to be aware of the effect and symptoms of mental illness in people we know. He/she agrees with the campaign’s message that this is one of the most significant youth issues today. He/she appreciated the range of views expressed on the website, but believed the campaign could have been improved by more robustinvestigation. D The commenter is a huge fan of the campaign and video clip. In particular, he/she liked how famous people were involved, and the message was promoted in a very clear, concise way. The commenter contrasted some other clips which were much more harrowing and not aslikeable.

Speakup 7 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Then elicit a fewideas.

Possibleanswers 1 • Videos that make people think about a topic are pretty effective. Celebrity endorsem*nt and a snappy slogan can definitely help make the clip more memorable as well. I find I remember what I watch far more than what Iread. • I’m cautious to say it would be effective without having any evidence. I’m behind the idea that videos effectively bring people’s attention to an issue, but will people actually modify their behavior afterwatching? 2 • I’m not convinced you can just ‘cheer up’ someone who is suffering from depression. That said, the way you could support them would probably be to keep in touch regularly, be a listening ear and maybe encourage them to get professionalhelp. • I’d encourage them to come out with me, maybe spend some time in nature or do something we both enjoy. I’m not pretending that it would turn off the depression like a switch, but it would be more beneficial than them sitting alone athome. • I’ve suffered from depression in the past and one of my friends made a point of texting me every single day. I still felt isolated to be honest, but a little less so. If I know someone is feeling down, I try to keep in touch like my friend did forme.

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Ask: How have attitudes towards tobacco changed over the last century? What measures can governments take to reducesmoking? Elicit students’ ideas and write them on the board. Ask students to discuss the effectiveness of each measure in pairs. Ask: If you were a politician, how would you tighten or relax tobacco laws?Why?0

background King James I (1566–1625) was already king of Scotland when he was crowned the king of England in 1603. In some circles, he was nicknamed the ‘wisest fool inChristendom’.

Tofinish Put students into small groups. Ask students to choose a health issue that concerns young people today (refer them to the list in Ex 1). Students plan a campaign to offer help. Depending on time, ask them to consider some or all of the following: the key message, a slogan and symbol, the medium for the campaign (e.g., social media, TV, billboards, etc.) and who would be init. Ask groups to share their ideas with the class and vote on which campaign might be the most effective andwhy. In preparation for the Grammar lesson, ask students to read the explore grammar box on page 108 and the Grammar file section on the passive on page 156. Ask them also to complete Ex 1 on page 157. Students can also go through the PowerPoint GrammarPresentation. Presentationtool:

Unit 8, Reading

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Photocopiable activity:

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8 Healthy body, healthymind

GRAMMAR

4 You are going to be given a medal for your bravery. (unimportantagent) 5 It has been discovered that this drug has dangerous side effects./This drug has been discovered to have dangerous side effects. (It is obvious who the agentis.) 6 The most interesting lecture was given by an American lawyer. (The agent is put at the end of sentence forimpact.)

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Tostart Write the following two sentences on theboard: 1 Some information was a littleunder-researched. 2 The comments thread showed a whole range of attitudes towards mental healthissues. Elicit which sentence is active and which is passive. Students work in pairs. Ask them to discuss: How do we construct a passive form? When do we usually use the passive instead of the active? Give an example of a present, future and past passive form in a contextsentence. Sentence 1 ispassive. Sentence 2 isactive. To construct a passive form, we use the correct form of be and the pastparticiple. We use the passive to change the emphasis of thesentence. Possibleexamples: Cigarette advertising is banned in somecountries. Mental health campaigns have been praised for raising awareness of the helpavailable. A presentation on healthy eating will be heldtomorrow.

explore grammar

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1 If you didn’t follow the flipped classroom approach

suggested at the end of the previous lesson, go through the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation or the explore grammar box with the class now. Students then match the uses with examples 1–4, if necessary referring to the Grammar file section on the passive on page 156 to help them. Ask students to compare their answers inpairs. A 1, 3 B 2 C4

watch out for Intransitive verbs cannot be used in the passive. An intransitive verb has a subject but no object, and is marked [I] in many dictionaries, e.g. arrive, occur,go.

2 Read through the task. Say: Start by identifying the object in the sentence. That will be your new starting point. Students rewrite the sentences. Conduct classfeedback.

extra: mixed ability If you have a weaker class, go through the sentences as a class identifying the object as a starting point, e.g. the town; items from the robbery; you; this drug; the most interestinglecture. (In all the sentences, the passive form is more appropriate – see the reasons in bracketsbelow.) 1 In recent years, the town has been affected by increasing amounts of traffic. (The agent is complicated to expresssimply.) 2 Items from the robbery were found on a ferry to France. (unimportantagent) 3 You were reported for being late to work five times last week. (This sounds more diplomatic when expressed in thepassive.)

3 Point out the picture of a wilderness area at the bottom

of the page. Ask: Where do you think this is? (Scotland). Elicit the meaning of wilderness (a large area of land which has never been developed or farmed). Ask students to speculate on what the Wilderness Project might involve inpairs. Possibleanswer It might involve giving young people some sort of outdoor experience in the wilderness. Maybe it would involve learning some survival skills and getting away from mobile devices, or working as a team. It could be aimed at young people who live in cities or don’t normally have access tonature.

4

8.1 Play the recording for students to find out what the Wilderness Project is and complete the text. For weaker classes, play the recording twice if necessary. Go through the answers as a class to ensure students have the same answers to use for Ex5. 1 received 2 determined 3 identified 4 develop 5 found 6 improve 7 give 8review

5 Students rewrite the text using passive forms. If time is

short, ask half the class to rewrite the first half, and the other class to rewrite the second half (from However…). Possibleanswer Statistics have recently been received relating to young people who have been on programmes such as the Wilderness Project and it has been determined that a very high percentage of them profited significantly from their experiences. We are in the process of setting up more such programmes to accommodate the increasing numbers of young people who have been identified as being in need of experiences like this. However, with more funding from the government, even more programmes could be developed. It has been found that a person’s self-esteem and confidence can be significantly improved by being close to nature and learning various skills and crafts in a natural setting. It is very important that young people are given these opportunities. The current programme will be reviewed at a laterdate.

extra: whole class Students work in small groups. Give them the following scenario: Imagine that you are running a health programme with limited funds. You can fund either a wide-scale social-media campaign about depression and anxiety, or fund 200 young people to attend the Wilderness Project. It is believed that both projects would have significant benefits, but you can only fund one. Give students five minutes to discuss their decision, then report back to the class with areason.

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Speakup 6 Tell students about something you have been put off

doing, e.g. At one stage, I was quite keen on the idea of bungee jumping. But then I heard some rumours that it could damage your eyesight and I have been completely put off doing it. Students discuss the items in pairs. Circulate, listening for correct use of passive forms using the correct form of be + pastparticiple. Possibleanswers 1 I once got sick from some undercooked seafood, and am sorry to say that I have been completely put off ordering it everagain. 2 I have been reminded countless times about not biting my fingernails, but it’s a habit that is so hard tobreak! 3 I was told off for eating on public transport. I knew the rules, but I wasstarving. 4 I was overcharged at the cinema once, I’d forgotten my ID and they didn’t believe I was under 16 at the time, so I had to pay for an adultticket. 5 I have been criticised for speaking my mind, but, I really believe it’s better to be upfront withpeople. 6 I have been praised for helping my brother with his homework. My parents really appreciateit. 7 I’ve been delighted by that new café opening on the corner. I’ve wanted somewhere local to get coffee for a very longtime. 8 I have been angered by people thinking depression is something you can snap out of. It’s far more complex thanthat.

Tofinish Students work in pairs. Write the list of prompts below on the board, or post them to your class online space. Give students the following scenario: Imagine that recent research has been done into how our lifestyle affects our health. Ask them to write sentences with their own ideas using the prompts if necessary. Give them about five minutes to do this. Elicit someideas After a lot of research… 1 it can be concluded that… 2 it has been found that… 3 it is suggested that… 4 it has been decided that… 5 it has been discovered that… 6 It is thought that… Presentationtool:

Unit 8, Grammar

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Grammar reference and practice:

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Photocopiable activity:

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Audioscript: SBp182

VOCABULARY

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expressingemotions Tostart Ask students to work in pairs to think of as many words and phrases as they can to describe emotion and mood, e.g. cry, laugh, shout, anger. Elicit ideas. Ask: Is it better to wear your heart on your sleeve or bottle up your emotions? How do family and cultural background influence people’s views on showingemotions?

1 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs. Then elicit someresponses.

Possibleanswers 1 • My sister has always been a very emotional person and isn’t afraid to show it. She’ll yell if she’s angry and burst into tears at the smallest thing. On the other hand, if she’s happy, she can light up theroom. • I have a friend who wears his heart on his sleeve. You always know what kind of mood he’s in because he’ll be laughing his head off or ranting aboutsomething. 2 • In my view, it is wise to keep your emotions bottled up in the workplace up to a point. You don’t have to hide everything, but it undermines your professional capability if you show every moodswing. • It basically comes down to how well you know the people in any given situation. If you don’t know the people well, I’d suggest being a bit more subtle with youremotions.

2

8.2 Play the recording. Elicit what the speakers say about crying, anger andlaughter. crying: improves our mood, physically good forus anger: exercise, running and yelling get rid offrustration laughing: good for healing,medicine

3 Students work in pairs to complete the activity. Point

out that all the words are verbs, except for the group in 3, which are all nouns. Emphasise that the words in each group have similar meanings, but are not exactly the same. For example, giggle means to laugh quickly, quietly, and in a high voice, because something is funny or because you are nervous or embarrassed; chuckle means to laugh quietly; snigg*r means to laugh quietly at something which is not supposed to be funny; smirk means to smile in an unpleasantway. 1 yell ​2 sob ​3 rant ​4giggle

extra: fast finishers Encourage students to use a thesaurus or dictionary to add another word or phrase to eachlist. Possible answers include: 1 yelp, squeal, wail; 2 sniffle, burst into tears; 3 resentment, irritation; 4 burst out laughing,grin.

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8 Healthy body, healthymind

Speakup

VOCABULARY (Continued)

7 Encourage students to think about this question in

extra This activity could be done with the whole class or fast finishers, in pairs or individually. Give students all or some of the following prompts. Students complete each sentence in their ownwords. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

The girl screamed when… The dog howled when… We shrieked when… I wept when… The baby wailed when… Jacky’s friends snigg*red when… I saw the boy smirk when.. I heard my dad chuckle when…

4 Students work in pairs to choose the correct word to

complete the sentences then discuss the differences in meaning in pairs. Conduct classfeedback. 1 2 3 4

A empathise A moan A gloomy A consideration

Bsympathise Bgroaned Bgrumpy Bcompassion

explorelanguage Ask students to read the explore language box. Ask: What strategies could you use to remember differences in meaning and use? (e.g. writing down explicitly the difference, using colour coding such as highlighting informal words pink, writing personalised examples that showmeaning).

5 Students match the sentence halves, using context to

guess what the words in bold mean. Then ask students to think of another situation for eachexpression. 1 E grin and bear it = to accept an unpleasant or difficult situation without complaining, usually because you realise there is nothing you can do to make itbetter 2 A lose it = to become very angry and upset, or, to become crazy orconfused let rip = (informal) to speak or behave violently oremotionally 3 C have a long face = a sad or disappointed expression on someone’sface 4 D shaken up = be upset, shocked, or frightened by something that has happened toyou 5 F be in fits = to laughuncontrollably 6 B shoot your mouth off = talk about something that you should not talk about or that you know nothingabout get a few things off my chest = to tell someone about something that has been worrying or annoying you for a long time, so that you feel betterafterwards

6 Ask: Why might smiling be bad for you? Elicit some

predictions. Ask students to read the article quickly to check their ideas, then complete the article. Elicit theanswers. 1 grumpy 2 moan 3 grin 4 lose it 5 yell/rant 6 shaken up 7 blub/sob 8sympathise

relation to part-time jobs they may have, or jobs they may wish to do in the future. Students discuss the question in pairs. Elicit a fewideas. Possibleanswer • In my view, it’s fair enough that employers require workers to manage their emotions. Imagine if you went into a shop or a restaurant or the hospital, and the people working there were sobbing or ranting, it would be awful as acustomer. • I don’t think it’s healthy myself. When people are forced to bottle up their emotions at work, it’s more likely to lead to an explosive outburst or feelings of isolation andloneliness. • There’s a balance to strike between allowing extreme emotions to show and wearing a mask. It’s helpful for workers to be provided with safe spaces where they can get things off theirchests.

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. If necessary, clarify that ‘Yeah, right’ is often used to show sarcastic disbelief. Point out that the sarcasm may be humorous, e.g. A: Leave the chocolates here with me, I’ll keep them safe for you. B: Yeah, right. (Both speakers use sarcasm forhumour.) Sarcasm can also be used to show annoyance (in an impolite way), for example: A: You’re the first customer to complain about the experience, no one else has had a problem with it. B: Yeah, right. (B uses sarcasm to show annoyance anddisbelief.) Discuss as a class the importance of choosing appropriate situations to use sarcasm, and the cues they could use to make it clear that they are being sarcastic, such as using a lower tone, extending the vowels in a word, giving a chuckle, a snigg*r or agroan.

Tofinish Students work in pairs. Ask them to take turns to choose a word or phrase from the page and without saying the item, give a definition or an example situation so that their partner can guess, e.g. I’m sorry to hear that you missed out on the scholarship. I know how much work you put into the application.(sympathise).

extra Refer the whole class or fast finishers to the list of sports and games idioms in the Extend Vocabulary section on page 160. Allocate different idioms to individuals or pairs. Give them five minutes to research the meaning of the idiom and teach it to the rest of the class by explaining the meaning with an example or creating a picture that will help them rememberit. Presentationtool:

Unit 8, Vocabulary

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Extend vocabulary:

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Photocopiable activity:

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Audioscript:

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LISTENING

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Tostart Ask students to note down thefollowing: 1 an appealing foodsmell 2 an unappealing foodsmell 3 how spicy they like theirfood 4 food textures they like ordislike Put students into small groups to compare theiranswers.

Powerup 1 Read the saying aloud: You are what you eat. Ask: What

does this mean? Students discuss in pairs to what extent they agree with thequote. It is used to say that you will be healthy if the food you eat is healthy and viceversa.

2 Students read the text and discuss how far each factor has influencedthem.

Possibleanswers • I’m not sure about the pregnancy one. I say this because my mum craved cheese when she was pregnant and I’m allergic to dairyproducts! • I’m sure growing up in a family where spicy food was the norm has developed my taste for that kind ofthing.

Listenup 3 Give students time to skim the sentences summarising Mina’s talk. Ask: What is the talk going to beabout? The idea of food choices being affected byculture.

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8.3 Play the recording. Emphasise that students should listen for gist and the cultures Mina refers to without worrying about the gapsyet. Korean, American andChinese

exam tip Read through the exam tip as a class after students have attempted Ex 5 and you are going through theanswers. In the first part of the recording, Mina mentions that age, gender, status and work affect our tastes. However, she is talking about collective tastes at that point rather than personal tastes (… what I’ve observed is that what different communities choose to eat and how they eat – and even how certain dishes are prepared – is actually very closely connected to the unique characteristics we have such as age or gender, our status in society or even sometimes the kind of work wedo.)

exam task: sentencecompletion 5

8.4 Play the recording for students to complete the sentences in Ex 3. Go through the answers as aclass. 1 significance (Eating is never a just a biological activity. For me, whether it is simply or elaborately prepared, food always carries with it somesignificance.) 2 characteristics (I’ve cooked in many other countries, and in doing so, what I’ve observed is that what different communities choose to eat and how they eat … is actually very closely connected to the unique characteristics wehave) 3 past experiences (In other words, what you choose to cook and eat is an accumulation of all these pastexperiences.) 4 group identity (And then, looking at how we eat as a group, consider how every single community and religion uses food as part of their celebrations. … I would say that this helps make our group identitystronger.) 5 tastes (Think about all the Chinese cooks who emigrated. … it was inevitable in those circ*mstances that the dishes they served had to be adjusted to accommodate tastes in their newculture.) 6 traditional skills (It’s a shame that those traditional skills are dyingout) 7 bringing people together (All this swapping of tips and information is a great way of bringing peopletogether.) 8 extension (we even make a thing of waiting in line for a table at a restaurant … we turn it into a social event and, if you are with friends, it’s an extension of eating withthem.)

6 Students discuss the meaning of the highlighted words

and phrases, comparing the meaning to the literal meaning in brackets. Go through the answers with the class to check students have the correctunderstanding. 1 is accompaniedby 2 show where you comefrom 3 to be adequate or successfuleconomically 4 an emotional connection orlink 5 to feel emotionally or intellectually part of agroup 6 to be something that is an essentialquality

extra: whole class Ask students to tell a partnerabout: • a food/dish that carries some significance forthem. • how close their ties are to their extendedfamily. • a defining characteristic of their familyculture.

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8 Healthy body, healthymind

USE OF ENGLISH 1

LISTENING (Continued)

Speakup 7 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit a few ideas for eachone.

Possibleanswers 1 When I think of comfort food, I think of my grandmother’s apple pie. We always have it at family gatherings and it takes me back to mychildhood. 2 I suppose when you eat at a restaurant, it’s quite common for people to order lots of different dishes, whereas at home, everyone would be having the same thing. Another difference might be that home-cooked food is generally healthier, although of course it depends on the home and restaurant you’re talking about! At a restaurant, we would also be served at the table, but at my place we’re expected to serve ourselves – and do the dishes afterwards,too! 3 Here in Argentina, I would say that the barbecue is the most representative because it is something that people all over the country enjoy, and we have a reputation for doing it well. It’s served with chimichurri, a sauce made of herbs. I’d also say dulce de leche, which is a rich caramel spread. Each region has its own specialities, for instance, locro stew, made of corn, beans and potato, in the north west. I think regional variations in food are partly based on what produce grows well in the area, as well as the influence of indigenous people, and groups of immigrants settling in certainareas.

Tostart Ask students to discuss in pairs: Do you have a sweet tooth? Are you a fussy eater? Do you prefer home cooking or eatingout?

1 Ask students to read the sentences, and elicit how

sentence 2 expresses the same ideas moreconcisely. The information has been condensed into nounphrases.

explorelanguage

2 Remind students of point C in the explore language box:

that most compound adjectives (but not -ly adverbs) have a hyphen before a noun. Students complete the exercise, then compare inpairs. 1 (long-lasting), 3 (long-standing) and 5 (two-day-old) need hyphens. We don’t use a hyphen with -lyadverbs.

3 Students work in pairs to make questions 1–6 moreconcise.

1 Would you rather eat in a five-star restaurant or a familyruncafé? 2 What do you consider a well-balanced diet consistsof? 3 Why do you think convenience food is so popularnowadays? 4 Would you rather eat home-grown or frozenvegetables? 5 Would you rather do regular exercise or eat a healthydiet? 6 Would you rather eat local or internationaldishes?

Ask students to read the footer. Say: This sounds like a great excuse to eat chocolate, but how could you find out whether the study was reliable? Is a study robust scientific evidence? What would you look for in deciding whether a study was robust? Elicit questions such as: Was it peer reviewed? Where was it published? How big was the sample size? Who commissioned thestudy?

Tofinish Ask students to discuss the following questions in pairs or smallgroups.

extra This activity is suitable for fast finishers or the whole class. Students work in pairs to take it turns to ask and answer the questions in Ex 3, giving reasonswhy.

4 Give students one minute to skim the article to find out what the writer issuggesting.

You can eat food to make you moreintelligent.

1 How far do you agree that food is part of our culturalidentity? 2 Do you think food will become more similar across cultures in thefuture? 3 Why do you think some food, e.g. pizza, has travelled well acrosscultures? In preparation for the Use of English lesson, encourage students to read the Grammar file section about being concise on page 156. Students could also complete Ex 4 on page157. Presentationtool:

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Ask students to read the explore language box, referring students to the Grammar file on page 156 for more information if they have not already read it. Ask students to complete Ex 4 on page157.

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If students have access to the internet in class, see if they can find any information to back up the claim that chocolate can improve maths, and weigh up the source against the criteria they came upwith.

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exam task: opencloze 5

Give students five minutes to complete each gap with one word only. Go through the exam tip (below) before checking as aclass. 1 on (a fixed phrase with a dependent preposition – have an effecton) 2 make (a collocation withsmarter) 3 were (a previous past reference, using thepassive) 4 This/It (backwardreferencing) 5 try (a verb meaning ‘experiment’ before an -ingform) 6 as (while is not correct here – we don’t say while youage) 7 every (= all of theorgans) 8 so (part of so that – talking about aconsequence)

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exam tip Read the exam tip introduction with the class, then ask them to answer the question in pairs. Elicit the answer. As you go through the other answers, elicit the reason foreach. A 2  B4 1 noun + prepositioncollocation 2 verb + adjectivecollocation 3 pastpassive 4 backwardreferencing 5 verb before -ingform 6 timelinker 7 determiner 8 consequentiallinker

USE OF ENGLISH 2 Tostart

Ask students to discuss in pairs: Do you like to exercise? What forms of exercise suit you best? What are the benefits of regular exercise? Elicit someideas.

1 Ask students to discuss the question in pairs. Elicit someideas.

Possibleanswer Studies have shown that exercise can improve mood and help with depression. However, people often neglect to doexercise.

2

extra: fast finishers (long-lasting effect, the most powerful organ, tiny but powerful blueberry, learning capacity, motor skills, short-term memory, big exam, terrific sources, cognitive decline, monounsaturated fat, healthy blood flow, whole grains, braincells).

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. If necessary, clarify that working memory means the part of a person’s memory which stores information about the thing being workedon. Ask for some predictions: Why do you think it might affect working memory? Give students five minutes to research online how climbing trees makes you smarter. Students should write sentences using passive tenses to describe what theyfind. The fun footer fact was discovered by researchers at the University of North Florida. It was found that two hours of tree-climbing or walking on a balance beam improved study participants’ working memories by around 50%. It is believed that memory improves from the combination of using the brain and the body in an unpredictableenvironment. Ask students to discuss the following questions in pairs: Does climbing trees to improve memory appeal to you? What other activities might also improve working memory? Elicit other activities which use brain power and body awareness in an unpredictable setting, for example, rock climbing, parkour or obstacle courseracing.

8.5 Play the recording. Ask: What are the people like? Do you know anyone likethem? Possibleanswer I know someone like the speakers – me! I’m not a big exercise fan and I find it really hard to stick to a routine. As for someone like Jake, a fitness fanatic, well my sister’s like that. She can’t get enough of the gym and is very discerning about food. ‘Fuel for the body’, she callsit.

Students look at the text in Ex 4 again and underline the modified nouns in thetext

3

8.6 Play the recording for students to complete the collocations. Then ask students to explain the meanings in pairs. Elicit someideas. 1 sore (A sore point is something that is likely to make someone upset or angry when you talk aboutit.) 2 strict (A strict diet is one in which you eat a very limited amount or range offood.) 3 strong (A strong aversion is an extremely strong dislike ofsomething.) 4 tough (If something is tough going, it means the conditions aredifficult.)

explorelanguage Go through the explore language box with theclass.

4 These are examples of weak collocations. The adjectives

collocate with a lot of different nouns. Put students into groups of three or four to discuss. Elicit theanswers. 1 concentration ​2 visit ​3 sound ​4 ambition ​5 matter ​ 6frown

5 Students complete the sentences, then compare answers inpairs.

Tofinish Students work in groups of three. Say: You have been asked to teach the younger students in your school about a smarter diet. Decide what information you need to give the students, for example, which foods you will suggest, and give reasons why. Give students about ten minutes’ preparation time, before they present their ideas to the rest of theclass. Presentationtool:

Unit 8, Use of English 1

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1 solid gold ​2 close call ​3 strict laws ​4 casual remark ​ 5 tough call ​6 heavyfine

exam tip Ask students to read through the exam tip. Tell students that they will not be penalised for incorrect answers, so should be sure to answer every question. Point out that even if they aren’t sure, it is better to first eliminate the answers they think aren’t right and guess from the remaining ones than take a completely random guess. Remind students to think about word class, collocation, and all the surroundingwords.

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SPEAKING

USE OF ENGLISH 2 (Continued)

exam task: multiple-choicecloze There are more adjective noun collocations tested here than in the Cambridge exam as it is the focus of the lesson.

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Set a time limit of eight minutes for students to complete the blog. Challenge stronger students to not refer to any notes (and mask the rest of the page with a piece ofpaper). 1 2 3 4 5

D (other options do not collocate withstart) B (profit =benefit) C (other options do not collocate withhigh) A (part of the fixed phrase do thetrick) D (correct collocation with solid, also evidence has the most appropriatemeaning) 6 D (other options do not collocate witheffects) 7 B (other options do not collocate withreliance) 8 C (other options do not collocate withcontrol)

Tostart If possible, before class, find a current news article related to health and wellness on a topic which is appropriate and likely to be of interest to your students. Note theheadline. In class, share the headline and ask students to speculate in pairs what the article might be about. Elicit some ideas. Give students the link or post it to your class online area for students to read forhomework.

Powerup 1 Focus students on the first headline. Ask: What do you

think this news story is about? Elicit a few ideas. Students speculate about the remaining headlines in pairs using some of the phrases from the ‘To start’ activity. Elicit someideas. Possibleanswers 1 This article might raise the point that antibiotics are being overused. It will probably also discuss how we need to invest more money in the research for newdrugs. 2 This article could raise the point that people in many professions believe they are overworked and underpaid. Or it might point out that later in their careers, doctors often end up earning decentsalaries. 3 I wonder if this article raises the point that too many health campaigns may dilute the effectiveness of each one because people get tired of them. I’d guess it might point out that although smoking rates have reduced, tobacco continues to harm people’shealth. 4 I would expect this to raise the point that until now, foodlabelling controls in this country have been a lot more relaxed than in other countries. It may also discuss how food labelling can help consumers make more informed choices about theirdiet.

Speakup 7 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Ask a few students to report what their partnersaid.

1 I don’t like the idea of supplements myself. Trying to replace a balanced diet of fresh produce with processed pills? It doesn’t seem like common sense, and there isn’t any evidence to back up their effectiveness anyway. Occasionally taking some vitamins or a protein shake won’t hurt, but I just don’t think there is enough evidence to warrant spending money on themregularly. 2 If an athlete fails a banned substance test, I think they should face a ban from the sport for at least a few years. The rules are there to make things fairer for everyone and also to protect the health of the athletes. Some banned substances can be quite harmful to the long-term health of athletes, I think. Yet, it seems too harsh to ban them forever. Many who have used banned substances face a huge social stigma, lose their sponsorships and so on, so let’s not punish them for life. Everyone makes mistakes, afterall.

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Tofinish Ask students: Which of the adjective–noun collocations were the most useful or interesting to learn today and why? Did any collocations surprise you because they were different to other languages youknow? Presentationtool:

Unit 8, Use of English 2

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2 Students match the comments with the headlines. Elicit theanswers.

1 B 2 C 3 A 4D

Speakup 3

Ask students to read the footer and discuss how they think the other 20% leaves our bodies. (The other 20% of fat is lost through water.) Ask students to think of any adjectives they know which collocate with the noun breath (deep, shallow, bad).

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8.7 After students have read the speaking task, ask: In a collaborative task, what sort of interaction is good? Elicit that there should be a roughly equal amount of speaking between each candidate, and candidates should be encouraging their partner to share opinions, and then responding to what he or she has to say. Play the recording for students to see how well the students do this. Elicit someresponses. The interaction is not good because the boy dominates the discussion toomuch.

exam tip Ask students to read the tip about turn-taking. Say: Conversation is like playing tennis, you hit the ball to your partner and your partner hits it back. If your partner doesn’t hit the ball, you take a new ball and hit to them again. Refer students to the Speaking file on page 163 for more information on the collaborativetask.

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4

8.8 Play the recording for students to hear what phrases the girl uses for 1 and 2. Elicit theanswers. 1 I’m sorry, what do you mean by‘overuse?’ 2 Could I just come inhere?

useful language: interrupting politely; asking for clarification Ask students to read through the useful language box and tick the phrases they have used before. Encourage them to try out any new phrases in the discussion in Ex5.

exam task: collaborative task

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In the Cambridge exam candidates are not asked to limit their discussion to two of the points. They are here to practise the functions focused on in the lesson.

5

Go through the rubric with the class. Circulate, listening to the interruptions and clarifications. If necessary, remind students of the importance of gentle tone of voice to conveypoliteness. Possibleanswer A: In my view, it is high time that more money was spent on improving health care facilities, for example, refurbishing hospitals and updating equipment. This has been done in some of the big cities, but smaller hospitals in rural areas are often quite run-down and… B: That’s a really good point, but I’d just like to add that I would say that updating equipment is likely more beneficial than making cosmetic changes… A: I’m sorry, I’m not quite sure what you mean by ‘cosmetic’changes. B: Oh, what I mean is changes to the appearance of the hospital, like painting walls and or adding artwork, things likethat. A: Thanks. Actually, I think it’s vital to spend money on both the appearance and the actual facilities. If patients are in a pleasant environment, I’m convinced it aids theirrecovery. B: I suggest that another area which is vital to spend money on is developing new drugs to fight diseases that have such horrible consequences for many people. What they need to do is give research scientists more funding. With the right funding, I’m sure… A: Excuse me, can I just say that it isn’t quite as simple as that. Even if new drugs are developed, they’re likely to be so expensive that they only benefit the few people who can affordthem. B: Could you rephrase thatplease? A: Sure. What I’m getting at is that it’s crucial that the new drugs developed are affordable. Otherwise, it isn’t worth theinvestment.

6 Remind students that after the collaborative task, they

will have one minute to discuss a decision question. Set a time limit of one minute for students to discuss which measure in Ex 3 is likely to have the mostimpact. Possibleanswer A: Mm, let’s see. I would say either health awareness campaigns or controlling food labelling. I say this because these are preventative measures to stop people getting sick. They also target a very wide audience. What do youthink? B: Well, all these measures would be beneficial, wouldn’t they? That said, if we’re looking at the one that would make the biggest difference, I’d lean towards developing new medicines – cancer treatment, for instance. It could be the difference between life and death for somepeople. A: I’m inclined to agree with you. Although new drugs wouldn’t reach as many people as, say, a health campaign, it really still should be apriority.

Speakingextra 7 Remind students of the useful language box on page

163. Students discuss the questions in pairs. Ask a few students to report something interesting their partner said using one of the reporting verbs from page97. Possibleanswers 1 • Governments have a role in looking after their people’s health. When people have access to good, affordable or free health care, the nation as a whole is betteroff. • People should take more individual responsibility for their own health. It seems very unfair that other taxpayers have to subsidise health care for people that don’t take good care ofthemselves. 2 • I’m intrigued by the possibility of testing for diseases you are genetically prone to, and then taking preemptive treatment. It would be so much better than only treating a condition after you getit. • Maybe scientists will be able to recommend food or exercise that will benefit people with certain types of geneticmake-up. • I wonder if people will become more empathetic towards people with diseases if it’s found that they are caused by genetics rather than a consequence of personaldecisions? 3 • Our generation is more conscious about healthy eating because there is so much information available on the internet. That said, ironically, I think we are less healthy, probably because of our sedentary lifestyles with so muchtechnology. • Unfortunately, I think we’ve become less health conscious. My parents’ generation was all about growing your own fresh produce, and today we all seem to reach for processed food out ofconvenience.

alternative Ask students to do the collaborative exam task in Ex 3 as a complete task. Time them for two minutes. Alternatively, if practical, ask students to meet outside the class to practise the full task. Invite them to film themselves doing the full task and share it with you through your class online space so that you can provide some individualisedfeedback.

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WRITING

SPEAKING (Continued)

extra: whole class Ask students to swap partners, and discuss the following questions. Elicit a fewresponses. 1 To what extent do air, water and sea pollution affect ourhealth? 2 Do you think that all major diseases will be eradicated in thefuture? 3 Some people say that we are overly obsessive about diet today and we should think about ‘everything in moderation’. What do youthink?

game on With the class, brainstorm some controversial current issues on the board that students could use for the discussion, e.g. vaccination, food labelling, plastic bags, the gender pay gap, increasing taxes, paying teachers more,etc. Student take turns to make a statement about one of the topics that isn’t their true opinion, e.g. Plastic bags are so convenient, I think a ban is absolutelyridiculous. Student B argues the other point of view, and asks questions such as Why do you think that? Do you have any evidence to back up youropinion?

Tofinish Students work in pairs. Student A turns to a random page in the Student’s Book and reads something very fast aloud. Student B must interrupt politely and ask for clarification. Forexample: A (reading fast): I recently carried out an anonymous survey to find out the number of people at the leisure centre who currently take protein supplements… B: Sorry to interrupt, but I’m not sure I understand what youmean. A: I was just re-reading the blog on page 112 aboutsupplements. Students take turns to read and interrupt politely, using a different way to interrupt eachtime.

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Tostart Ask students to reflect on what they have learned about essays so far in this course, including the feedback they have received. Students work in pairs to think of advice for themselves and their classmates for writing a good essay. Elicit some ideas. Ask students to reflect on which advice they consistently take and which they will concentrate on improving thistime. Possibleanswer Read the task carefully, include the correct number of points, use formal or semi-formal style, have a clear introduction, divide your work into paragraphs, use topic sentences to introduce each paragraph, support your points with reasons and examples, use a range of language and structures, avoid repetition of the ‘discussion’ and yourself by using paraphrasing and synonyms, use linking expressions to connect ideas, finish with a conclusion which summarises yourview.

Powerup 1 Brainstorm with the class some different ways that young people could be taught about health issues. Put students into pairs to discuss which of the ways they think are most effective/persuasive. Elicit someideas. Possibleanswers being given information in a short video, being given information at school, workshops, magazines, conversations with their parents, healthy cooking classes, online newsletter, watching or being in a play, a MOOC (massive open onlinecourse)

Planon 2 Point out that when reading the task, it may be helpful

to read the instructions above and below the notes boxes first, as these contain the main instructions. Give students one minute to read the task, encouraging them to underline/highlight key words and points. Elicit the purpose andaudience. The essay is about persuading young people to take better care of their health. Your tutor will readit.

Presentationtool:

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1 I wholeheartedly agree with the writer’s argument as teenagers aren’t taught about health in school, so we need to find a way to get the message through. What I particularly like was their suggestion to use social media as a way of communicating the information to them – greatidea! 2 The writer uses lots of reasons andexamples. 3 Yes. The writer thinks videos are the bestway.

3 Students read the task to answer the questions. Elicit

exam tip Go through the exam tip box withstudents. It overtly refers back to the issue of health education mentioned in theintroduction.

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useful language: introductory phrases Focus students’ attention on the useful language box, which contains introductory phrases including many passive structures that were covered on page108. Elicit the meaning of it’s high time which is used to say strongly that you think something should happen soon or should already havehappened.

4 Students work in pairs to write their own introduction for the task in Ex 2 using one of the phrases. Combine pairs to form groups of four for students to share theirintroductions.

Possibleanswer There is no doubt that people growing up today live in a high-pressure society. That is why it is high time that more effort and resources were put into improving the health of the young. In this essay, consideration will be given to two possible alternatives to encourage young people to look after their own health: social media and short educational videoclips.

5 Remind students that it is best to paraphrase ideas

from the task notes to avoid repetition. Students discuss possible paraphrases for each idea in pairs. Elicit possibleanswers. Possibleanswers 1 ways in which young people can be persuaded/how to influence youngpeople 2 to look after themselvesmore 3 to put details on the web/to post detailsonline 4 to organise workshops/courses that train people in… 5 designing/developing/makingvideos

6 Remind students that hedging language is important

to sound persuasive and plausible. If they are too emphatic or overstate, it could come across as impolite or unconvincing. (See the exam tip on hedging on page 31.) Ask students to find at least five examples of modified language in the essay and to work in pairs to think of possiblealternatives. Possibleanswers It is therefore worth considering how (For this reason, it would be worthwhile to consider how…) In order to do this, consideration should be given to … (Toachieve this, we might think about…) There are two options that I think could be effective … (Twoalternatives worth weighing up are…) … then it would probably be shared … (then it would likely be shared…) this is likely to be a very effective way … (this may well be an effective way…) What would be best is … (What would be ideal…) and I would suggest that … (I am of the view/opinion that…) Something short and fun could have … (Something short and fun is likely to…)

7 Focus on the first sentence as an example. Elicit the words that could be too emphatic and possible alternatives. Point out that hedging one or two of these sentences is likely to be sufficient to sound polite and hedging all of them is likely to be overdoingit.

1 Obviously, people will read anything we put on socialmedia. (Generally/It is likely that people will read most things we put on socialmedia.) 2 We know for sure that young people will always listen to others, such as their sportscoaches. (It could be that young people will usually/mostly listen to others, such as their sportscoaches.) 3 Putting the information in a video is certainly the best way to approach thisproblem. (Putting the information in a video is probably an effective way to approach thisproblem.) 4 There is no doubt that using social media is the most sensible way to tacklethis. (I would suggest that using social media is a sensible way to tacklethis.)

Writeon extra: whole class Ask students to discuss in pairs the following question: How would you describe the health education provided in schools in yourcountry?

8 Students work in pairs to write the notes. Then elicit some ideas from theclass.

Possibleanswers • improved academic performance: widely accepted link between physical health and performance, will lead to better health and bettergrades • ‘fitness for life’: students who exercise at school are more likely to continue to stay active into adulthood, so individuals benefit from being healthier as adults, and society benefits from having healthieradults • ‘fitness for life’ is most important because it will benefit current students and could also have an effect on futuregenerations • The issue is important because many young people today live sedentary lives, affecting their health and generalwellbeing. • Health education would encourage young people to develop healthyhabits. • Numerous benefits to health education, e.g. improvements to academic success and a healthier society in the longrun.

9 Students work through the questions at their own pace while you circulate to provideassistance.

exam task: essay

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The third opinion is slightly longer than it would be in the Cambridge exam.

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Students should complete this essay as timed practice, in 30 minutes. Encourage students to read the assessment points in Ex 12 before they write. In addition, if students selected some advice in the ‘To start’ activity, remind them to keep it in mind as theywrite.

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SWITCH ON

WRITING (Continued)

Modelanswer Many young people today live sedentary lives in front of a screen, which affects their health and general wellbeing. It is high time that health education was highlighted in schools to encourage young people to develop healthy habits. There are numerous benefits to an increased focus on health education within the curriculum including improvements to academic success and a healthier society in the longrun. It is widely accepted that there is a link between physical health and performance. If students have opportunities to engage in more physical activity as a result of health promotion, this will likely lead to better focus and improvedgrades. It is also worth considering the possible long-term benefits of health promotion in schools. For example, students who exercise regularly at school are probably more likely to continue to stay active into adulthood. As a result, individuals and society reap the benefits of fitness for many years beyond the initialinvestment. It is my view that the latter benefit is the most convincing. If young people are equipped with health and fitness skills, not only will we benefit the current generation, but it could have a possible effect on the next. Ultimately, I think we should stop complaining about health issues that can be addressed with lifestyle changes, and start addressing them. In my view, health promotion in every school is a straightforward startingpoint.

Frozenlands 1 The idea is to get students thinking about how food

influences their lives. Do they make moral choices about what they eat? Or is it something they take for granted because it is so readilyavailable? Put students into groups of three to five to discuss the questions. If necessary, clarify that a vegan is someone who does not eat any animal products at all, including fish, eggs, cheese ormilk. Remind students to try and balance their participation in the discussion as they did in the speaking lesson on page 113, for example, by encouraging other members to share their opinions and using polite language to interrupt, if necessary. Elicit some pros and cons of different eatingchoices. Possibleanswers 1 • Food is a core part of who I am. That is how I was brought up – to value home-cooking andhospitality. • Not sure food is more important than any of these other areas to be honest. I’m not as much of a foodie as some others Iknow. • That’s a difficult question. I’m not sure that you can even separate food from some of these areas. When I think of home, food is part of that. I cook and go out to eat for pleasure as well. I’d be keen to work in the restaurant industry one daytoo. 2 Vegetarian/vegan Pros: lower risk of certain diseases and health problems; significantly lower carbon footprint; not supporting animal maltreatment; diet generally lower in saturated fat and processed food; can becheaper. Cons: may need to take vitamin B12 supplements; sometimes vegans/vegetarians may not be catered for well in social situations; less choice when eatingout. Meat-eating Pros: in some parts of the world this is the status quo, so there may be an element of social acceptability; meat is an easy source of some nutrients such as zinc and iron; some people enjoy eatingmeat. Cons: meat and dairy consumption has been linked to an increased risk of certain diseases and health problems; animal farming is one of the largest contributors to climate change; it may condone cruelty to animals; meat can beexpensive.

Improveit 11 12 These reflection exercises may be set for homework.

Students may make changes to their essays in relation to the points before handing in for individualised feedback. Use the assessment points from Ex 12 as your markingschedule.

alternative Set the essay in Ex 10 and the reflection exercises in Exs 11–12 for homework, using the class time instead to conduct more detailed whole-class feedback on the points in Ex9.

13 If you have a mixed-ability class, try to pair students with similar abilities for this exercise. Alternatively, encourage students to identify some assessment points that their partner did well, rather than necessarilybetter.

Tofinish Ask students to work in pairs to discuss their own views about things they think should happen soon or should already have happened, using the phrases It’s high time … or It’s about time …. Presentationtool:

Unit 8, Writing

Workbook / Online Practice:

p86

Writing file:

SBp165

SBp116

extra: whole class Tell students they are going to watch a clip about the Dolgan tribe. Ask students to look at the picture on page 116 and speculate in pairs about what life would be like in the Dolgan tribe in the extreme cold. Elicit someideas.

2

Play the clip. Elicit what makes survival possible for the Dolgantribe. The reindeer fur which the Dolgan use for their clothes and for lining theirhouses.

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3

Give students time to read the questions, then play the video again. Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit some ideas. Read the answers below for students to check theirideas. 1 The reindeers eat ‘the tiny plants that survive beneath thesnow’. 2 They keep it in the snow (‘one big deepfreeze’). 3 The children are sewn into their clothes to avoidfrostbite. 4 They move often to find new grazing for theirreindeer.

4 Elicit the difference between eating to live (eating for necessity) and living to eat (eating forpleasure).

Possibleanswer The Dolgan eat to live because food is so scarce and so difficult to find. They have very little choice – their diet consists mainly of frozen fish and occasionally reindeer meat (though this is only used as a last resort). Their whole lives are geared around finding food for their reindeer who supply the furs which enable the people to survive in the freezingtemperatures. In the West, we live to eat because food is so abundant that eating is a pleasure rather than a necessity. Because we have such a huge range of choice, eating has become a sophisticated part of our culture and eating out in restaurants has become a hobby for many affluent people. We lead such indulgent lives in the West that obesity is now one of the greatest threats to ourhealth.

5 Students discuss the questions in smallgroups. Possibleanswers • We can learn that it is possible to have a happy life and good relationships within families and generations when living close together. Less is sometimes more. When there is a very restricted choice and everyone is focused on the same urgent goal (finding food) there is no time for arguing about trivial things. Also, although it might be too much of a shock for some, we could benefit from experiencing the Dolgan lifestyle for awhile. • Some might say that it is a futile sort of life. In order to survive in the freezing cold, the Dolgan people have to raise reindeers for their furs. But if they didn’t live there, they wouldn’t need the fur or the reindeer. In the short clip, we didn’t see any of the negative aspects of their lives – how do they get health care? How do they manage to have a varied diet? What happens when the young grow up and want to marry or move away? Also, in the West, we have moved so far away from that kind of life. Most people in the West would not be able to tolerate the shock. There are other less uncomfortable ways to take time out to re-evaluate our lives, for instance going on a retreat in the mountains or volunteering with acharity.

Project 6 Put students into groups of three for the project. Sample

cultures could include any group that has an important relationship with animals for work or leisure (e.g. sheep farmers in Scotland, deep-sea trawler fishers, falconry in the Middle East, race-horse jockeys or trainers, pet owners). Set a time limit for each presentation, e.g. three minutes. Students could use digital slides to support their presentation or try a modified PechaKucha format of nine slides for 20 seconds each (three minutes). After students present, encourage a moment of reflection to discuss how they found working in teams. For example, ask: What worked and what didn’t? Were the tasks equally distributed? Did everyone contributeequally?

extra: project 1 Have a class debate on veganism vs. meat eating. Students can use the internet to research the pros and cons of each diet, the effects of climate change, the health debate, etc. before putting forward their views in adebate. 2 Students look more deeply at their own and their society’s relationship to food. How much is it dependent on their culture and their family traditions? How and where do they get theirfood? Allow students to pick the topics they want to include in their research andpresentations. 3 Students research a dish from another culture and why it is representative of that culture. Alternatively, they could find out about how a dish in their culture has local variants andwhy. Presentationtool:

Unit 8, Switch on

Switch on videoscript:

TBp182

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8 Healthy body, healthymind

INDEPENDENT LEARNING

6 Students set their own goals then compare their answers inpairs.

Possibleanswer I would like to improve my speaking because it will help me to make myself understood when I travel and work with internationalcolleagues. Next time I do a speaking activity, I will try to focus on using a range of language rather than repeatingmyself. I think I can improve my speaking skills by reviewing and practising the useful phrases in the Speaking File on pages161–164.

SBp116

Listening andspeaking 1 Ask students to reflect on the questions individually.

Thenask students to share their answers in smallgroups. Possibleanswers 1 To help prepare for listening: read the questions/task before you listen, think about what you already know about the topic, identify key words in the task and think of paraphrases, use the questions/task to predict what kind of content it willcontain. 2–3 Students’ ownanswers.

2 Before students look back, see if the class can remember

any of the tips. Alternatively, allocate each individual or pair one unit. Students re-read the listening tip from that unit and summarise it for the class. The page references for the exam tips are: Unit 1 (page 12), Unit 2 (page 26), Unit 3 (page 40), Unit 4 (page 54), Unit 5 (page 68), Unit 6 (page 82), Unit 7 (page 96), Unit 8 (page110). Possibleanswers 1 multiple choice: short texts: We often understand opinions, feelings and attitude from several phrases rather than one word. (Unit 4, page54) 2 multiple choice: longer text: Use key words in the first part of each question to help you understand where to listen. (Unit 6, page82)

3 If students find this challenging, brainstorm tips as

a class, then ask students to choose the three most applicable tips to them to discuss. Encourage students to make their plan realistic andmeasurable. Possibleanswer Today I will choose three podcasts that interest me to download (e.g. fromTedTalks). By next week I will listen to at least one of the talks and tell someone about the gist of what Ilearned. When I listen, I will focus on understanding the attitude of the speaker and consider her/his purpose (e.g. suggesting, informing, recommending,persuading).

4 Ask students to reflect on the questionsindividually. 5 Students compare their answers to Ex 4 in pairs before giving each otheradvice.

Possibleanswer A: So, the skill I’m least confident in would probably be structuring answers, especially in the long turn. Sometimes, I end up wandering away from the question I’ve beenasked. B: Something I always do to help keep on track is to look at the question. Remember, we’ll be given it in the exam. With the comparison we do first, I always try to talk about a couple of similarities first, and then move on to differences. I just find it easier to structure it that way to make sure I’ve said a similarity and a difference. And then, once I’ve done the comparison, I quickly look back at the written question and spend a bit of time on that, making sure I justify my points as I go along with reasons andexamples.

extra: whole class Give students an opportunity to do a speaking task, taking into consideration their reflection in Ex 6. Ask students to turn to the Speaking file on page 161, and choose two of the questions from the Example Task to ask their partner. Students take turns to ask their partner thequestions.

UNITCHECK

SBp117

If possible, do Practice Ex 1–3 in class. The other exercises may be completed in class or set for homework. Relevant Unit Check exercises may also be set for fast finishers during otherlessons.

Practice 1

8.9 1 solid 2 close 3 adverse 4 heavy 5 sore 6heavy

2 • back to square one (used when you start something again

because you were not successful the firsttime) • comfort food (used when talking about simple food that makes you feel relaxed andhappy) • eradicate (used in formal speech and writing to talk about completely getting rid of something such as a disease or socialproblem) • laudable (used in formal speech and writing to say that something deserves praise, even if it’s not completelysuccessful) • preventative (describing something used to prevent a negative consequence, for example preventative measures or preventativemedicine) • stigma (used to describe a strong feeling in society that being in a particular situation or having a particular illness is something to be ashamed of, for example, in some places there may be a stigma associated with leaving school beforegraduation)

3 Possibleanswers • The film was so sad that I couldn’t help blubbing and I’m sure everyone in the cinema could hear me sobbing my heartout. • I could hear so much wailing and yelling, I couldn’t believe they were just watching thefootball. • He looked so gloomy that I had to ask why he had such a long facetoday. • We started chuckling about what happened and soon we were infits. • I hoped the coach wouldn’t lose it after the match, but she just let rip at the wholeteam.

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Review 1 1 Because the telling is important, not who is doing

thetelling. 2 Because the agent is not important, the actionis. 3 Because this is a generally accepted viewpoint; it is also less personal on a sensitiveissue. 4 Because it highlights fitness as the issue (often this structure is used when introducing aproblem). 5 Because who does the monitoring is not important. It can be inferred that the monitoring would be done by health professionals or health apps, without needing to explicitlysay. 6 Because the focus is on the research, not who is going to doit.

2 1 The effect of food on the brain is being researched

(byscientists). 2 Food distribution was investigated by an internationalteam. 3 Physical education has been studied (by students) for three yearsnow. 4 If sport is on the curriculum a healthier lifestyle will be developed (bystudents). 5 The course can be adapted as new studentsarrive. 6 Children must be helped by their parents to understand what a healthy dietis. 7 Junk food should not be eaten at home (by families) on a regularbasis. 8 Students are to be advised on all aspects of their lifestyle by sportscoaches.

3 1 foodrecognition 2 rapidaction 3 every evening, long-standing obsession, longhours 4 sportingachievements 5 dietaryconcerns

4 Possibleanswers 1 The tired students had a well-deservedrest. 2 My cousin went for a job interview but it turned out it was only a short-termpost. 3 We had some over-cooked pasta and so we had to eat it with a soupspoon. 4 Since my brother got his mountain bike, he’s been off on lots of three-day weekendbreaks. 5 Many popular sports events only allow entry to season ticketholders. 6 Shopping centres/malls have been blamed for people getting less freshair.

5 1 are(passive) 2 be(passive) 3 to (fixed phrase = used to besteffect) 4 order (fixed phrase to show purpose = in orderto) 5 them (pronoun to refer to the targetaudience) 6 most(superlative) 7 such (fixed phrase to introduce an example = suchas) 8 would/might/may (modal ofpossibility)

6 Possibleanswer We all know that an unhealthy lifestyle can cause problems. Now it has been shown that playing sport is the one thing can that make a difference to our levels of fitness and contribute to our overall health. Although most students at school and college play sports, often it is not enough. For example, many students may only go to the gym or play a team sport once a week. In fact, it has been discovered that we need to do some physical activity every day. My advice is simple. If you can’t actually make it to the gym every day, then do small things that will build up into enough activity every day. Walk instead of taking the bus, walk up stairs rather than taking the lift. If you do need to take the bus, then run to the bus stop. Offer to do the shopping and carry it back from the shop. Also, something you may find more enjoyable is to maybe to go dancing – but not too late on a schoolnight!

GRAMMARFILE

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1 1 have been sighted ​2 to be delayed ​

3 were breached ​4 are currently being questioned  ​5 shouldn’t beunderestimated

2 1 We were asked to complete a questionnaire following our

medicalcheck-up. 2 The risk of illness is greatly increased by years of eating food with low nutritionalvalue. 3 We were taught how to identify and use a range of phrasal verbs in classtoday. 4 The armed robbers will be sentenced later today and the ruling will betelevised.

3 1 is said to havedeveloped 2 setting off I had beenalerted 3 must have been thrownout 4 time won’t beallowed 5 is reported that scanners havebeen 6 this information should notbe

4 1 hard-hitting report ​2 mass-produced furniture ​

3 air-conditioned offices ​4 so-called expert ​ 5 old-fashioned approach ​6 long-standing agreement  ​7 one-sided account ​8 self-mademan

5 1 over (phrasalverb) 2 users (compound noun withinternet) 3 have (presentperfect) 4 given (collates withthat) 5 attention (compound noun withspan) 6 which (non-defining relativeclause) 7 events (compound noun withworld) 8 like/as (similarto) Presentationtool:

Unit 8, Unit check

Workbook / Online Practice:

p87

Audioscript: SBp182

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9 Leaders andfollowers

Lead-in SBp119 Ask students to look at the photo on page 119. Read the quote aloud: I never like going first. Put students into pairs to discuss the questions, then elicit someideas.

Leaders andfollowers

X 9

READING

USE OFENGLISH

topic: teenageleaders skill: differentiating between similarcomments task: cross-text multiplematching

key wordtransformation wordformation

SPEAKING

emphaticstructures academic and formallanguage

topic: workenvironments skill: answering the listening student’squestion task: longturn

VOCABULARY

WRITING

managing andteamwork verb prefixes andsuffixes

topic: a recruitmentfair skill: connecting facts andopinions task:report

GRAMMAR

LISTENING topic: workingcreatively skill: understanding impliedmeaning task: multiplematching

SWITCH ON video: careersadvice project: a videoCV

Possibleanswers 1 • I guess the quote is generally true for me. For example, I don’t like going first in speaking exercises, I prefer to see what others are going to say and give myself a chance tothink. • I usually don’t mind stepping up and going first. Although I suppose one situation where I’d rather wait would be when there’s a buffet table. I always feel like everyone watches the person who goes first to see what they put on theirplate! 2 • I think in reality lots of students follow others without question every day, and it’s not always a bad thing. Let’s say you’re in a sports session with your coach, and you stop to wonder about everyexercises she sets. That could affect your performance. Or what about following advice from, say, a fire warden, in a fire drill? Surely, in that kind of emergency situation, it’s better to follow first and thinklater. • It would seem to me that you should always think about what you’re being asked to do. I can’t think of any situation where you should blindly follow without even stopping to think. It doesn’t mean you have to challenge the person verbally, it just means that you ask yourself whether what they’re asking you to do is a good idea and fits with yourvalues. Point out the unit title Leaders and followers. Ask students to discuss a follow-up question: Do you think being a leader or a follower are mutually exclusive? Can you be both a leader and a follower at the same time? Elicit someideas.

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READING

SBpp120–121

Tostart Ask students to think of a leader they know who they look up to (admire or respect), for example, a leader at their school, or in a sports or cultural group. Put students in pairs to share what makes the person a goodleader.

1 Put students in pairs to name a leader (past or present)

in each category and discuss the question. Add a fifth category for an area your students are keen on, e.g. sports, business or science, or simply other. Elicit some ideas. If you notice that your class has come up with leaders mostly of a certain gender or group, encourage them to consider other leaders they haven’t considered, for example, say: I notice all the technology leaders you’ve mentioned are male, can you think of any female leaders intechnology? Possibleanswers politics – Justin Trudeau, Jacinda Ardern, Angela Merkel, Barack Obama, MauricioMacri the arts – Banksy, Lorde, Picasso, Taika Waititi, PattyJenkins human rights – Malala Yousafzai, Nelson Mandela, AmalClooney technology – Steve Jobs, Sheryl Sandberg (COO Facebook), Susan Wojcicki (CEO YouTube), Jeff Bezos (Head of Amazon), Jack Ma (executive chairmanAlibaba) Reasons people follow them might include: capability, creativity, charm, communication skills, relatable, good marketing, power, riches, other people follow/likethem.

2 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs, then elicit someideas.

Possibleanswers • To be honest, I think I’d prefer to be a follower, I’d rather not face the scrutiny that leaders have to deal with. Far too much pressure! That said, I like to think of myself as an active team member rather than just a follower who goes along witheverything. • As for someone who will be a good leader in the future, I’m pretty sure my cousin is going to be a high-powered business leader one day. She has already started three small businesses and she’s only 14 years old! Not only is she incredibly organised, she also has big ideas, and isn’t afraid to make themhappen.

Readon 3 Give students a moment to look at the title, introduction

and picture. Ask: In what sort of situations might young people lead their peers? For example, sports teams, conducting an orchestra/musical group, class captain, clubs, etc. Ask students to work in pairs to guess the kinds of things the teenage leaders in the article might say about leading their peers. Elicit a few ideas. Give students three minutes to read the text for gist and to see who has the most difficultrole. Possibleanswers • Personally, I think the film producer’s job sounds the most difficult because it involves pulling together the whole project, and from the sound of things that was quite complicated. And even before that, there was the challenge of coming up with an originalidea. • All the egos and squabbling that the band leader has to deal with makes it sound like the most challenging role. It’s never easy to manage politics within a group, and I’d say it is even harder because it is managing a group of peers. The public relations of the job also sounds like it makes him/her quite nervous at times, and would probably involve dealing with a lot of people he/ she doesn’t know. I’m quite shy myself so I’d find that reallytough. • It sounds to me like the taekwondo leader has the hardest job because everything he/she does is being noticed and copied. As she says, I think I’d also find it really exhausting to have younger people aware of everything I was doing ‘on and off the floor.’ At the end, she talks about being a respected authority figure without coming across as too bossy or full of herself, and that is definitely something which is easier said thandone! • I’d say the app designer has the most difficult job. Even though he/she is passionate about it, it can’t be easy being young in business and having to deal with the stereotypes around youth and geeks at once. Even though the designer sees being young as an asset because he/ she really knows the market, I’d guess that at times people don’t take him/her as seriously as an olderperson.

exam task: multiplematching In the Cambridge exam there would not be such a long lead-in. Here it is included to engage students. Read the exam tip aloud. Tell students that there will be some parts in other texts that partly answer the question. This is to test if students can differentiate subtle differences between thetexts.

4

Encourage students to underline key words in the questions. Set a time limit for seven minutes for students to complete the activityindividually. 1 B (it sort of happened by default really … So that fell to me, presumably because I’m the oldest and supposed to be a bit moredown-to-earth) 2 A (which I’m hoping might give me an edge over other candidates when I’m applying touniversity) 3 A (I’d really underestimated the complexity of the whole enterprise – sorting out everything does get prettydraining.)

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9 Leaders andfollowers READING (Continued)

4 D (learning from each other and sharing our knowledge and talents to create the most successful appspossible) 5 D (As opposed to the popular belief that software developers are lonely geeks who spend all their time stuck in front of a computer, a lot of mine is taken up doing research on myclassmates!) 6 C (but it’s only when you are actually in that position that you realise you have to be acutely aware of everything you say and do, both on and off thefloor) 7 D (I see myself as more of a mentor, getting the best out ofeveryone) 8 B (It’s tricky at times because we’re all individuals and the thing that’s hardest to do is stabilise us as a band, dealing with all the egos andsquabbles.) 9 C (it’s vital to be authoritative without the bossiness and arrogance that is sometimes linked with being in such aposition) 10 D (the teenage market is perhaps one of the biggest for new apps and my age puts me in the ideal position to be able to plug gaps in thatmarket)

5 Students could use a dictionary to look up any unknown

words in the text, if necessary. Students complete the activity then compare their answers in pairs. As you check the answers, for 5 check the pronunciation of charisma /kəˈrɪzmə/ and elicit the adjective form charismatic /kærəzˈmætɪk/. For 6, check the pronunciation of squabbles/ˈskwɒbəls/. 1 heading up 2 draining 3 sizeable 4 by default 5 charisma 6 squabbles 7 up-and-coming 8 get their heads round 9 in the ideal position 10 soughtout

extra: fast finishers Ask students to choose three of the answers from Ex 5 and write an example sentence, making sure the meaning of the word is clear. With a partner, students read the sentence aloud, omitting the word, and the partner has to guess what itis.

Sumup 6 Read one of the summaries in the answer key and ask

students to guess which comment you are summarising. Encourage students to paraphrase as they take turns to summarise comments and guess inpairs.

Speakup 7 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Conduct classfeedback.

Possibleanswers 1 Leader – the person who directs or controls a group, organization, country,etc. Mentor – an experienced person who advises and helps a less experiencedperson. Role model – someone whose behaviour, attitudes, etc. people try to copy because they admirethem. 2 A leader I have a lot of respect for is … because… I have always admired … This is because… 3 … will likely be remembered with a lot of respect. I say thisbecause … I’d say … is someone who people will look back on with a lot of respect for her/his work with…

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Ask if anyone has heard of Shapur II (the second), and elicit what they know abouthim.

background Shapur II (309–79) was the shah (king) of the Sasanian Empire (Iran) from birth todeath. Ask: What role does family play in shaping a leader? What do you think it would it be like to be born into a leadership position? What are the benefits and drawbacks of using family succession to selectleaders?

Tofinish Ask students to think of an English-speaking leader they admire or an English-speaking person they consider to be a role model in their life. It may be someone they know personally or a celebrity. Ask students to write a short note of appreciation in English to that person. If students want to and have internet access, give them the option to send their message to the person, for example, on socialmedia. In preparation for the Grammar lesson, ask students to read the explore grammar box on page 122 and the Grammar file on page 158. Students can also go through the PowerPoint GrammarPresentation. Presentationtool:

Unit 9, Reading

Workbook / Online Practice:

pp88–89

Photocopiable activity:

9A

Extra Practice App

Possibleanswers A The leader has made a short video about local history with young people in thearea. B This leader was not expecting to take up a leadership role but ended up taking it on because he/she is the oldest. He/she leads the band behind the scenes including managingpublicity. C This leader was chosen to be a role model for younger people in the martial arts group. It involves being a leader in the sport and on thesidelines. D This leader is a young entrepreneurial app developer. He/ she was getting a lot of questions from other students about app design so set up a collegegroup.

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GRAMMAR

extra: whole class

SBp122

Tostart Ask students to discuss with a partner how they could complete the following sentences. Elicit some ideas. Possible answers are inbrackets. 1 It was at primary school where I … (met my bestfriend) 2 What I really needed yesterday evening was … (an earlynight) 3 What interests me about England is … (the royalfamily) 4 The thing that I love about Saturdays is … (having a liein)

explore grammar

SB p158

1 Go through the PowerPoint Grammar Presentation.

Students read the explore grammar box and match the structures with the examples. Elicit the effect of each emphatic structure (which is in brackets in the answer key). If you haven’t followed the flipped classroom approach suggested at the end of the previous lesson, refer students to the Grammar file on page 158 for notes and examples. If students have already read the Grammar file before class, give them an opportunity to askquestions. 1 C (to focus on and give emphasis to what we’resaying) 2 B (to emphasise or focus on certaininformation) 3 D (to emphasise an action, in present/past simple, more common in spokenEnglish) 4 A (to emphasise new or interestinginformation)

watch out for Emphasise that do/does/did are only used with the present simple and past simple. For example: The coach does havecharisma. In other tenses, where there is already an auxiliary verb, we can stress the auxiliary for emphasisinstead. She will be in an ideal position to make a difference (not She do will be in an idealposition).

2

9.1 Play the recording and ask students to note down questions the people areanswering. Possibleanswers Do you do anysport? Are you a big sportsfan?

3

9.2 Give students time to read the questions before playing the recording. Elicit theanswers. 1 She loved the team spirit. She hated having coldhands. 2 They don’t even talk about the match, they talk about reactions to thematch. Fans might cancel other things in order to watch amatch. Sport can take fans away from lovedones. Some fans get toocrazy.

4

9.3 Play the recording for students to complete the phrases which use emphatic structures. Refer students to the audioscript on page 183 tocheck. 1 I loved about netball was  2 I hated was  3 would I say, do support  4 have I watched  5 doessport

Ask students to work in pairs to ask and answer these questions: Do you do sport? Are you a big sports fan? If they don’t play a sport or support a team, they should say why. Encourage students to use emphatic structures, and circulate to check that they are using the structures correctly, e.g. • I don’t actually play any team sports at the moment, but what appeals to me is the chance to exercise and socialise at the sametime. • Not only do I watch Manchester United every time they play, I also have a full collection of supporter paraphernalia including a signed poster. ‘Fan’ is anunderstatement! • I’m not that into sports to be honest but I do always make a point of watching the WorldCup.

5 Read through the first sentence with the class, then elicit

how it could be rewritten using the prompts given, by inverting we were to were we late for the match. Students rewrite the sentences, then compare inpairs. 1 were we late for the match, missed our team scoring a firstgoal 2 will Jack ever get promotion in thisjob 3 did the interviewer ask me about my workexperience 4 had we started the test, than I began to feelsick 5 am I ever going to get touniversity 6 have I won a prize at araffle

extra: fast finishers Ask fast finishers to do Grammar file Exs 1–3 on page159.

6 Ask students to discuss in pairs: What do you think

makes sports fans so passionate about their team? Give students one minute to read the blog for gist to compare theirideas. They feel they’re an extension of the team they follow. They are part of a community. They enjoy the camaraderie or sharing disappointments and bigsuccesses.

exam task: open cloze Open Cloze tasks in the Cambridge exam do not test items which could be omitted such as item 2 here ‘do’. It is included here to test an emphatic structure included in the lesson focus.

7

Give students five minutes to complete the gaps (during this time write up the prompts for Ex 8 on the board). Then ask students to compare their answers in pairs, before checking as aclass. 1 is (cleft sentence introduced with what; present tense to matchsay) 2 do (auxiliary verb for emphasis in a cleft sentence withwhat) 3 is (cleft sentence introduced withit) 4 What (cleft sentence withwhat) 5 was (verb of subject: The season that stands out in mymemory) 6 little (negative adverb beforeinversion) 7 Only (phrase beforeinversion) 8 does (auxiliary verb for emphasis within cleftsentence) 155

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9 Leaders andfollowers

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR (Continued)

Speakup 8 Write the following emphatic prompts on the board

that students could use during the discussion: What I agree with is … ; What I disagree with is … ; However, I do agree/disagree that … ; What’s really similar between sports and music fans is … ; I do think they are quite similar/different actually because …. Possibleanswers 1 • What I agree with is that the camaraderie is a big part of why people support specificteams. • Like the blogger, I think it’s the sense of community which isappealing. • Unlike the blogger, I actually do agree with the psychologists, it is all about identity and people feeling that by supporting a winning team that it is somehow a personalsuccess. 2 • What’s really similar about both sports and music fans is that they can tend towards the obsessive. They are often willing to pay through the nose fortickets. • I’d say that there are some similarities between the two groups – I mean, it’s about watching or listening to something you enjoy, often with a group of people. There’s definitely a social aspect to both activities. However, what is different is that music fans can often multi-task while listening but sports fans tend to be 100% focused on games. Or that’s the stereotypeanyway.

Funfooter Students read the footer. Ask students to discuss in pairs: What do you think makes teams like these so popular? Elicit someideas.

Tofinish Put students into pairs to talk about things that irritate them, confuse them, or make them happy. Give a few examples such as the ones below, and if you have some weaker students, write the examples on the board so that students can refer to them during thediscussion. • What makes me happy is spending quality time with myfamily. • It’s pop-up ads when I’m trying to look at a website that really irritateme! • What confuses me about English pronunciation is how letters like ‘gh’ can have different sounds in different words – why doesn’t ‘through’ rhyme with‘cough’? Presentationtool:

Unit 9, Vocabulary

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Grammar reference and practice:

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Audioscript and explore grammar video

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managing andteamwork Tostart Ask students to think about teams they have been part of (this will be discussed in Ex 6). Write on one side of the board: A good manager… and A good team player… Put students into small groups. Assign half the groups to brainstorm what makes a good manager, and the other half to brainstorm what makes a good team player. Encourage them to use any specific verbs and idioms they know related to managing and teamwork, e.g. A good manager is understanding. They take time to listen to team members and try to empathise with how they are feeling. A good team player makes an effort to build rapport with the other teammembers. Conduct classfeedback.

1 Ask students to read the proverb in pairs and think of some examples. Elicit someideas.

A: I think the proverb means that when you work alone, you can get more done in the short-term but over the long-term, you’ll be able to keep going for longer by collaborating withothers. B: I agree, I would say that it’s encouraging us to work together, even if sometimes it feels a bit slowerinitially. A: Yes, when you’re in a team, and you face some challenges, you’re able to encourage each other to see whatever it is you’re doing through to theend. B: So, you actually end up achieving more than you could have done as anindividual. A: Exactly, so as for examples, how about in sports? Even if you’re competing in an individual sport, like say swimming or running a marathon, a team of support people, or other competitors would help motivate you when you’re tired or even face an obstacle like an injury or a disappointing performance. Think of Olympians – even those in individual sports usually have strong support networks who have helped them get to where theyare. B: Another example might be when you work in business situations. I think very successful businesses are usually made up of a team of people with complementary strengths. Even when there is one high-profile visionary leader at the helm, that person will usually have gathered capable people around them who have helped grow thebusiness. A: To bring it back to a more personal example, I find that when I start something new, I’m more likely to persevere with it if I have a friend along for the journey. For instance, last year my friend and I started ice-skating for the first time, and I doubt I would have gone back after the first lesson without theirencouragement.

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9.4 Play the recording for students to listen for gist. Elicit the main points each speaker made, then ask students to discuss with a partner who they agreed with andwhy. Speaker A thinks teamwork is good for pooling ideas, developing communication skills and resolving differences, and takingresponsibility. Speaker B prefers working alone so as not to be distracted and feels she can get more donecreatively. Speaker C likes the atmosphere of working in a team, which encourages hard work, but would not be able to do the delegating work of aboss.

3 Students work in pairs to select the correct collocation.

Refer students to the audioscript on page 183 to find the collocations to check their answers. Model the pronunciation of intitiative /ɪˈnɪʃətɪv/, rapport /ræˈpɔː/ and stifle/ˈstaɪfəl/.

extra: mixed ability Weaker students could use the audioscript for reference during theexercise. 1 assume, initiative ​2 earn ​3 delegate ​4 rapport ​ 5 example ​6 fostered ​7 stifle ​8 collaborate,bounce

explorelanguage Check students understand what register is (the words, style, and grammar used by speakers and writers in a particular situation or in a particular type of writing). For example, business letters should be written in a formal register. Ask students to read the explore language box. Ask: Which of the collocations in Ex 3 have an informal register? Elicit that built up a great rapport is quite informal. More formal would be develop rapport. Also, bounce ideas off each other is quiteinformal.

4 Students use the context in the examples to work out the meaning of each idiom. Students compare their answers inpairs. 1 B ​2 F ​3 E ​4 D ​5 A ​6C

extra: fast finishers Ask students to work out or look up the meanings of the underlined idioms and phrases in the following sentences: Mark was getting above himself at the meeting today. He’s always laying down the law if we go off on atangent. get above oneself = think you are better or more important than you reallyare lay down the law = tell people what todo go off on a tangent = to suddenly start thinking or talking about a subject that is only slightly related, or not related at all to the originalsubject

5 Before they read the article, ask students to discuss in

pairs what we could learn about teamwork from animals such as the meerkats in the picture. Elicit some ideas. Give students a minute to read the text for gist to check their ideas. Then students complete thearticle. 1 collaboratively ​2 survival ​3 implicitly ​4 honed ​ 5 miscommunication ​6 coordination ​7 requirement ​ 8 irrespective ​9 resolution ​10performance

Speakup 6 Students could use some emphatic structures from the

lesson on page 122 for the first question, e.g. What was most interesting was … ; What really interested me was … ; What surprised me was … . For question 2, students should try to use some of the phrases and idioms from thislesson. Possibleanswers 1 • What really interested me was how meerkats delegate guard duties. It seems sohuman! • What was most interesting was that chimpanzees make up after a fight. I’m surprised they don’t hold agrudge. 2 • I have a Saturday job at a busy café and everyone working there has a role to play. I’m a kitchen hand so the chefs usually delegate tasks like chopping vegetables or making sandwiches to me. The boss has fostered a really positive atmosphere, which makes it a great place to workat. • I had to complete a group science project once, and it was a complete disaster! No one wanted to take responsibility for getting it done. In the end, I had to take the initiative and ended up doing the whole thing myself the nightbefore.

extra: whole class Refer students to the Extend vocabulary list for Unit 9 on page 160 which has collocations related to the verbs follow, join and lead. Assign each student one of the verbs. Students research what the idioms mean, and write an example for each one. Fast finishers could look for further examples of words and idioms that use that verb. Put students into groups made up of one student looking at each verb to share what they foundout.

Tofinish Students work in pairs. Students take turns to choose a collocation or idiom from this lesson. They must give a sentence using it as fast as possible. Ask students to see how many sentences they can make in fiveminutes. Presentationtool:

Unit 9, Vocabulary

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Photocopiable activity:

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Audioscript and explore grammar video Extra Practice App

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9 Leaders andfollowers

LISTENING

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Tostart Tell students that this lesson is about ideas and creativity. Ask students to discuss the following question in pairs: If you need to think of an idea or come up with a solution to a problem, what would you do to generate ideas? Elicit some ideas, e.g. go for a walk to mull the idea over, talk the idea over with a friend or look for ideas on theinternet.

Powerup 1 Ask students to consider the person in the picture.

Ask: Do you think this is an effective work environment? Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs and give reasons. Elicit someideas.

exam task: multiplematching Remind students that the multiple matching task tests their understanding of the main ideas, attitude and opinion of speakers in informal speech. Ask students to read the exam tasks in Ex 4 carefully, and encourage them to underline or highlight key words in eachstatement. Then ask students to read the exam tip. Play the first speaker on the recording again for students to check which aspect was talked aboutfirst. what led her to change her way ofworking

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9.6 Play the recording for students to complete thetasks.

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9.7 Play the recording for students to check their answers then go through as aclass.

Possibleanswers 1 • I think all three factors have an effect on me. The most influential factor would probably be who I’m working with. If I’m working with positive people, I find it much easier to make progress than if I’m stuck with a bunch of grumpypeople. • The people matter to some extent, but what’s really crucial for me is the environment I’m working in. If there’s too much noise, or too many other distractions, I just can’t concentrate on the task that I need to getdone. • Personally, I find it’s all about the task. I get much more done if I’m studying something I like. Too hard, and I just switch off. Too easy, and I getbored. 2 Feeling lonely, not having anyone else to bounce ideas off, having to do everything yourself, not being able to process ideas in a group or learn from someoneelse.

1 C (On one project, I’d agreed to complete it against horrendousdeadlines.) 2 G (everyone uses my laptop and my desk is always a total mess because the kids move stuff around … in the end I found that the messiness kind of helpedme) 3 H (I started writing in a café and was astonished to find that the noise formed a kind of wall between me and the outside world, so I could get lost in my ownthoughts.) 4 B (I found out by chance when a relative hurt her head. I felt I should look afterher) 5 E (so I started googling what I could do to help myself and discovered…) 6 E (now I exploit any moments I get whenever or wherever ithappens) 7 A (in the middle of chaos at home I can hit upon way moreideas) 8 B (It meant I actually got much more done in a limitedtime.) 9 D (I feel much less tense and that in itself helps you to be morecreative.) 10 C (What I hadn’t foreseen was that this boost to my creativity has led to new offers ofwork.)

2 Students work in pairs to match the phrases and

meanings, then discuss which they are best at. Conduct classfeedback. 1 D 2 F 3 E 4 A 5 C 6B Possibleanswers • I’m good at pooling ideas with others. For example, I belong to quite a few online groups where people post problems they are facing or situations where they need new ideas, then we all share our ideas about it. I think I make a valuable contribution to the ideaspool. • Well, I’m best at mulling over ideas. You could say I’m quite analytical, I like to think about situations from every angle before making a decision. For example, I’ve been thinking a lot about what to study at university next year, and have pored over the course catalogue and have made a million lists of pros and cons, and so on. No one could accuse me of making a rushed decision when eventually I do makeone!

Listenup 3

9.5 Students note down what each speaker does and where they work, while you play therecording. 1 2 3 4 5

advertising, worksanywhere data analyst, works athome marketing, works incafés design, works athome writer, works athome

extra: whole class Ask students to discuss the following question in pairs: Which speaker in the recording has the most appealing way of working?Why?

6 Read through phrases 1–6 with the class. Ask them to

match each phrase with the phrases in the taskoptions. 1 2 3 4

Task 2, option D – the reduction in stress (Speaker4) Task 1, option C – a commitment (Speaker1) Task 1, option E – a result of research (Speaker5) Task 2, option A – the number of creative thoughts it generates (Speaker2) 5 Task 2, option E – the ability to utilise time more effectively (Speaker1) 6 Task 1, option H – a change of venue (Speaker3)

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extra: whole class Ask students to find the following phrasal verbs in the audioscript on page 183: filter out, turn out, drift off. Ask students to use context to deduce the meaning of the phrasal verbs and then write their own example sentences for each one, e.g. I find if I listen to music when I’m studying that I drift off into anotherworld.

Speakup 7 Elicit a synonym for working pattern (working routine)

to check students’ understanding. Students discuss the questions in pairs, then elicit a few ideas for eachone. Possibleanswers 1 • One of the things I’ve tried was doing homework before school rather than at night. So, I’d set my alarm for 6 o’clock, and do it before anyone else was awake. I tried this because I found that at night, there’s a lot going on in my house and I found it hard to concentrate. The advantage of the morning was that I could do my work in peace. However, to be honest, it didn’t last long. I’m not really a morning person, and I found that I didn’t have the discipline to continue the habit. So, I’m back to doing it at night, and I now use earphones instead to block out the sound of the TV from the other room. And now, I’m able to appreciate that extra hour of sleep in themorning. • I use the pomodoro technique when I have a big assignment or have to do some prolonged study. Have you heard of it? It’s a method where you work for 25 minutes then take a five-minute break. During the 25 minutes, you have to focus 100 per cent, there’s no going off and getting a snack or checking messages. I’ve found it effective because I actually get much more done. I use an app on my phone to do the timing. I used to just time it myself, but the app makes it easier – you even get a friendly little robot voice saying ‘time to work now’. Still, the key to making it successful is actually your commitment to the technique. If you cheat, then it wouldn’t helpproductivity. 2 People often say they aren’t the creative type, but what it really comes down to is whether they have fostered their creativity, through training andpractice.

Tofinish Ask students to get out a blank piece of paper each, and quickly draw 30 small circles on it. Then, give them one minute to change as many of the circles as they can into different things. For example, turning one into a face, one into the planet Saturn, one into a lollipop, etc. Encourage them to do as many as possible. The purpose is idea generation rather than drawing quality. This is a creativity exercise from researcher BobMcKim. After the minute is up, put students into pairs to compare their ideas, and discuss how helpful they think activities like this one are in improving creativethinking. In preparation for the Use of English lesson, ask students to read the explore language box on page 125 and the Grammar file section on academic and formal language on page158. Presentationtool:

Unit 9, Listening

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Audioscript: SBp183 Extra Practice App

extra: whole class Ask students to discuss what a creative workspace should look like. They shouldconsider: location (in a home, outside, in school), size, décor (colours, furniture), special features (music, light, etc.). They should also consider how each feature positively aidsstudy. Ask students to pool their ideas in small groups and collaborate to come up with a sharedconcept. Ask students to present their ideas to the class, giving reasons why they chose each feature. Ask the other students to comment on the best things about eachdesign.

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9 Leaders andfollowers

USE OF ENGLISH 1

exam task: key wordtransformation

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In the Cambridge exam items would include both formal and informal language and situations. here all items relate to the focus of the lesson which is on formal and academic language.

Tostart Ask students to discuss in pairs differences between academic/formal language and informal language. Elicit someideas.

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1 Put students into pairs to read the sentences and answer the questions. Elicit theanswers.

(The // indicates how the two marks areallocated.) 1 growth of // scientific jobs makes/hasmade 2 concern at // her suggestionthat 3 on // the development of everyone’s / on // everyone’sdevelopment of 4 his argument // on thefact 5 complexity of his presentation //meant 6 refusal to help us //meant

A 2 (It uses more nouns and less idiomaticlanguage.) B 2 (It uses noun phrases and less directlanguage.) C 2 is more appropriate for writing; 1 is more appropriate whenspeaking.

explore language

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If you didn’t follow the flipped classroom approach suggested at the end of the previous lesson, ask students to read the explore language box now, referring them to the Grammar file on page 158 for more information andexercises.

watch out for

Speakup 4 For the first question, encourage students to think about

the following: who you are talking to, what topic or subject area you are communicating about, what you are trying to do (persuade, present, complain, report, etc.), whether you are writing or speaking. Students discuss the questions in pairs, then elicit some ideas. Point out that many universities have online academic wordlists which are a useful source of academic words and phrases.

Remind students that in academic and formal writing, we tend to use full forms instead of contractions, e.g. Many students are not familiar with the process (rather than Many students aren’t familiar with theprocess).

2 Point out that rather than looking for a pattern change

in this exercise, students need to focus on how they can manipulate language they already know. Encourage students to do the task in two stages, firstly identifying the nouns and then how the sentence needs to bemanipulated.

Possibleanswers 1 academic assignments, essays, reports, job application letter, formalspeeches 2 The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (www.ldoceonline.com/browse/topics.html) has a vocabulary section where words are grouped bytopic.

alternative: mixed ability Give weaker students the first two words of an answer to supportthem. 1 Most companies say creativity is valuable to them. / Creativity is valuable to mostcompanies. 2 The search for summer jobs by many students often ends infailure. 3 A person’s hard work can be the cause of their lack of freetime. 4 A company’s refusal to discuss the number of vacancies can causeconfusion. 5 The difficulty of an interview usually results in the applicants’ poorperformance. 6 The rapid increase in the number of people with degrees means there is more competition forjobs.

exam tip: key word transformation

Set a time limit of ten minutes for students to complete the exercise. Then ask students to compare answers in pairs before checking as aclass.

extra: whole class Ask students to choose a topic they are interested in for study or work purposes, and explore related vocabulary in the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.

Tofinish Write the following phrases on theboard: 1 2 3 4 5

stops people using theirimagination get better atsomething trust eachother finding a way to end adisagreement act in a way that makes other people respectyou

Put students into pairs to see if they can think of a more formal or topic-specific equivalent for the teamwork phrases. Conduct classfeedback.

Read the exam tip introduction with the class, then elicit the answer to the question. Remind students that each question in a key word transformation is worth twomarks.

1 stifle creativity 2 hone a skill 3 mutual trust 4 conflict resolution 5 earnrespect

Making science becomes makes science or has made science because it is now the main verb in thesentence.

Presentationtool:

Unit 9, Use of English 1

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Photocopiable activity:

9C

Grammar reference and practice:

SBp158

Extra Practice App

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USE OF ENGLISH 2

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Tostart Tell students about some strange interview questions that people have been asked in job interviews to test quick or lateral thinking, for example, If you were a colour in a crayon box, what colour would you be? How many computers are there in the world? Would you rather know a lot about a little or a little about alot? Ask students to discuss how they would approach these questions in pairs or what they would say. Elicit someideas.

1 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit some ideas foreach.

Preparation ideas: research the company/course, practise answering questions, get a suitable outfit ready, think of a couple of questions to ask the interviewer to show you areinterested.

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9.8 Ask students to read the questions, then play the recording. Elicit theanswers. 1 A groupinterview 2 Nervous because he’s never been for one before and he wants thejob. 3 Advice about what the interview entails and how to prepare forit.

explorelanguage Go through the language box. For part A, point out that these prefixes can only be added to certain adjectives, nouns and other verbs. For part B, point out that -en can be used with some adjectives only. Elicit any other examples students know of adjectives that can be turned to a verb by adding -en (e.g. widen, harden,moisten).

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9.9 Play the recording for students to note the words with affixes they hear. Elicit theanswers. 1 misunderstood ​2 ensure ​3 enlighten ​4 underestimate ​ 5 loosen ​6oversleep

4 Point out the example adjective able which can be

transformed into a verb by adding the prefix en-. Encourage students to copy the table onto their own paper so that there is enough room to add the verbs to the lists. Elicit the answers and which word takes both a prefix andsuffix.

alternative Give students the option to make a mind map rather than a list if they prefer a more visual format of recordingvocabulary. enable, enact, endanger, enlarge, enlighten (light takes both a prefix + suffix), enrich, ensure,entrap misalign, mishear, misjudge, mispronounce,misread overdo, overestimate, overhear, overlook,overrun underestimate react, realign, redo, refresh, relight, reread, rerun,rewind enlighten (light takes both a prefix + suffix), freshen, lengthen, lighten, sadden, sharpen,worsen

extra: fast finishers Challenge students to add some more verbs to eachlist. Possibleanswers entrust, miscommunicate, overbook, overwind, resolve, straighten, undertake

5 Ask students to quickly read the comments about

interviews for gist before completing them with verbs from Ex 4. Students compare their answers inpairs. 1 rewind ​2 saddens ​3 misjudged ​4 misinterpreted ​ 5 underestimated ​6 overran ​7 overheard ​8sharpen

extra: fast finishers Ask students to choose at least three of the verbs from Ex 4 to write their own example sentencesfor.

exam tip Read through the exam tip. Remind students they will not be penalised for incorrect answers so should be sure to answer every question. Remind students that, more generally, they can also think about word class, collocation, and surroundingwords.

exam task: key wordformation 6

Set a time limit of eight minutes for students to complete the blog. Challenge stronger students not to refer to any notes (and to mask the page with a piece ofpaper). 1 ensure (prefix + verb = makesure) 2 introductions (plural noun, object of a passivestructure) 3 personal (adjective, describessomething) 4 imaginative (adjective, same word form asoutgoing) 5 Throughout (adverb = allthrough) 6 interaction (noun followed bybetween) 7 underestimate (prefix + verb,negative) 8 overlook (prefix + verb = not recognise/notsee)

Speakup 7 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Then ask a few students to report what their partnersaid.

Possibleanswers • Yes: employers get to see candidates work in a group situation; it could be quicker for the employer because they see many candidates at once; some candidates might find it less pressure than a traditional interviewsituation. • No: it takes more planning than a traditional interview; quieter candidates may be overlooked; it could be awkward or unfair if some candidates know each other; some candidates might find it higherpressure.

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9 Leaders andfollowers

SPEAKING

USE OF ENGLISH 2 (Continued)

extra: whole class Put students into groups of three to design some activities for a group interview where staff are being recruited for a job at either a call centre, a farm or a departmentstore. Groups should decideon: 1 an icebreaker 2 an activity linked to the job they will bedoing 3 a few interviewquestions. If time allows, join groups together to try each other’s activities. Alternatively, ask each group to briefly report back to class on what they planned for their groupinterview.

Funfooter Ask students to read the footer. Ask: Why do you think being too trendy and not making eye contact would put the interviewers off ? Do you think the reasoning is valid? Does it depend on the kind of job? What other behaviours might be off-putting for a potentialemployer?

Tofinish Read this message from Jimmy aloud (a follow-on from his voicemail message in Ex 2). Students listen to find out what happened to him at his group interview. Then, read it again for students to write down any words with prefixes that they hear. Elicit them (underprepared, misunderstanding, overcooked, ensure,refreshing). HiKen, Did you get my voicemail? You still haven’t called meback! I went to my group interview feeling underprepared and I have to say, it was pretty daunting at first. Even worse, there was a misunderstanding about the time, and I ended up arriving a few minuteslate. It started off with an icebreaker about our most embarrassing moment, so I shared that time I overcooked all those pizzas. And then, I realised that it wasn’t the best story to share at a chain restaurant interview! Then we had to role-play dealing with a customer to ensure we wouldn’t lose our cool if something went wrong. Finally, we sat around for a small groupchat. It wasn’t as bad as I was expecting. In fact, in a way, it wasrefreshing. And I just got a call from them yesterday, offering me a summer job on the restaurant floor. Hope to catch up soon,Jimmy. Presentationtool:

Unit 9, Use of English 2

Workbook / Online Practice:

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Extend vocabulary:

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Audioscript:

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Extra Practice App

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Tostart Ask if anyone has a part-time job, and elicit what it is. Ask: What other part-time jobs are common for young people while they are studying? E.g. checkout operator, waiter, babysitter, lifeguard. Write these on theboard. Students work in pairs and take turns to describe the working environment of one of the jobs while the other person guesses which job it is. For example: This is a job you can do outdoors or indoors. You might have to wear sunscreen and you might get wet (alifeguard).

Powerup 1 Ask students to ask their partner which option they

prefer for each item and why. Then ask students to suggest some places their partner might like to work or study based on what theysaid. Possibleanswers 1 • I’d rather work indoors because it’s easier to stay comfortable, whatever theweather. • The outdoors, for sure. Being outside is good for you, and I’d hate to be cooped up in an office allday. 2 • A small individual office is quite appealing as I think I’d be more productive with my own privatespace. • I’m a bit of a social butterfly, so I like the thought of an open-plan office where there is a lot of interaction andbuzz. 3 • As an introvert, I definitely work better in a quiet environment without too much hustle andbustle. • When I’m in a busy atmosphere, it helps me get my work donefaster. 4 • I’d generally prefer to stay in one place all day. I might lose focus if I didn’t have one fixedworkspace. • I’d like to have a variety of places in my day. Moving around keeps itinteresting. 5 • I do think it is nice to dress up for work. It probably helps people take you more seriously, especially as a youngperson. • I dress for comfort. It would be a distraction to worry about dressing up every day, plus I don’t think I even own anything suitable for a formaloffice.

Speakup 2 Emphasise that students are discussing the ideas and

language they might use to complete the task rather than actually completing it at thisstage. Possibleanswers strawberry farm – working with someone else, quiet, might be difficult in bad weather or too hot in summer, can dresscasually factory – inside, noisy, busy atmosphere, open plan, might make people crave outside, have to wear protectiveclothing fast-food restaurant – smells of food, busy, loud, indoors, might make the people hungry or stressed, need to wear auniform

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exam task: long turn 3

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Remind students to only speak about two of the pictures. Encourage partners to time each other – they should speak for one minute. If students have phones with recording capabilities, ask students to record themselves doing the task, then play back the recording to reflect on it. Ask students to provide each other with feedback on whether they used a range of language and vocabulary, whether they spoke clearly without too much hesitation and whether they covered both parts of the task (comparing the atmosphere, and how it might affect the people). Students complete the task with a new partner. Encourage strong students to speak about different pictures when completing the task for the secondtime. Possibleanswer The environment in this factory looks as if it would probably be very loud. Even with the ear defenders, it could be quite stressful for the people working there. Like the factory, I think the fast-food restaurant job would also involve a lot of noise, which could make the workers feel a bit frazzled, although probably not quite to the extent of thefactory. In both pictures, the people seem to be working near their colleagues, however the work in the factory looks more solitary because each person seems to be operating their own machine. On the other hand, it looks like in the fast-food restaurant, the teammates have to collaborate on the task they aredoing. Another similarity is that both workplaces are indoors. I can’t help but think it might be a bit depressing to be stuck inside all day for people in either of thesejobs.

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9.10 Remind students that after the long turn, the candidate who is listening will be asked a question about their partner’s pictures. Play the recording and elicit which student (A, B or C) gives the best answer and what the other students need to be carefulof. Speaker C gives the best answer. Speaker A’s answer is too short. Speaker B’s answer is too long anddetailed. It’s important to give a full, but not lengthyanswer.

exam tip Ask students to read the tip. Refer students to the audioscript on page 183 to re-read speaker C’sanswer.

5 Students should treat these questions as listening

candidate’s questions. Students could ask and answer the questions in pairs or record themselves individually on theirphones. Possibleanswers 1 Hmm, let’s see, I would probably say the strawberry farm because the work is likely to be seasonal. It wouldn’t be unusual in a workplace like that to take on a lot of casual workers who are students or travellers, so they wouldn’t be in it for the longterm. 2 Well, it’s hard to say. I suppose it could be the factory worker because he looks quite focused on his task and has a kind of satisfied expression on his face. Definitely not the strawberry pickers. They look exhausted, and I’m not surprised. All that bending down does look like it would take itstoll.

6 Ask students to work in pairs to complete theactivity. Possibleanswers 1 To me, I think the parking warden situation will be solved the quickest. The people in the other photos looks like they are family or friends, so will probably hold a grudge for longer. Plus, they might be talking about something that is an ongoing issue, whereas the parking issue is probably aone-off. 2 My first thought was the parliamentary debate because it would be recorded, and what’s being said could also be picked up by the media. However, looking at the extreme level of anger in the office situation, I can’t imagine anyone in that room is going to forget the meeting any timesoon.

7 Tell students to start their question with which picture/

person … Alternatively, brainstorm possible questions as a class and write these on the board, then ask students to take turns to ask and answer them inpairs. Possibleanswers 1 Which person has the most difficult/interesting/enjoyable job? / Which person do you think is the most inspiring rolemodel? 2 Which of the people do you think is the most prepared for the interview? / Which person is feeling the most nervous? / Which interview will be the most interesting towatch?

Speakingextra 8 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Then elicit a fewideas.

Possibleanswers 1 • I do think work experience is important to have on your CV, even if it’s just something informal like helping out a neighbour. The more relevant it is to the job, thebetter! • I would say that getting your first job is more about who you know than whether you’ve had any actual work experience. Of course, doing work experience might actually lead to paid work at that place or making usefulcontacts. 2 • For me, it’s all about the people. I think having a good boss and helpful colleagues are what make a place good to work in, above any of the otherfactors. • Call me shallow but I’m all about the perks. If you get a fancy car, a company credit card and the latest gadgets, what’s not tolike?

Tofinish Ask students to write a paragraph about their ideal working environment, then share their paragraphs in small groups or post them to your class onlinespace. In preparation for the Writing lesson, ask students to revise the features of a report in the Writing file on page168. Presentationtool:

Unit 9, Speaking

Workbook / Online Practice:

p95

Speaking file:

SBp162

Audioscript: SBp183

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9 Leaders andfollowers

WRITING

SBpp128–129

Tostart Ask students to reflect on what they already know about report writing, for example from the lesson in Unit 5 on pages 72–73, and the Writing file on page 168. Ask students to work in small groups to think of advice they would give to someone writing a report for the first time. Conduct classfeedback. Possibleanswers • Read the task carefully so that you know who the report is for and why they needit. • Give some factual information, an evaluation and somesuggestions. • Make sure the reasons for your recommendations areclear. • Use paragraphheadings. • Use formal and objective language, e.g. passive structures, nounphrases. • Check that you don’t repeatpoints. • Use a range of more formal or academicvocabulary.

Powerup 1 Ask: What is a recruitment fair? (a large event where

people looking for jobs and companies looking for employees can meet). Ask students to rank the features individually then compare their answers in pairs, giving reasons for theirchoices.

Planon 2 Ask students to read the task then elicit who it is for and thefocus.

You have to write the report for the college principal. Main focus: an evaluation of a recruitmentfair.

3 Students discuss the questions in pairs, making notes for use in Ex 4. Conduct classfeedback.

Possibleanswers 1 make contacts, get a job, find out more about organisations, getadvice 2 workshops: (good) learn a lot, relevant, good facilitator, goodlength; (bad) crowded, low attendance, couldn’t hear the speaker, nointeraction meetings: (good) get a job offer, learn about companies, get goodadvice; (bad) miss out on an offer, make a poorimpression advice: (good) personalised, relevant, goodmaterials; (bad) generic, irrelevant, nothingnew

4 Students read the report to see if any of their ideas werementioned.

General: (good) venue was modern, comfortable andeasyto-reach Workshops: (bad) too crowded except the one on sourcing jobs so weren’t thatuseful Meetings: (good) over 600 companies represented, all stands had a representative present, useful to speak directly to companyrepresentatives Advice: (bad) advice was given by a generic computer programme, (good) the advice was helpful, the feedback wasindividualised

5 Students work through the questions inpairs. 1 To introduce the subject of thereport. 2 The writer has split the information into sections so that it is clearer for the reader; one section evaluates practical aspects of the fair and the other evaluates the content. The writer has used headings to guide the reader; there is an evaluation and then a recommendation as this is the logical way to organise the information (i.e. first explain, thenrecommend). 3 Yes. Thefair The fair took place in a modern venue in the centre of the city and for this reason, it was easy to reach and a comfortable place to spend the day. Over 600 companies were represented at the fair, so this was a great opportunity to find out about a wide range of employers across a range of different industries. Each stand had a representative and for the most part, it was useful to be able to speak directly to someone involved in thecompany. Workshops andadvice There were various workshops offered, including ones to help you with your job application and the interview process. With the exception of one on sourcing jobs, they were far too crowded to be able to get any useful information. It was also possible to get advice and feedback on your CV by submitting it online before the day. Although the ‘advice’ was a standard computer programme, on the whole, it was helpful and meant feedback wasindividualised. 4 The writer makes specific recommendations: it would be useful to contact the organisers to suggest places in workshops are limited for next year; it would be helpful for students to do some research first on those they are interested in ….

6 Give students a few minutes to complete the sentences, then ask them to compare answers in smallgroups.

Possibleanswers 1 beprepared. 2 is to note down any important information oradvice. 3 you should try to stand out in someway. 4 dress toimpress.

7 Ask students to refer back to the model report in Ex 4

and find these expressions in context to help them with thistask. 1 G 2 S 3 S 4 G 5 S 6 S 7 G 8S

8 Point out that more than one phrase is possible in most of thesentences. 1 2 3 4

As a rule / On the whole / For the mostpart From the point of viewof On the whole / As arule In the case of / For the purposesof

9 Ask students to brainstorm some other advice for

students attending a job fair, e.g. dress well, make eye contact, smile, prepare some questions, research the companies and decide who you want to prioritise talking to, etc. Then ask students to write two pieces of advice in pairs using some of the phrases from Ex 7, then swap with another pair to read, check for accuracy, and decide which piece of advice was the mostuseful.

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Possibleanswers • Make sure you spend time researching the companies for the purposes of prioritising who to talkto. • As a rule, it is better to be overdressed rather thanunderdressed. • On the whole, you should aim to listen as much as you talk, so prepare some good questions to ask companies you are interestedin.

Writeon extra: whole class Ask students to discuss inpairs: 1 What is the best way for students to select a university or other trainingprovider? 2 How do universities in your country reach potentialstudents?

10 Ask students to read the task and discuss the question in pairs. Elicit theanswer.

Possibleanswers advice on the best course for you, meeting some staff from the university, advice on completing your application, advice on being accepted into your programme of choice, information about the university environment andbenefits

exam tip Students read the tip and work out the percentages. Emphasise that the introduction is generally short, and the recommendations section is longer than the introduction. Formore information on reports, refer students to page 168 if they haven’t already reviewed the Writing file beforeclass. Introduction: 15percent The fair: 30percent Workshops and advice: 30percent Recommendations: 25percent

Improveit 13 These reflection exercises may be set for homework.

11 Students should aim to complete this plan (steps 1–5)

in five minutes if possible. Then students compare their answers inpairs. 1 Three aspects to evaluate: workshops, meetings,advice 3 Students will need five sections: an introduction, paragraphs on workshops, meetings, advice, and arecommendation. 4 The purposes are to evaluate the success of this year’s fair, and persuade the principal to implement yourrecommendations.

exam task: report

SB p168

The task rubric in the Cambridge exam does not usually include as much detailed information as there is here. This task detail gives students more assistance in writing their reports.

12

Modelanswer The purpose of this report is to evaluate the recent university fair and recommend whether it is worthwhile for students to attend this fair in futureyears. Thefair The fair was held over two days in the city community centre, a spacious and modern venue. There were around 30 universities represented at the fair, each having a stand with information and representatives available to answer questions. In addition, the free items being given away by many stalls were very popular amongattendees. Networking, workshops andadvice The fair included opportunities to meet representatives, attend workshops and receive advice on personal statement writing. Many students said that the highlight was talking to representatives from their preferred universities. Also, the workshop presenters were dynamic and shared a range of excellent tips although, unfortunately, some of the workshops on the Saturday were oversubscribed. Finally, the drop-in area for advice on personal statements was another popular feature, staffed by friendly helpers who were able to give tailoredsuggestions. Recommendations On the whole, it would be valuable for students interested in university study to attend the fair in the future. As a rule, it would be preferable for students to attend on the Friday if possible, because the Saturday was muchbusier. In addition, in light of the number of universities represented, it would be useful for students to do some research before attending, so that they can ensure that they are able to attend the most relevant workshops and meet representatives from the universities they are most interestedin.

Students should complete this report as a timed practice, allowing 30 minutes. This could be set forhomework.

Students may make changes to their essays in relation to the points before handing them in for individualised feedback. Use the assessment points from this exercise as your markingschedule.

14 Try to pair students with someone of similar ability for thistask.

Tofinish Ask students to work in pairs to act out the parts of a student and university representative at a universityfair: Student A: You are a university representative. Prepare at least two questions for a student visiting your stand. Answer the student’squestions. Student B: You are a student. Prepare at least two questions for a potential university representative. Answer the representative’squestions. Students perform their parts, which should include an introduction, then swaproles. Presentationtool:

Unit 9, Writing

Workbook / Online Practice:

p96–97

Writing file:

SBp168

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9 Leaders andfollowers

SWITCH ON

SBp130

Careersadvice extra: whole class Ask students to brainstorm the kinds of qualities employers often look for in candidates for any job, e.g. team player, takes initiative, enthusiasm, good communication skills, copes under pressure, flexible, dresses for the job, reliable, personable, follows instructions, can take feedback on board, arrives ontime. Ask students to note down a few traits that they consider strengths and a few traits they could work on to make themselves more employable. Encourage students to think about personal qualities, not simply qualifications andgrades.

1 Ask: Who would you go to for careers advice? (Parents,

friends, teachers, the internet, career advisors, etc.) Put students into pairs to do the roleplay. Give students five minutes for the first meeting roleplay then ask students to swap roles for a further five minutes. Conduct class feedback for the thirdquestion.

alternative: mixed ability To support weaker students, read through the rubric of the first question, then elicit some specific questions the careers advisor could ask and write them on the board for students to optionally refer to during the roleplay: What would you say are your most employable traits? What do you think you could do to make yourself moreemployable? Possibleanswer A: So, you’ve come for some advice on finding a job. Let’s review your strengths and weaknesses. What would you say your most employable traitsare? B: Well, I’m a great team player. I will always go the extra mile to help the other people in my team. I’m also very reliable, you can count on me to turn up on time and do what I’m asked. I would like to think that I’m quite friendly and personable aswell. A: Those are great qualities that are certainly very valuable from an employer’s point of view. Let’s now talk about some areas for improvement. In what ways could youimprove? B: Well, I do tend to talk a lot, which can be a good thing, but can be a bit overwhelming. I guess it depends if the conversation is job-related, doesn’t it? What I really need to break is my bad habit of interrupting people. I’ve been told it is reallyannoying. A: Hmm, let’s consider the interrupting first, how could you work on that… ?

2

Students read the questions. Play the clip for students to take notes. Ask students to compare their answers inpairs. 1 Scott moved to London because he believed there would be more job opportunities for himthere. 2 James advises Scott to gain a greater understanding of particular job roles and job titles available within his field in order to sell himself more effectively to potentialemployers.

3

Play the clip again for students to takenotes. Possibleanswers 1 Positivepoints Scott has a great senseof humour. Scott is highlyenthusiastic. Scott is eager to take up work relatedtasks. Scott is very likeable andintelligent. Areas toimprove Scott needs to improve his professionalism by making himself look a little smarter while atwork. Scott could give more commitment towork. Scott could manage his timebetter. Scott could maintain better focus on the job athand. 2 He improved his appearance. He secured an internship in central London, which will greatly improve his jobprospects.

extra: whole class Write these additional questions on the board for students to discuss in pairs. Then play the video a third time for students tocheck. 1 What trends does the video mention around graduates seekingjobs? (For the past 30 years the number of graduates has increased. However, in 2016 only two thirds of graduates were in highly skilledpositions.) 2 Why does James Caan ask Scott to think of some jobtitles? (Knowing what kinds of job titles might be for him is an important part of focusing his jobsearch.) 3 What happens to Scott after he takes theadvice? (He secures a job internship in central London, which will improve his jobprospects.)

4 Ask students to discuss the question in pairs or smallgroups.

Possibleanswer A: So the advice given that Scott should look more professional, do you think that’s relevant to alljobs? B: Well, on the face of it, yes. I think the more professional you look, the more likely you are to get a job, and do well init. A: Yes, I agree that we’re all judged on how we appear. Take pilots for example, would you feel as safe if they wore shorts and sandals? But a captain’s outfit doesn’t affect their flying ability, so it’s a bit sillyreally. B: I hadn’t really thought about it like that, but I guess you’re right that certain uniforms and professional dress make people more likely to respect them. But when it comes to professional dress, I think it has to depend on dressing right for the job. For example, I think going for an interview to pick strawberries, you’d have better luck if you were dressed casually, looking like you were ready to start. A business suit would be over the top, and might end up costing you thejob. A: In corporate circles, I think it does pay to take the advice to dress professionally. There will always be people who get away with dressing down, like Mark Zuckerberg, but I mean, if you’re running the show, you get a bit morefreedom.

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B: So, for those of us just starting out in our careers, I guess we could say that the advice is generally true – appearprofessional. A: With the caveat that ‘professional’ means appropriate for the job athand.

Project If you have access to the internet in the classroom, search for a student video CV which is relatively simple in format to show the class. For example, a student talking to thecamera. Students’ scripts should be between 1–2 minutes long. Encourage students not to have visible notes when they recordthemselves. If students do not have recording facilities, students could either write a script for an introduction to themselves (as if they were going to record), then present themselves to the class or agroup.

extra: project 1 Remind students of the advice in the Switch on

video. Ask each student to pick a field of work that interests them, then research the job titles/roles available in those fields. Students compile a mind map or informational poster, digitally if possible, listing at least eight jobs in that field. Students share their posters in small groups, and explain to the group which of the jobs on their poster interests them most andwhy.

2 Students role-play a five-minute job interview

between an employer and applicant. Put students into pairs and ask them to decide on a job that the applicant will apply for in their roleplay. One student becomes the employer and prepares a list of at least four questions to ask the applicant, for example: Why are you applying for this role? What previous experience do you have in this area? What are your strengths? What makes you a good team player? Alternatively, provide the questions for weaker students or if you are short ontime.

The applicant prepares a profile for him/herself, using information which is true or made up, for example, thinking about personal qualities, experience and reasons for wanting thejob.

Students perform the interview and finish with the employer offering the job or saying they will be in touch. Students swaproles.

In preparation for the Independent learning lesson, ask students to complete Ex 1 on page 130. Then use the class time for students to discuss their ideas with a partner and conduct classfeedback.

Presentationtool:

Unit 9, Switch on

Switch on videoscript:

TBp182

INDEPENDENT LEARNING

SBp130

Skillreview 1 Ask students to read the skills and mark the areas they feel most confident about. Suggest that they may also put a different mark in a box to indicate they are becoming moreconfident.

2 Students discuss their answers in pairs. If students have

multiple areas they have identified, ask them to narrow it down to a few key areas to review in this lesson. Students can use the contents page to help locate relevant tips and sections for the areas they feel less confidentin.

UNITCHECK

SBp131

If possible, complete Practice Exs 1–2 in class because they involve pair work, and Review Ex 1 because it features audio. The other exercises may be completed in class or set forhomework. Relevant Unit Check exercises may also be set for fast finishers during other lessons. For Ex 5, encourage students to set a time limit of eight minutes. For Ex 6, students could attempt a timed writing practice for 40 minutes, then review their report using the checklist in Ex 13 on page129.

Practice 1 2 Students’ ownanswers. 3 1 an edge ​2 guard ​3 head ​4 picture ​5 mile ​6row

Review 1

9.11 Speaker A: her director had mistaken her for someoneelse. Speaker B: his lack of awareness of his time on the team being limited/at anend. Speaker C: her being too slow to realise what her manager was actuallydoing.

2 1 It’s theway ​2 It is when  3 ​ What she told me was (All I know is is not correct because this is not a criticism.) ​ 4 All people want is  5 ​ The thing that ​ 6 It wasn’t until  7 ​ What we’d do was ​ 8 All I knowis

3 1 had she finished, when ​2 had they developed, than ​ 3 when she saw, did she realise ​4 did I realise  ​5 did their captain feel ​6 had hemanaged

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9 Leaders andfollowers 4 1 The team, not satisfied with their results, are hoping to go 2 3 4 5 6

on to greaterthings. Having learnt a new way of working, Anna changed her whole approach towork. Daniela asked those who had been in her team for over a year to mentor the newmembers. After making the team do one hour’s training, the coach asked them to go to thegym. In most companies, employees are offered extra trainingopportunities. The research objective was to test brandrecognition.

5 In the Cambridge exam candidates are asked the

questions by the examiner and do not see them written down as they are here. Candidates are also only asked a couple of questions, not all as this tasks requires. ( // indicates the points for twomarks) 1 it is recognised // as away 2 only does/can doodling // help/enable youto 3 improves your recollection/recall // ofdetails 4 you (to) find solutions // toproblems 5 a consequence of //using 6 that/which are challenging better // bykeeping

6 Modelanswer I’ve been looking for a job in the theatre for about three months now. I want to do stage management or perhaps even production support. This was why I used your specialist job site as I assumed it would have more jobs of relevance to me. In fact, what I found was that although there seemed to be many jobs, a lot of them were in the same field of costume and design and very few were in the production side. This meant I found the site rather misleading. I also found that the links through to each job did not work very well and there was not enough information about the job to help me to decide whether I should apply or not. Although I would not use the site again myself, nor recommend it to anyone else in my field, I would probably recommend it for those who are looking for work in the specialist areas you cover. However, I do think your site should more clearly state exactly what it offers. This is not only the case in terms of the type of jobs, but also in the level of detail offered about eachjob.

GRAMMARFILE

SBp158

1 1 A It was the Labour government that changed the law on

2 1 It does help if I get a good nights’ sleep before anexam. 2 The members did have a long discussion at themeeting. 3 Danny does go on about the year he spent in the USA alot. / Danny does go on a lot about the year he spent in the USA. 4 I wasn’t sure before but we do have a lesson on Friday. 5 Pat did give me his email address but I’ve lost it, I’mafraid.

3 1 What I wanted to point out was that there won’t be much parking space available directly outside ourhouse. 2 No way am I going to be able to meet thatdeadline. 3 The reason (why) I’m phoning is to ask you the best route to the hotel and confirm the time of thedinner. 4 No sooner had I read the email than David called me to discuss theproblem. 5 At no time have I ever given James the impression that I was looking for a change ofjob.

4 1 was our neighbour who toldus 2 3 4 5 6

place where the accident happenedis is Mr Reeves you shouldask the thieves hid the moneyis if you are a membercan irritates many people is therequirement

5 Possibleanswers 1 In some parts of the world quite dangerous animals, left free to roam, can cause problems for villages they try to enter. (shortened relativeclause) 2 My manager taught me that one way of earning more money, if you want to do so, is by becoming skilled at something others cannot do. (a clause inside anotherclause) 3 It worried us that we hadn’t heard from him for over six months. (use of It in a cleftsentence) 4 Being a tradition that was once free for locals, the local music event offered free drinks instead. (a participleclause)

6 1 never 2 this 3 wherever 4 in 5 least 6 when 7 if/how/whether 8Having

Presentationtool:

Unit 9, Unit check

Workbook / Online Practice:

p97

Audioscript:

SBpp183–184

Extra Practice App

fox hunting in2004. B It was the law on fox hunting that the Labour government changed in2004. C It was in 2004 that the Labour government changed the law on foxhunting. 2 A It was my sister who made the chocolate cakes for Joanne’sparty. B It was the chocolate cakes that my sister made for Joanne’sparty. C It was for Joanne’s party that my sister made the chocolatecakes.

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10 X

Movingon READING

SPEAKING

topic: value of homework task: cross-text multiple matching

topics: important moments in life; ambitions tasks: interview; long turn; collaborative task; discussion

USE OF ENGLISH open cloze key word transformation multiple-choice cloze word formation

LISTENING topics: university and employment; travelling tasks: multiple choice: short texts; sentence completion

WRITING topics: a college newsletter; a TV channel; a charity project; tourism tasks: Part 2 choices

Lead-in SBp133 Point out the unit title Moving on. Elicit what the phrasal verb to move on means (to change, develop or start doing something new). Ask students to look at the picture on page 133. Ask: How do you think perspective changes when you get older? What kind of advice do you think your 70-year-old self would give to your current self? Read the quote aloud: Youth is wasted on the young. Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit ideas on whether students spend more time thinking about the past or the future. Suggested answers 1 The quote means that young people don’t appreciate the benefits of being young until later in life. 2 I don’t spend a lot of time thinking about the past, although if I hear an old tune, or see an old photo, it will certainly jog my memory. I do spend time thinking about the future, though. Unfortunately, I have a tendency to worry about things that might happen. They usually don’t, but I can’t help imagining them!

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10 Movingon

READING

SB pp134–135

To start Ask students to discuss in pairs what the benefits and drawbacks are of homework. Elicit some ideas. Possible answers Benefits: it helps you revise new material, helps you prepare for the next class, a good discipline. Possible drawbacks: it takes time away from other things, it can be boring.

1 See if students can remember the meaning of ‘a necessary

evil’ (something bad or unpleasant that you have to accept in order to achieve what you want). Students work in pairs to complete and discuss the questions in the questionnaire. Elicit a show of hands for the first two questions and record the numbers on the board, for example, as a pie chart, then elicit some ideas for the third question.

3 A (C says He also mistakenly maintains that research shows there is no correlation between doing homework and success in education. My belief is that he is ignoring the research that supports an opposing view … A says He very clearly makes the point, with which I agree, that far from helping students, homework can actually be harmful in that it can destroy motivation and make an interesting subject boring.) 4 B (A says the writer repeated himself a great deal and laboured many points. D says some sections were easier for the reader to follow than others. C says in spite of continually reiterating certain points in a boring fashion. B says this well written and accessible book …)

Speak up 3 Students discuss their answers in pairs. Encourage them

alternative

to use some of the new vocabulary from the text.

Instead of eliciting a show of hands, conduct an online poll in your online class space for students to respond to anonymously after discussing the questionnaire with their partner.

Possible answers • What I agree with in comment B is that homework should be a response to specific needs at a specific time. I say this because when teachers give any old homework because they supposedly ‘should’, the tasks don’t necessary seem to help us learn what we need to. • I totally agree with commenter B’s assertion that excessive homework is off-putting. In my experience, if I have too much to do, I end up racing through it without taking time to do a good job.

Possible answers 1 • Homework bores me more than anything else. I’d much rather be outside or hanging out with my friends instead of being cooped up studying. • I do think it actually depends on the homework itself! Some projects can be stimulating or at least mildly interesting, whereas others are completely mind numbing. 2 • It’s hard to say exactly. It felt like too much at the time but in hindsight perhaps it wasn’t enough to revise all the concepts thoroughly. • I think we have been given an appropriate amount. It has been a pretty steady workload but I wouldn’t say I’ve been swamped. 3 • Hmm, let’s see, I’d say younger kids aged 4–10 would benefit most from reading a book and maybe learning some maths, basic facts or a bit of spelling. Other than that, I think they should be free to play. That’s way more useful for their development than lots of rote learning. • I suppose college students should mainly be given independent activities with an element of freedom of choice. Group projects could be quite good although it obviously depends on who you get grouped with.

exam task: cross-text multiple matching 2

Set a time limit of 12 minutes for students to complete the activity. 1 C (B says Homework should not be uniform, the same for everyone, but should comprise tasks that help develop independent learning. C says there was one section about targeting different students with different homework tasks or even letting students choose what sort of homework they do that may have possible positive implications for the future.) 2 B (D says it is highly unlikely to change anything. B says Whether educators will actually take notice of these ideas and implement them is unfortunately debatable)

4 Refer students to the useful language boxes in the

Speaking file on pages 163–164 to look for some good phrases to use in the discussion. Possible answers 1 • I definitely agree with this idea. After all, if we get to make up our own minds about how much and what type of homework we do, we’d be able to choose to do what is meaningful to us, and what would help us the most. So much more motivating. • Sorry, but I just can’t get on board with this one. Let’s be realistic, everyone would choose to do nothing at all! 2 • Sadly, that’s probably right. It’s nice to think we’d replace homework with walks in the park and family board games, but I doubt it. But, we could watch a series as a family, does that count? • I don’t know that I agree with that view. Personally, if I didn’t have to spend time doing assignments at weekends, I’d probably go along on family outings more often. 3 • This is so true. So many parents end up doing their kids’ homework for them, and how does their child learn anything from that? I’d also add that it’s probably a bit of a pain for parents to have to keep tabs on homework, most of them have enough on their plate as it is. • I think there is some middle ground here. My parents managed to strike a really good balance. They showed an interest in what I was doing for homework, and helped if I asked, but ultimately left it up to me to take responsibility for doing it. • How about the idea of a school–home partnership? Surely, it’s a bit ridiculous to exclude parents from helping with homework, especially for younger kids, who need help with the tasks and developing good study habits.

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4 • Absolutely. It’s nice to be treated as mature enough to make the best decisions for our own learning. • I’m not sure. If homework wasn’t compulsory, I’m just not sure I’d do it, even though I acknowledge that it has helped me learn in the past. 5 • I agree that homework helps develop self-discipline because you have to learn to prioritise your activities and manage your time. This will come in handy at university or in the workplace. • I guess there’s some element of truth to that. But, it isn’t as if homework is the only thing that can encourage selfdiscipline. What about learning a musical instrument or doing regular exercise? 6 • That’s a bit black and white, isn’t it? While homework may help us become independent up to a point, it isn’t the only way to become independent. I think exploring topics of our own interest helps us become independent way more than any formal set homework could.

5 Brainstorm a few possible activities to get students started

using some of the possible answers to this exercise for inspiration. Students could use ideas from this course or be as creative as they like. After students decide on activities in pairs, ask each pair to share with the class. Ask students to comment on which are the most interesting activities. Ask: Are the most interesting activities also the most effective? Possible answer choose some words from text and write personalised sentences; ask three people you know what they think about homework; choose five words from the text and find their meanings; make a gap-fill; make a crossword to test new vocabulary; re-read the article and summarise each comment; make a poster showing your view on homework

game on Assign different comments to different pairs so that students can swap with a pair who has looked at a different comment. After swapping, students should complete the word formation without looking at the article.

USE OF ENGLISH

SB pp136–137

To start Ask students to briefly tell their partner about what they are planning to do when they leave school/college. If students have already left school/college, ask them to reflect on what it was like to move on and discuss what they are planning to do after this course.

1 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit some ideas from the class.

Possible answers 1 taking more responsibility for your study, changing town, changing friends, getting to school/college a different way, doing your own shopping/cooking/laundry/budgeting 2 finding the right lecture hall, having the right stationary, meeting new people, getting a job

exam task: open cloze 2 3

Remind students to read the text for gist before attempting the gaps and to think carefully about what type of word goes in each gap (noun, verb, etc.). Set a time limit of 10 minutes for students to complete Ex 2 and check through their answers carefully. Go through the answers as a class. 1 not/never (negative) 2 do (inversion) 3 if (conditional) 4 not (negative) 5 having (-ing clause) 6 be (passive) 7 few (quantifier meaning not many people) 8 one (quantifier)

exam task: key word transformation 4 5

extra: whole class Put students into groups of 4 or 5. Each group member chooses a country they are interested in and briefly researches homework expectations in that country online. Students share with their group what they found out. Ask groups to decide which of the countries they think has got the right idea about homework and share this with the class.

To finish Ask students to choose one or more of the homework activities proposed in Ex 5 to try. Alternatively, students can do the activity for homework.

Set a time limit of 15 minutes for Ex 4. Students compare their answers in pairs. Conduct class feedback. (// indicates how the two marks are allocated) 1 I had set off // on time 2 I not // forgotten my map 3 was only when/after // I arrived that 4 couldn’t // make up my mind 5 resulted in // me/my having 6 not able to // take advantage of

In preparation for the next class, set Exs 2–5 as timed exam practice for a total of 25 minutes. In class, after completing Ex 1, ask students to compare their answers to 2 and 4 in pairs before checking as a class. Presentation tool:

Unit 10, Reading

Workbook / Online Practice:

pp102–109

Extra Practice App

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10 Movingon USE OF ENGLISH (Continued)

Speak up 6 Put students into pairs to discuss the questions. Possible answers 1 I think what I’d be most worried about would be no more second chances! At school, we could always retake a test or redo assignments to get a better grade. Now, when you think about it, this gave us a false sense of security. We won’t have that luxury in life after school, so a failure at something important like a job interview will be pretty much permanent! 2 I am quite excited to be able to go to bed at any time I like. My parents still send me off to bed before 10 p.m. which is completely ridiculous. I’m a real night owl so I’m looking forward to staying up as late as I want. 3 1 being late – set an alarm 2 getting lost – remember a map, look up a map on your phone, ask someone for help 3 wrong supplies – go to a store on campus, ask to borrow a friend’s 4 eat alone – introduce yourself to someone new, listen to some music, study while you eat 5 too much free time – get a job, volunteer, set an exercise routine, set up a study group, join a club 6 missing social opportunities – join a club during the week, arrange to meet friends during the week, suggest to the social committee that they hold an event during the week, arrange to stay over for the weekend. 4 I can’t wait to study some of the papers I’ve chosen. It will be great not to have to do compulsory subjects that I’m not really into anymore. It sounds like a cliché, but I’m also really excited to meet new people and widen my social circle.

exam task: multiple-choice cloze 7

Elicit possible strategies for multiple-choice exam tasks such as reading the text for gist first, looking for fixed phrases, collocations, type of word, lexical choice and dependent prepositions. Give students eight minutes to complete the article then ask students to compare their answers in pairs before checking as a class. 1 C (valued = appreciated; other words don’t collocate with friend) 2 D (fixed phrase) 3 D (saying = a well-known, wise statement) 4 A (stood up = defended) 5 B (collocation) 6 C (collocation) 7 B (rarity = not often found) 8 A (collocation)

exam task: word formation The items here are related to a single topic as opposed to the same task in the Cambridge exam.

8

Remind students to consider word class and affixes. Set a time limit of six minutes then check as aclass. 1 apprehensive (adjective needed, following excited) 2 unknown (participle adjective + negative prefix) 3 addition (noun needed to complete the phrase in addition) 4 dissimilar (negative prefix needed) 5 numerous (adjective needed to describe benefits) 6 exposure (noun needed following the) 7 appreciative (adjective needed to go with open minded) 8 commitments (plural noun needed to match responsibilities)

Speak up 9 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Elicit a few ideas. Possible answers 1 Nowadays, it is a lot easier than in the past, with being able to chat online so easily and share pictures. 2 It really depends, doesn’t it? So many friendships are based on conversation and shared values, and if you can’t speak the same language, that certainly makes conversation more difficult. That said, if a friendship was centred around a shared activity, say football, it wouldn’t be so much of an issue. 3 Advantages: it’s a good chance to gain practice in the foreign language, meet people from around the world, and it looks good on your CV. Disadvantages: it may be harder to understand complex concepts; it’s harder to proof-read written work; there may be cultural misunderstandings.

To finish Ask students to reflect on the four exercises in pairs. Ask: Which type did you find easiest? Which type do you need more practice with? Do you have any questions about the exercise types? Elicit responses, and encourage students to do the additional exercises in the Workbook. Presentation tool:

Unit 10, Use of English

Workbook / Online Practice:

pp100–101

Extra Practice App

extra: whole class Ask students to discuss the following questions in pairs, then elicit some ideas. 1 What do you think are the qualities of a lasting friendship? 2 Why do you think a lot of students today choose to study abroad?

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LISTENING

SB p138

4 A (what’s more likely to happen is that the new offices operate as a kind of satellite. So rather than us becoming more culturally international in fact, we’re all just operating as we were before) 5 C (What I’m suggesting is that we need to recognise that and put more funding behind it.) 6 A (In fact, I think there’s much more realisation now that the arts need to be supported and that they enhance the sciences rather than being a polar opposite.)

To start Ask students to discuss in pairs: What are some examples of companies or industries from your country which have expanded internationally or export internationally? Do you know what your country’s three biggest exports are? If students don’t know, see if they can find out on the internet what their countries’ three biggest exports are in under one minute. Ask: Does the answer surprise you? Does your government encourage students to study certain subjects through fees concessions, scholarships, advertising or other means? If so, is this a good thing? If not, do you think they should?

Power up

exam task: sentence completion 3 Give students one minute to quickly read the text and

decide what kind of word goes in each gap (e.g. a skill, a thing, an activity.)

1 Students work in small groups to discuss the life skills

1 a quality ​2 something about herself ​3 an activity ​ 4 a thing or person ​5 a quality or thing ​6 a feeling  ​7 a skill, talent or ability ​8 a way of travelling

questions. Elicit some ideas from each group.

Possible answers • I’ve been managing my own money for a while now so I think I’ll be fine in that regard. My parents have given me an allowance for clothes since I was eleven and I’ve since added to my ‘income’ with a part-time job at the supermarket. • I’d describe my knowledge of illnesses as pretty basic, mainly because I’ve hardly ever been ill. That said, I did attend a first-aid course last year, so if anyone has an accident, I know what to do! Well, in theory anyway … • My family has always said cooking is very important. That’s why they have insisted I help in the kitchen from an early age. It’s more than survival, it’s about being able to show hospitality as well. • All of these skills are quite important, aren’t they? However, if you made me pick the most important, I’d say money management. You really need to be able to budget and live within your means.

exam task: multiple choice: short texts 2

10.1 Give students one minute to read the questions and underline key words. Then play the recording twice for students to complete the task. 1 B (I’m cross with myself as all the other students seem to be so on top of it.) 2 A (Oh it shouldn’t, you know – I think everyone has the same response when they leave home. I know I didn’t have a hot meal for weeks because I didn’t know how to cook. Thing is, getting on top of all that is vital - I’m sure you realise that if you’re looking after yourself properly, it’s easier to concentrate. So although things like cooking, washing, getting yourself registered with a doctor or whatever, seem like trivial things compared to your work, having those things organised ends up being critical to how well you do. Do you want me to help you?) 3 B (I did have second thoughts about if we were really ready for this; like if we understand enough about how the local market does business.)

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10.2 Play the recording twice, as in the exam. Conduct class feedback. 1 essential (most of the people in my office would regard it asessential) 2 thinking (I was aware that my thinking was starting toshift) 3 camping (we were … camping while elephants and lions prowled around us) 4 relationships (I’ve had the opportunity to truly increase my understanding of relationships) 5 a sense of humour (I would put a sense of humour at the top of my list.) 6 confusion (we all get bogged down at work when we … experience confusion) 7 patience (I now have much more patience than I hadbefore) 8 long haul (it’s the long haul trips that reward you most in terms of skills for your career.)

Speak up 5 Tell the class about what you learned on a holiday, as

an example. If students have photos of their trip readily available on their mobile phones, invite them to choose a few to show to their partner as part of the discussion, if they want to. Put students into pairs for the discussion then elicit some ideas. Possible answer I’ll always remember the time I went to stay with a friend’s family when I was younger because it taught me about how different families are. The other family was far more relaxed than mine. For example, they didn’t usually eat together, unlike at my home where everyone eats every meal together. Some of the meals were a bit spicy for my taste, but it was great to try something different.

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10 Movingon

SPEAKING

LISTENING (Continued)

extra: whole class In your private class online space, create a forum post where students can post a picture of their holiday (a photo that was taken on the holiday or a photo from the internet of where they went or what they did) and a short description of something they learned.

To start Ask students to close their books. Ask them to work in pairs to see what they can remember about the four parts of the speaking exam. Ask: What do you have to do? How long do you have to speak for? Then ask them to check their ideas on pages 161–164.

Power up

extra: whole class Students have a debate on the motion: Travelling alone is better than travelling in a group. Divide the class into two teams: for and against. Students follow these steps. 1 Make notes on the points in your argument. Think about all aspects of life when you travel. 2 Divide the points among the group members. 3 Each group member prepares an argument of no more than 30 seconds. (If you have a small class, you could make this longer.) 4 Students think about what the ‘opposition’ might say and how you could respond. Have the class debate. Encourage students to think beyond simple holiday activities (they can think of books they’ve read, films they’ve seen) to consider different lifestyles, ways of travelling, who you might meet, etc. They can also be prompted by ideas in the listening scripts.

To finish Ask students to choose a country they would like to visit in future. Students tell their partner why they would like to go and what they could learn by travelling there. Presentation tool:

Unit 10, Listening

Workbook / Online Practice:

pp112–115

Audioscript:

SB p184

Extra Practice App

SB p139

1 Give students two minutes to remember as many tips as they can. Students compare lists in pairs. Elicit ideas.

Possible answers Long turn • Remember that the questions asked by the examiner are printed on your sheet. • Work through the task logically. • Give examples, using discourse markers and linking words. • Try not to leave long silences. • Don’t worry about talking too long because the examiner will stop you if you go over the time limit. • You will need to use your imagination to speculate. • You only need to compare two of the three pictures and answer a question. • Don’t describe the pictures but give a balanced long turn, comparing and contrasting them (talking about similarities and differences) before answering the question. Listening candidate’s question – part of long turn • Try not to give a short answer. • Don’t give a lengthy answer or repeat the other candidate’s task. • State your choice and give a reason with a little detail. • If you refer to what your partner has said, try to add in your own opinion or rephrase. Collaborative task • Don’t give alternating long turns. Examiners are looking at how you interact with the other candidate. • Remember to ask for your partner’s opinion, listen to what they say, and relate your comments back to theirs. • Don’t dominate the conversation. Instead, encourage your partner to participate. • At the end of the collaborative task, you will be asked to select or prioritise one prompt that you agree on. Don’t repeat or summarise the discussion you have just had; think carefully about the wording of the new question. Justify your selection by giving reasons and examples. Don’t worry if you disagree or don’t have time to choose. Discussion • Try to develop your answers by giving reasons and examples. • Remember that you can comment on your partner’s answers and even develop it into a discussion, but don’t interrupt before they have given a full answer. • A question can be addressed to one student or to both. If addressed to one, the other student should let the first student give a full answer and can then join in if they have something to say. If the question is addressed to both (usually by a gesture indicating ‘please discuss’), candidates should discuss together from the start.

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extra: whole class

I suppose the couple might have done some practice too. People often have wedding rehearsals the day before so that everyone is clear on where to stand and what to say. In both pictures, the people look pretty happy. I’d say from their expressions that the couple are absolutely elated, whereas the driver is feeling more of a sense of satisfaction at her achievement. B: I’d have to say the wedding, because it’s a monumental and life-changing occasion that is shared with your significant other as well as family and friends.

Ask students to read the general advice for the Speaking exam on page 161 and decide which pieces of advice were most useful for them.

exam task: interview

SB p161

In the Cambridge exam candidates are asked the questions by the examiner and do not see them written down as they are here. Candidates are also only asked a couple of questions, not all as this tasks requires.

2

Consider inviting students to choose a few questions to ask off the list, and model giving an answer of 1–2 sentences and with varied vocabulary and form (for example, use the possible answers). Students take turns to play the examiner and the student. ‘Examiners’ should ask 3–4 questions before swapping. Possible answers 1 Let me see, the best part of the day would probably be the English class, as I have this really inspiring teacher who manages to make learning quite fun. 2 I’m quite lucky in that I get a lot of time with my friends at school and we also play in the same basketball team. However, to be honest, I don’t get as much time with my family as I’d like because everyone has such a packed schedule. 3 My top pick would probably be Ireland. What appeals to me is the combination of the picturesque scenery, the friendly locals and the toe-tapping music. 4 Something I’m particularly proud of would be running a 10K race. I wasn’t very fit when I started training, which made it especially satisfying to complete. 5 I’m not a big fan of surprises to be honest. I much prefer being aware of what’s around the corner. 6 Absolutely. I often seem to feel really gloomy on grey days, and then when the sun comes out, I can feel myself cheering up. 7 I tried online learning recently by enrolling in an online course. As well as learning about photography, which was the focus, I was also able to connect with other amateur photographers from all over the world. 8 I recently got my first part-time job. It’s a fantastic feeling earning my own money and I hope it is a stepping stone to greater things!

exam task: long turn 3

SB p162

If students have a recording function on their phone, this would be a good exercise for students to record and compare to the recording they made earlier in the course. The ‘examiner’ student should time the ‘candidate’ students for one minute. Possible answer Page 139 A: The wedding would certainly have taken a great deal of preparation. The bride and groom would have had to book a venue, send out invitations, buy outfits, organise the catering – and that’s just the start of it. To compare that to the picture of the driving test, I’d guess that the driver has spent time doing a different kind of preparation – probably practising, perhaps having some lessons with a professional driving instructor to get her up to scratch.

exam task: collaborative task

SB p163

The candidates in the Cambridge exam do not see the discussion questions in this section of the Speaking test.

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Set a time limit of two minutes for students to complete the discussion phase of the collaborative task, then stop students and read the discussion question below the mind map to the class. Give them one minute for the decision phase. Possible answer A: Where shall we start? B: How about ‘being a professional football player’. That’s a dream lots of people have because of the fame and fortune, not to mention the fans. A: You’re right that there’s a lot of perceived glamour. Even so, the reality is that top footballers have to train extensively and it would be hard work keeping your body in peak condition. B: Absolutely, and I’ll add here that there would be an extraordinary amount of pressure to perform, and criticism if you miss a shot or get a red card. A: So, to move to the next prompt, some of the things we’ve talked about would apply to winning an Olympic gold medal, wouldn’t they? A lot of commitment and determination goes into that one moment in the spotlight. B: Yes, and speaking of commitment, ‘becoming a princess’ is a big one. The dream sounds like you’ll be in a position to travel the world and mix in the circles of the rich and famous, and make a real difference for charities you care about. But when it comes down to it, the intense media scrutiny must be exhausting. A: Mmm, wherever you go, you’re recognised, photographed, chased, scrutinised for the tiniest slipup. B: The reality doesn’t sound as good as the dream, doesit? A: Certainly not. And to talk about treating animals, well I think that’s quite a worthy dream. Someone treating animals could make a real difference. It’s the perfect job for every animal lover. B: Yet the reality is that you’d see and have to do some very unpleasant things. At times, you’d be dealing with highly distressed animals, not to mention their owners. A: Finally, working as a firefighter, well the dream is that you’d be saving lives. B: And I don’t doubt that they do, yet there must be a lot of frustration over fires that could have been avoided. A: And seeing people lose their possessions or worse …

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10 Movingon

WRITING

SPEAKING (Continued) Decision phase A: For me, it seems like it’s between either working as a firefighter or treating sick animals. That’s because they’re getting their hands dirty, they’re right in there helping and making a difference every day of their work. B: I see what you mean. It’s helping others that would make the ambition rewarding. So, looking at the others, I think the sportspeople could be helping others too. They might be a role model for young people, for instance going into schools to give motivational talks and the like. I think that would lead to a lot of satisfaction. A: Also, you can’t ignore the princess. Lots of royals devote their lives to visiting people in need and championing charitable causes. B: It seems that each one of these professions could be rewarding in their own way. A: But at a push to pick one, I’d still go with the firefighter I think because I doubt there could be anything that could be more rewarding than saving a life. B: I’m willing to agree with that.

exam task: discussion 5

SB p164

Allow four minutes for this discussion. Possible answer (First prompt) A: When I was little, I thought I had a good chance of becoming the president. A lofty ambition, I know! What appealed to me most was the chance to make a difference to the poor. B: I’m sure you’ll be able to affect positive change even if you don’t reach those heights! As for me, I wanted to own my own bakery because I just loved the idea of eating loads of fresh bread. A: Are you still keen on that idea? B: Funnily enough, I work part-time at a bakery but I’m planning to study medicine next year, so it would be fair to say that my ambitions have changed over time. A: I guess that it’s really common to move on from certain ambitions as you get older. B: You’re absolutely right. Even so, I’m always impressed when people have a dream as a child and then they see it through as an adult …

To finish Ask students to brainstorm how they could continue to practise for the Speaking tasks at home before the exam. For example, they could repeat some of the speaking tasks from the Student’s Book individually or with a partner, record themselves, practise in front of a mirror, ask a friend or family member to ask them some of the interview questions, as well as review the useful phrases for speaking tasks on pages 161–164. Presentation tool:

Unit 10, Speaking

Workbook / Online Practice:

pp116–118

Speaking file:

SB pp161–164

SB pp140–141

To start Ask students: What are the possible genres in the Writing exam? Which are compulsory and which are optional? Elicit that the Part 1 essay is compulsory. In Part 2, there is a choice of three tasks: an email/letter, a report/proposal or a review. Ask: How long will you have to plan, write and proofread each answer? (40 minutes).

Power up 1 Students read the posts and discuss which is most helpful in pairs. Elicit some ideas then ask: Can you think of any other ideas? (e.g. do timed practice tasks, review previous feedback on your writing, review model answers in the Writing file). Possible answers • I think it’s crucial to check and revise what you write. I’ve often picked up little mistakes that I can easily correct when I proofread my work. • For me, the most important thing is minimising distractions. A quiet place is a start, and I have to be very disciplined about not checking my mobile phone as well.

Choosing your strongest task 2 Point out that it is a good idea to go into the exam having decided which writing task you will probably choose in Part 2. This will save time in the exam and help you focus your revision. Give students a few minutes to read the tasks, underline key words and make their choice. Ask students to tell their partner which task they would choose and why. Ask for a show of hands for who is likely to choose each task to inform your teaching.

1 • In your college you would like to set up an international newsletter to connect and share ideas with students in other countries. You decide to write a proposal to your college principal, explaining why you think the newsletter would benefit the college and its students. In your proposal, you should outline the purpose of the newsletter and what it should contain, describe how the newsletter could be managed and explain why it would be beneficial to the college and its students. 2 • An online TV magazine is interested in audience views on what makes a good TV channel. You decide to write a review of the TV channel you watch the most. In your review, outline the type of programmes the channel shows, evaluate the quality of its programmes, explain who it appeals to and how it compares to other channels. 3 • Our town has wonderful sites, buildings and activities for tourists but visitor numbers are decreasing. This is a serious issue as it will affect the economy of the wholetown. You decide to write a letter to the editor of the newspaper describing a tourist site in your town, explaining why you think it is losing visitors and suggesting how it could be improved to attract more visitors.

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3 4 Tell students that you are going to review the

three types of task one more time in detail to ensure they choose their strongest task. Students read the model proposal and discuss the questions in pairs. For weaker classes, you may want to write a list of language functions on the board for students to select from for this exercise and Ex 5 (describing, explaining, suggesting, proposing, recommending, comparing, evaluating). Elicit the answers. 1 to persuade 2 modals, present and future tenses, conditionals 3 describing, explaining, suggesting, proposing, recommending 4 student/school interests, relationships 5 formal with subheadings and clear paragraphs

5 Ask students to read the review and letter in order to complete the table. Elicit the responses.

Grammar review: present tenses, descriptive adjectives letter: present and future tenses, modals Language functions review: describing, persuading, explaining, comparing letter: describing, suggesting, explaining Topic vocabulary review: TV programmes, movies letter: tourism and tourist sites Text features review: informal, clear paragraphs, engaging letter: reason for writing, formal/semi-formal, clear layout, clear recommendation at the end

6 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Then elicit some ideas.

7 Ask students to discuss the question in pairs, then ask for a show of hands of who is going to do each task.

Write on exam task Part 2 of the Cambridge Writing paper has three questions as this task has, but one could be a report and the letter question could be informal.

8 9

Give students 35 minutes to plan and write their answer. Make sure they spend the remaining five minutes checking their writing. Then collect their work to provide individual feedback. Model answers 1 Proposal Introduction The purpose of this proposal is to suggest an international newsletter for our college. In this proposal, I will outline why we should have a newsletter, suggested content, processes for management of the newsletter, and possible benefits.

Purpose and benefits of a newsletter The rationale behind the newsletter is to make connections with students in other countries and exchange views. The newsletter would give us a platform to share creative works and advice, and learn more about different ways of living. It would also be a beneficial project experience for the newsletter team as we would gain valuable work experience. Newsletter content In the newsletter, we would publish articles, stories, art and photography by college students at our school, and from around the world. We propose a range of topics are covered, from international study tips to easy recipes. In discussions with interested students, it has been recommended that we also include an advice column. Managing the newsletter I suggest that the newsletter is written and edited by a student team. I am willing to set up this team and oversee the newsletter for the remainder of the year. I would envisage setting up a social media page to advertise and gather contributions for the newsletter from teenagers from around the globe. The newsletter would be published electronically in order to save printing costs and enable easy distribution. Summary Overall, this newsletter would be beneficial to the readers, contributors and student team. I would encourage you to accept our proposal so that we can move forward with connecting formally with our peers in the global community. 2 Review We are spoilt for choice when it comes to TV channels these days, but there is only one stand-out channel for me – Local Seven. Local Seven has a range of shows from news to drama to comedy. What makes it really special is that over half the content is made right here in my city. That means that it isn’t unusual to spot someone I know on there which definitely makes the programmes much more interesting. Reality TV is also heavily featured and I find it hilarious and occasionally nail-biting to watch how all the drama unfolds. I would rate the quality as a bit of a mixed bag, but don’t let that put you off! On the one hand, some of the local content suffers from the low-budget constraints. The special effects aren’t convincing, and the camera work sometimes leaves much to be desired. Even so, in a strange sort of way, these shortcomings are charming. Let’s just say that this emphasises this is our channel, made by us for us. Unsurprisingly, the biggest audience for Local Seven is the people who live here. They try to include something to appeal for all age groups at different times of day. Compared to the national and international channels, Local Seven might seem a little bit amateur. But it more than makes up for it by being a stage for our own local voices! Overall, Local Seven is well worth watching if you ever pay our city a visit, although you might need a local guide to explain some of our slang!

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10 Movingon WRITING (Continued) 3 Letter Dear Madam, With reference to your article about how tourist numbers are declining, I wish to offer my perspective. In my view, there are many steps which could be taken to turn this worrying trend around, especially in regards to our city’s lake. In the past, the lake has been a very popular visitor attraction. However, in recent years, the lack of maintenance and litter have caused it to lose its reputation as a pleasant attraction. The first step I would suggest is to ensure that the paths are better maintained. The walking circuit used to be extremely popular, however, it has become overgrown and the shrubs need trimming back urgently. If expense is an issue, perhaps a call for volunteers could go out. Next, the issue of litter could be tackled. I have been disappointed to discover that the rubbish bins are only emptied monthly, which has led to overflowing bins and litter blowing into the lake. I would recommend we hold a ‘Clean the Lake’ day, perhaps in conjunction with a local school. More rubbish bins should be provided by the city council to avoid the lake getting in such a state again. Finally, I think we need to have a forum on water quality. What was a swimmable lake a few years ago has now become a health hazard. With the right expert advice and investment, we could return the lake to the happy playground it was for locals and visitors alike. By putting these changes into action, I have no doubt that we will be able to reverse the trend and see visitors return to the lake. Yours faithfully,

To finish Ask students to reflect back on the course as a whole in small groups. Ask: What did you like best? How have you improved? What do you need to do between now and the exam? This would be a good opportunity to ask students to complete a course evaluation, either handwritten, within your private class online space, or through a free online survey tool such as Google forms or Survey Monkey. Sample questions: What did you like about the course? Which activities were most helpful? What suggestions would you make to improve future courses? What would you have liked more or less of? Was the feedback helpful? Presentation tool:

Unit 10, Writing

Workbook / Online Practice:

pp110–111

Writing file:

SB pp165–169

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SWITCH ON VIDEOSCRIPTS Unit 1

Unit 2

Narrator: As we record our lives, we might take fifty pictures but only share a couple with our friends and family. Why do we choose some and not others? It might be to make us look good, or to highlight a particular event. Or we might simply edit out the bad or boring ones. But what happens if someone else chooses how to edit your life and shares it with millions of people? Man: In 1964, Granada Television brought together a group of 7-year-olds, from all over the country and from all walks of life. Boy 1: I might go to Oxford. Boy 2: What does ‘university’ mean? Boy 3: When I grow up, I want to be an astronaut. But if I can’t be an astronaut, I think I’ll be a coach driver. Narrator: This television series became a unique social experiment. It’s followed this group of children for over fifty years – watching them grow up, recording their lives and sharing them on TV. Nick has been one of the participants. He’s now a successful science professor in the USA. The films have followed every aspect of his life: his studies, his career and his private life. Interviewer: D’you have a girlfriend? Nick: I don’t wanna … want to s … answer that. I don’t … answer those kind of questions. Nick: I don’t answer questions like that. Is that the reason you’re asking it? Nick: The best answer would be to say that I don’t answer questions like that. Narrator: After all these years, does Nick appreciate his life being shared on TV? Nick: I think I’d like to say this, and I’d like to say that, and then they film me, so doing all this daft stuff, and it goes on, you know, seven days after every seven years, you know – it’s all this excitement and so on. And then they present this tiny little snippet of your life and it’s like ‘that’s all there is to me?’ Suzy: Yeah. Narrator: He’s discussing this with Suzy, one of the other participants. She has often been unhappy about the scenes from her life that have been chosen and broadcast. Suzy: The problem I have is that you don’t get a very rounded picture – you get the odd comment that comes out on a particular topic because it’s a time-restraint that this programme obviously has – otherwise we’d be on for a couple of months if you would try to get everybody’s real thoughts on things. Narrator: After sharing fifty years of his life with millions, does Nick think the project was worthwhile? Nick: The idea of looking at a bunch of people over time, that was a really nifty idea. It isn’t the picture really of the essence of Nick or Suzy. It’s how a person, any person, how they change. But it’s a picture of somebody. Narrator: Perhaps Nick would’ve preferred to edit his own life. Would he have made different editing decisions at fourteen, twenty-one, forty-two and fifty-six?

Narrator: In Papua New Guinea the bowerbird has lovingly rebuilt and redecorated his bower. Another visitor. This time, it’s a female. This is just where he wants her. Time to begin the show. First, he expands his pupils alternately. It’s an oddly mesmerising display. A spot of limbering up, accompanied by a weird and wheezy call from deep in his throat. Now it’s time for his grand performance. He waves his wing like a matador’s cape. She appears to be transfixed. This is certainly eye-catching, but it seems he needs to do more. Generously, she drops him a hint. It’s the bird equivalent of a bouquet of flowers. It’s all going so well, it’s time to get physical, with a few headbutts to her chest. One final flourish to cap weeks of effort. But something’s wrong. His rival is back and at the worst possible moment. What should he do? For the female, the moment has gone. Sometimes, whatever you do, things just don’t work out.

Unit 3 Narrator: This is James Bowen. Four years ago he was homeless on the streets of London, busking during the day to make enough money to spend the night in a shelter. This difficult lifestyle was taking its toll on James, until a chance meeting – with a stray cat he named Bob – changed his life. James found Bob as a stray, curled up and hurt in a hallway. He realised that Bob was alone, so spent the little money he had on taking Bob to the vet and paying for his treatment. James: After I’d fed him his antibiotics for two weeks he started following me further up the road each day, until one day he actually jumped on the bus with me. Narrator: That bus was taking James to Covent Garden, where he would sell copies of The Big Issue, a charity magazine that supports the homeless. James was the only vendor in Central London with a cat, and the pair became local celebrities with passers-by. When press began to cover them in local news, their fanbase became even more affectionate. James: Oh my goodness! Look at that, Bob. Look! Who’s that? Who’s that? That’s incredible, thank you so much. Jimmy (overlapping): My pleasure, my pleasure. Narrator: A literary agent read about James in a local newspaper and encouraged him to write a book about the reality of homelessness. She helped him to get it published, but James could never have imagined the impact it would have. James: It’s been completely from one, one extreme to the other. You know, when I was selling the street paper The Big Issue for instance, you know, a lot of people didn’t understand how it actually worked so, you know, they’d look at you and they’d go, ‘Get a job’. And then all of a sudden, now I’m an author, published author, and it’s like completely opposite – everybody you know, wants to hear what I have to say. Narrator: James was asked if he found it frustrating that it took a cat to give a homeless person a voice. James: Absolutely, but I’m glad that I can be a voice for people who don’t have a voice. I want to, you know, help people if I can and if, you know, me doing it with Bob brings more awareness to, you know, the situation of people who are homeless, or people who are underprivileged, wonderful. Narrator: James made social media pages and the book went on to top bestseller charts for seventy-six weeks. Its success prompted James’s agent to consider that a movie might be next.

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SWITCH ON VIDEOSCRIPTS Mary: There’s just so many people following him on Facebook and Twitter, and this is before it’s even been published over in America, so it’s a unique story. James: You can never say anything’s concrete, you know, until it happens. Narrator: But a film was made. James: It’s very bizarre, I mean, um, four years ago when the book came out I thought that I’d probably still be selling The Big Issue and busking today – I never thought that, you know, I’d be sitting here now with Bob, you know, doing a press junket for a film. Narrator: Critics have praised the film for being a responsible representation of homelessness and for drawing attention to the cause. Luke: I think it’s a beautiful, amazing story and hopefully will open people’s eyes to what it’s like to – to be living on the streets and to – to be, you know, struggling in life. Narrator: James and Bob’s incredible experience has seen them swap the streets for the red carpet. It’s a dramatic change that James could not have imagined when he was homeless. However, he hasn’t forgotten the experience of his previous life. James: To anybody who ever passes somebody who, er, sees somebody in the street, you know, give them a coffee and a sandwich. Have a chat to them, you know, it makes their day. Everybody deserves a second chance.

Unit 4 Kunle: And action! Narrator: The Nigerian film industry, popularly known as ‘Nollywood’ is the second largest in the world, second only to Bollywood in India. Both produce more films a year than their world famous American counterpart, Hollywood. Film director Kunle Afolayan is working on his next film. When asked about the state of the film industry in his country, he voices his concern about the lack of ambition of some of his fellow filmmakers. Kunle: Some people are very comfortable making – making low quality products, and… Because for them it’s only a means of livelihood. You know, for them they only make money and they earn a living from it. For me film is not about earning a living, film is – is life for me; I breathe film, I sleep film. Narrator: In this latest film, The CEO, Kunle wants to bring a story of intrigue and power in modern-day Africa to a wider audience. Kunle: The CEO is for me another film that represents Africa as a continent, you know, by virtue of the kind of story, the … the actors, um, you know, the team, you know … and – and every element of the film to a large extent, you know, embraces who we are as Africans. Narrator: Nollywood films are made across the African continent and consumed around the globe. Musician and presenter Boya Dee takes us to South London, where Nollywood has clearly made its mark. Boya: Nollywood is growing at a rapid rate, churning out around 50 movies a week and the African diaspora in the UK are engaging with it like never before. Narrator: Boya Dee has met up with T-Boy Ogunmefun. His comic videos, which satirise Nollywood conventions and bring them closer to international audiences, were a hit and went viral and he is now one of the most sought-after comedians. Boya: You’re taking it in a different direction. T-Boy: Yeah. Boya: Like, is it because you are trying to reinvent it for more kind of a western audience? T-Boy: Um, I believe a lot of – a lot of, um, the stuff in Nollywood, it’s – it’s very conk. It’s very … Boya: What does that mean?

T-Boy: Conk is like, it’s just as … you take it as it is. And you probably wouldn’t understand it as it is. The accents are thicker, um … the – there may be certain things that they say that you’re just not gonna – not gonna understand. But me, being born and bred in London and being able to go to Nigeria I’m – I’m able to fuse both … Narrator: Nigerian filmmakers have found that comic or political stories are resonating most with international audiences and events like the Nollywood awards in LA, right in Hollywood’s backyard, are an opportunity to showcase their talent and share their culture in the global market. Actor 1: Almost a twenty billion people watch Nollywood all over the world. It’s in London, it’s in United States, it’s in, you know, Belgium, Holland, France, a lot of Nigerians and a lot of Africans all over the world. Actor 2: They are bringing the quality of cinema up in Africa and this is a beautiful night to celebrate that.

Unit 5 Jordon: Hi guys. I’m at East Midlands Airport right now. I’m about to fly to Germany. Now, that might not sound money-saving, but there’s a story behind it. Narrator: Jordon Cox became a money-saving sensation at the age of fifteen when, through a combination of coupons and in-store deals, he managed to buy £600 worth of groceries for just four pence. Earning the nickname the ‘Coupon Kid’ for his belief that you do not have to pay full-price in a commercial environment, Jordon went on to share his thrifty tips online through blogs and social media. He recently made headlines again when he found a creative solution to an expensive train journey from work in Northern England to his home in the South East. Interviewer: When you saw that your ticket from Yorkshire down to Essex was going to be £47, what was your reaction? Jordon: I was absolutely astonished at that price. I mean, that is so much to pay for a one-way train. So I decided to take some action and I found that it was cheaper for me to get a bus and a train from Sheffield to East Midlands Airport, get a flight to Berlin, train into the city centre, food, train back to the airport, flight to Stansted, and then get a bus back home than it was to pay for that one way train. Interviewer: I mean … You saved money, but it did take – how many hours? Jordon: It took thirteen hours door to door to get back home from when I left – but it’s incredible. I got to spend the day in Berlin, a city that I’ve always wanted to go to. It was a bucket list place I wanted to visit, and I got to visit there and save money at the same time. I went sightseeing, I visited a German government building, which I booked a free tour – love free – er, I saw The Brandenburg Gate, Checkpoint Charlie … I got to see nearly everything I wanted to and I spent four hours in the city centre before heading back. Interviewer: Do you think that says something about the railways in Britain? Jordon: Er, obviously they could be a bit cheaper, er … but, uh, if it means you have to fly to places and experience new cultures to actually get home then I’m all for it. Narrator: Jordon’s decision to return home via Berlin meant that he travelled an additional 1,000 miles beyond the journey he would have completed had he taken the train. Interviewer: What about your carbon footprint? Jordon: I did look into that, and obviously there is an environmental impact with that. But both the flight and the train were quite full so they would have left without me anyway, so … it would have killed the environment anyway …

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But I did look into it and I found that by making a donation, er, to plant some trees or something, it would only would have cost me four pounds to make up the carbon footprint that I had used by going on the flight than it would the train. Narrator: Although not everybody would go to such lengths to save £7.72, Jordon’s blue-sky thinking enabled him to identify a compromise between time and money that, for him, made it all worthwhile. Jordon: I can’t put a price on that experience, and I’d definitely do that again.

Unit 6 Narrator: The Placebo Effect is a phenomenon in which a fake treatment, known as a placebo, can improve a patient’s condition despite having no medicinal qualities. These treatments, or placebos, can have an effect simply because the person believes that they will. Presenter Rachel Riley joins placebo expert Dr Jeremy Howick to see if they can prove whether the Placebo Effect really works. Jeremy: Squash players are known for their explosive power and fast-twitch muscles. And today, we’re going to see if we can’t improve their performance with this little red pill. Basically, the pill has no intrinsic physiological properties that will stimulate them. Rachel: Uh-huh. Jeremy: But, if – if we make them believe that it’s a powerful stimulant, their reaction times will increase. Rachel: So we’re gonna lie to them? Jeremy: Call it the power of positive suggestion. Narrator: For this experiment, a specially-designed machine is used to measure the reaction times of our squash players. Lights randomly appear and the athletes will have to hit as many as possible within thirty seconds. This first test is being conducted without a placebo. Machine: Ready? Go! Narrator: The players will then be tested a second time, after the placebo’s been administered. Another group of players will be doing the same tests without any placebo at all; they’re called a control group. The groups’ scores will then be compared to see if it’s had any effect. Machine: Time’s up! Rachel: Time’s up! Thirty seconds goes quickly. How can we tell that it’s actually the placebo rather than just experience that’s gonna improve their stats? Jeremy: What we want to see is whether these guys who get the placebo improve more than the improvement in the control group. Rachel: Okay, perfect. And now, time to sell it to them. Jeremy: This is Neuroset, the latest stimulant in sporting supplements. Neuroset is completely different and totally safe. We fully expect that Neuroset … make you react faster. Narrator: Each member of our group will be given two tablets as their placebo. Studies in the past have shown that people respond better when given more than one tablet. Interestingly, the bigger the tablet the better the results, and the colour can also have an effect: red being the most stimulating. Woman: With our elite group of squash players ready, it’s time to conduct the all-important second test. Machine: Go! … Time’s up! Rachel: Wow! Woman: With the experiment over, it’s time to see whether our squash players got significantly better results than the control group. If they did, it’ll prove the placebo worked.

Jeremy: So basically you all improved an average of 12.7%, on average, as a group. Whereas the control group who did not get Neuroset improved only 3.6%. You guys were 9.1% faster than the control group. Athlete: Excellent. Good. Rachel: Thanks so much to Dr Jeremy. He did a fabulous job. But he’s not been 100% above board because he is a doctor, but he is an expert in the effects of placebo, and what you’ve just taken isn’t a new performance-enhancing supplement, it’s actually a couple of Tic Tacs! So – did you feel the physical effects? Athlete: It definitely gave you a positive attitude going into the second test, thinking that you’d taken something that was gonna help your performance, so it worked well on me anyway. Narrator: These tests have shown us the Placebo Effect in action and taught us that things are not always what they appear to be!

Unit 7 Narrator: Language is spoken, heard, written, texted, emailed … and it’s changing all the time. New versions of language take shape and these changes can be a big subject for debate. Boy 1: S’happening man Boy 2: What are you sayin’ fam Girl 1: Safe, innit Boy 3: Yeh, innit Girl 2: Oh, sick, mate Boy 1: You’ sweet, you’ cool Boy 4: Cool, blood, what’re you sayin’ Narrator: This primary school in Middlesbrough has sent a letter to parents banning the use of certain words. The use of slang at home, they say, can lead to incorrect spelling at school. Similar initiatives have been carried out in primary and secondary schools across the UK. This has been the cause of a heated debate in the media. Former British education minister David Lammy supports the ban on slang. David: I think the schools banned it from the corridors and the classroom because what we want in London is young people emerging from our schools able to speak English. Narrator: To Lexicographer and slang expert Jonathan Green this makes no sense at all. Jonathan: When David Lammy says I – people should be speaking English, what on Earth does he think they are speaking? They are speaking English. These kids, these young people: A, they’re very creative, they create this slang and they create it very interestingly. And the other thing is there’s something called code switching. In other words, they know, they are not stupid, they know you use it in situation A, you do not use it in situation B. David: Of course they need versatility, all of us speak amongst our peers, sometimes in family home, in different ways but what we want is that versatility and a school absolutely should say, in the classroom, in corridors this is how we expect you to speak – Jonathan: I think like all forms of censorship, high and low, it will not work whether you believe in it or otherwise. Narrator: Even though some schools have decided to ban slang, some teachers defend its use. They believe adapting and inventing new words and phrases encourages teenagers’ creativity. Nicola: What they’ve gone and done is in order to give themselves a sense of identity, or individuality or whatever, they have created a new form of communication. Girl: Wagwan. Interviewer: Wagwan, what’s that mean? Girl: What are you doing? 181

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SWITCH ON VIDEOSCRIPTS Narrator: Wagwan, from Jamaican Patois, is one of many words and expressions adopted by some young people in London. This dialect has been defined by linguists as MLE – Multicultural London English – because of its African, Caribbean and Asian influences. Narrator: Korean student Billy has posted his interpretation of different dialects across the UK on his popular Youtube channel. Billy: This word looks a bit strange, right? ‘Mandem’ means ‘Mate’, and it usually means ‘Male friend’. ‘Mandem’ sometimes means ‘A group of friends’ as well. So when someone says like ‘Oi, mandem!’, that means this person is calling a friend. Narrator: Different slang terms work in different contexts, but using them correctly often comes naturally. Student: I suppose we do, um, you know, understand when we’re slipping in and out of different languages. Say … you know, we kind of switch off and on. So we’ll kind of have freedom of speech when we we’re with our friends, say at school or whatever. But if, um, a parent’s talking to us, no matter what tone they’ve got, your tone kind of changes, and your pronunciation changes and the words that you use change as well. Narrator: Even if children are taught to use the right words in the right situation, there are still great differences in the way people pronounce those words. Are certain accents more acceptable than others? Man: Tomorrah. Interviewer: Tomorrow. Man: Tomorrah. Interviewer: Tomorrow. Man: Tomorrah. Interviewer: It’s tomorrow. Man: Nah, it’s tomorrah.

Unit 8 Narrator: This is a typical Dolgan village, home to just two extended families. Here, in the coldest part of the Arctic, the only way to get water for nine months of the year is to melt ice from the frozen rivers. At least, there’s no problem preventing food from decay. Outside is one big deep freeze. Survival is only possible because of reindeer fur. It makes wonderfully warm clothing, though small children still have to be sewn into their clothes to prevent instant frostbite. The Dolgan even use reindeer fur to insulate their huts. This is living at its most communal. Good relations with the in-laws are essential. Reindeer are so valuable that the people only eat them if they have no other choice. Their favorite food is raw fish from the frozen rivers. Every week or so these families have to travel to find new feeding grounds for their herds. First, they round up their strongest animals with lassos – a skill that their ancestors brought with them when they came North from Central Asia. And then, literally, they move house. A whole Dolgan village can move on in just a few hours. Over the year they travel hundreds of miles like this, across the vast tundra. It was the herds of reindeer wandering over the lands of the Arctic that brought the first Dolgan here. Other people, however, took on an even greater challenge. They left the land and looked for their food out on the frozen sea. Here, in the shifting world of the sea ice, they found sea mammals.

Unit 9 Narrator: James Caan is a prominent recruitment entrepreneur in the UK. He has agreed to help Scott Bryan, a twenty-two-yearold university graduate from Alderholt, a small village in the UK. Scott studied politics at York University, graduated with good grades and had a part-time job at weekends. He decided to move to London, where he thought he would be more likely to find a job in social media. He has applied for many jobs but after several months he is still unemployed. In the UK, the number of people graduating has risen continuously for the past 30 years while only two out of three graduates were in highly skilled positions in 2016. James: What would be the job titles that you’re going for? Scott: Emm … Em … Em … James: Give me three job titles in social media. Scott: Three job titles in social media. I think … sort of … Three jobs in social media … I can only think of responsibilities rather than specific titles. James: The question is, if you don’t even know what the job titles are then how are you applying for jobs in that space? You’re a graduate, you’ve got a 2:1 degree, you’re a bright guy, you need to be presenting yourself to me as the best candidate for the job. Narrator: Scott has worked before. He has had several part-time and weekend jobs while he studied so James sets up a meeting for him with Personal Brand Coach Louise Mowbray, who will help him analyse his previous employers’ opinions on his attitude and performance. Louise: What we’ve done is we’ve filmed all the people that you’ve worked with before … Scott: Yeah. Okay. Yeah. Louise: So I’m now going to play you their feedback. Employer 1: OK Scott, where d’you begin? Erm, great fun to work with, really, really good sense of humour, really likeable. Employer 2: Enthusiasm, um, he was always very, very, very eager to do anything, uh, work-related that I offered up to him. Employer 3: Scott’s best qualities as far as I’m concerned are his enthusiasm, his intelligence … Employer 1: Scott was brilliant to work with but the main things I’d say would be probably more commitment, better timekeeping and time management and probably more focus on the job that he’s doing, because he was a bit sort of scattybrainy. Employer 2: Things I’d like to see slightly less of from Scott would be his casual appearance. Sometimes he would look a tiny bit unprofessional … Louise: What I’d like us to do is to take the things off the table that we can … Scott: Okay. Louise: … work on immediately, the things that are holding you back. Time-keeping … Scott: Yeah. Louise: … and looking more professional, being more professional … Narrator: Scott is quick to follow the advice he has received. Improving his appearance is a small step, but it puts him in the right frame of mind. He now feels more focused and ambitious and has managed to secure an internship in Central London, which will greatly improve his future job prospects.

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WORKBOOK ANSWER KEY UNIT 1 Reading 1 1cutting-edge 2facilitate 3pave 4advent 5current 6unnerving 7modifying 8flawed 2 The best description is 4. 3 1 C … how would you know which version of events to believe (para 1) links with You might trust your own memory over theirs (C) 2 E … it is only recently that investigations into examples of false memories and why we create them have begun (para 2) links with Before these studies, we only had access to unsubstantiated accounts of false memories. (E) 3 A … we end up rejecting ‘memories’ that we once believed to be true (para 3) links with we are persuaded that our memory was faulty (A) 4 D … One contributor recalls the following memory (para 4) links with This is just one of several examples in the collection (D) 5 G … Another reason for determining a false memory is often quite simply its implausibility (para 5) links with This is reinforced by one contributor’s explanation that he truly remembers flying when he was a child. (G) 6 F … it could be due to a psychological process in which our memories record events (para 5) links with Alternatively, it could be caused by a difficulty in being able to differentiate between the memory of something that physically happened and something that our minds created such as a dream (F) 4 1subjectively 2vividly 3cited 4reinforced 5implausibility 6contradict 7disconcerting 8reminisced

Grammar 1 1 Miranda didn’t use to spend a lot of time watching TV. (We didn’t have a TV) 2 Miranda’s parents had been writing books for a long time. (they had been writing all their lives) 3 Sally didn’t feel very alone after Beth had left home. (When Beth left home I didn’t really think about it, I felt fine I think.) 4 Sally’s parents warned her that she would miss her sister at first. (Mum and dad were great and they did tell me that I was going to feel a bit lonely for a while) 5 Lucas contrasted his parent’s culture with the British culture as he was growing up. (I think that as I was growing up I noticed the cultural difference more and more.) 2 1 were working 2 seemed 3 were 4 had left 5 had been sharing 6 used to talk / would talk / talked 7 moved 8 had been considering 9 were having 10 didn’t spoil / didn’t use to spoil 3 1 A used to write (Past habit) 2 B had hung up (Simon finished the call before his friend had time to talk about the concert.) 3 A didn’t always use to be (Past state. B is not possible because ‘would’ is used to talk about habits but not states; and cannot be used with stative verbs.)

4 C had eaten (Being sick was a consequence of having eaten too much beforehand. The past perfect situates the action before the simple past.) 5 C wasn’t talking (Refers to an activity in the past) 6 A used to be waiting (Refers to a past habit) 7 C had (This happened before I had time to tell her. Past perfect before simple past.) 8 B used to own (Past state) 4 1became 2hadn’t given 3were applying 4had had 5hadn’t crossed 6had been working

Vocabulary 1 1recall 2memories 3reminds 4jog 5memorising 6block out 2 1 C (before six = early childhood) 2 D (we just choose to forget = selective memory) 3 E (what my first teacher said = word for word) 4 A (smells = scent) 5 B (my brother = he) 3 1 selective memory (memory for some things and not others) 2 blocks out terrible memories (to forget something painful, upsetting) 3 jog his memory (try to remind him) 4 I realise it’s difficult for him (I understand it is difficult) 5 He always recognises people (he sees people and knows who they are) 6 remembers their names (and he knows their names) 7 He commits phone numbers to memory (he remembers phone numbers) 8 word for word (in exactly the same words) 9 I should memorise the important phone numbers (to commit to memory) 10 trigger memories (to cause me to remember) 4 1E 2C 3B 4D 5A

Listening 1 The correct answer is A. 2 Task 1 1 E As the class monitor at school, I was responsible for giving out the art materials. 2 G When I was at school, my teacher taught us an acronym to remember the order of the planets to help us prepare for a test. 3 C I took up memorising card tricks so I didn’t get bored on my own. 4 F I used to keep my focus while I was swimming up and down the pool by counting as high as I could. 5 A … , but I spent most of my childhood recovering from a minor brain injury after being in a car crash and for a time this was the only way that I could remember things. Task 2 6 B … my skill for memorisation means I assist the host and make sure they greet all of the attendees appropriately. 7 H I don’t need to spend as long studying dates and facts now that I have a system for remembering them. 8 A My friends live streamed it just so I could feel involved – it was a great feeling after being so lonely when I was younger. 9 E I lost five kilos and got so much fitter when I was preparing for the last competition. 10 C Now I give talks at universities about how to use this technique and I’ve even released a web series about it. 3 1D 2A 3B 4E 5F 6C 183

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WORKBOOK ANSWER KEY

Use of English 1 1 1addicted to 2embarrassed by 3concerned about 4inspired by 5amazed at 6scared of 7delighted with 8based on 2 1 B (to apologise for) 2 A (to be accomplished at) 3 B (to be concerned about) 4 C (to protect someone/something from) 5 A (to be remembered for) 6 B (to stop somebody from) 7 C (to be undecided about something) 8 A (to be known for something) 3 1 being (gerund after preposition) 2 not (expression; more often than not is the same as quite often) 3 make (collocation) 4 after (preposition showing order of events) 5 not (expression for suggestion) 6 of (phrasal verb) 7 If (zero conditional) 8 able (able to concentrate) 4 1alarmed at 2distressed by 3known for 4upset with 5overwhelmed by 6refrained from 7adept at 8committed to

Use of English 2 1 1reassuring 2descriptive 3substantially 4memorisation 5transferable 6advisory 7repeatedly 8recollection 2

repeat

description

repetitive descriptive

describable

describe

repeat

differ

memorisation different

memorably

memory

difference

differently

memorable

repeatedly

3 1description 2happiness 3 satisfaction 4detachment 5recollection 6anticipation 7particularly 8differently 4 verbs: restore, refresh adjective: accessible adverb: confidently 5 1 restore

restoration

restorable

x

2 refresh

refreshments

refreshing

refreshingly

3 access

accessibility

accessible

accessibly

4 confide

confidence

confident

confidently

Speaking 1 1putting 2point 3could 4more 5other 6exactly 2 1A 2D 3D 4A 5D 6A 3 1That’s an excellent way of putting it. 2I couldn’t agree more 3I agree up to a point 4 Comments 2, 3and 4are true. 5 Statement 4is true. 6 1F 2T 3T 4T 5T 6T 7 1view 2highlight 3add to that 4That’s a really good point 5leads us on to 6I didn’t mean 7Absolutely 8in earnest

Writing 1 1hilarious 2terrifying 3thrilling 4dreadful 5exceptional 6fast-moving 2 1electrifying 2dazzling 3breathtaking 4inspirational 5magnificent 6outstanding

3 1E 2C 3D 4A 5B 4 1T 2F 3T 4F 5F 5 1Yes 2 fast-moving, outstanding, electrifying 3 heroic, huge, enigmatic, intriguing, fascinating, powerful stunning, superb, threatening 6 1Student 2 2Student 3

Unit Check 1 1did you realise 2was trying 3had been running 4had drunk 5hadn’t been 6was staring 2 1used to 2didn’t use to 3would 4used to 5would 6would 3 1was waiting 2was reading 3had always assumed 4stated 5had been treating 6took 7tried 8had done 9didn’t realise 10was being 4 1by 2at 3to 4with 5from 6about 5 1remind 2recall 3memorise 4remembering, recognising 5realised 6remember 6 1blocking out 2committing 3trigger 4have 5keeping 7 1word for word 2vague memory 3committing 4refresh 5ear-worms 6out of your head

UNIT 2 Reading 1 1D 2E 3A 4F 5G 6I 7C 8J 9B 10H 2 1 mentions the temptation of limiting questions to a particular topic? 2 refers to an overconfidence in their abilities? 3 points out the difference between their idea and the reality of writing for quiz shows? 4 says that writing is a group effort? 5 mentions a previous intention to put minimal effort into the job? 6 cites the need to use different resources? 7 describes the difference between the show and the writing? 8 mentions the players in the studio and at home? 9 points out that a lot of general knowledge has already been tested? 10 mentions the importance of confirming the validity of facts? 3 1 D Having other people around you who can point out that you’ve written twenty questions about the same stretch of ocean stops you from producing a script with the same pattern of questions. 2 B I hadn’t expected to hit a wall so soon into the job and it was discouraging to discover that my supposedly endless pool of facts dried up so quickly. 3 A The truth? I couldn’t have been more wrong. 4 D For me, that team dynamic is important … 5 A I also hoped I’d have plenty of spare time to do some of my own writing during the day. 6 B Falling back on search engines may seem like the easy option, but the truth is you have to be smart. 7 D Even though the game show format is formulaic, we have to constantly remind ourselves that the questions can’t be! 8 A … for both the show participants and the armchair contestants at home to answer isn’t as simple as you think. 9 A … you have to think of questions that haven’t been asked before. 10 C … allowing an incorrect question to make it on air means immediate dismissal … 4 1saturated 2flipside 3tricky 4hit a wall 5gig 6off the ground 7tight-knit 8dismissal

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Grammar 1 1 C (Having the courage is the subject of the sentence) 2 D (time is a noun followed by the infinitive) 3 E (only to find show the result of what happens when people chase after money) 4 F (I was brought up is passive + the past participle) 5 G (to have made is using to have + the past participle for a past concept) 6 B (like is a verb which can be followed by the infinitive or the gerund and the meaning changes) 7 A (the verb manage is always followed by the infinitive) 2 1 Create (goals) 2 to succeed (infinitive with to after verb want) 3 to get (aim + infinitive) 4 learning (stop + infinitive or -ing form depending on meaning of sentence; the -ing form means to carry on doing something ) 3 1 to understand (struggle + infinitive) 2 reading/to read (try + -ing or infinitive with to means a recommendation to try/test something) 3 to enable (promise + infinitive with to) 4 copying (like + -ing or infinitive with to; like + -ing means to enjoy doing an activity) 5 to follow (need + infinitive with to) 6 to throw (dare + someone + infinitive with to) 7 doing (love + -ing or infinitive with to; love + -ing means to enjoy doing an activity) 8 to identify (endeavour + infinitive with to) 4 1 imagine being able (imagine + -ing form) 2 recall having given you (recall + -ing form) 3 correct 4 appear to be finished (appear + infinitive with to) 5 correct 6 denied having eaten (deny + -ing form) 7 voted to go (vote + infinitive with to) 8 endeavour to try harder (endeavour + infinitive with to)

Vocabulary 1 1futile attempts ​2lukewarm response ​3vast majority ​ 4unprecedented success ​5dismal failure ​ 6formidable challenges ​7impressive accomplishment ​ 8burning ambition 2 1cut their losses ​2back to square one ​ 3stay on top of the game ​4think big ​5win win ​ 6get the better of ​7if all else fails ​8getting there 3 1D ​ 2C ​ 3B ​ 4E ​ 5F ​ 6A

7 an honour … as the first female CEO of a well-respected data security firm whose innovative solutions are trusted around the world – for me I’d say it’s an honour. 8 strength … , but the message I want you to take away from this talk is that we need setbacks to give us the strength to achieve what we really want. 3 1resonated ​ 2dig deeper ​3hunched over ​4flaw ​ 5knock-back ​ 6adversity ​ 7cliché ​ 8setbacks ​ 9braving the elements ​10visualise Time out 4 1 F ​2 C ​3 D ​4 A ​5 B ​6 E

Use of English 1 1 1 other (the usual type) 2 more (something superior) 3 not enough (insufficient) 4 less than (not adequate enough) 5 the whole (the entire picture) 6 half of (over half the amount) 7 little (not very much) 8 no (no interest; no + noun) 9 all of (referring to the issues mentioned) 10 several (quantifying the amount of issues they choose from) Every (individual students) 11 12 most (identifying the thing which is of highest importance) 2 1 few (negative statement; a few would be positive) 2 m ost (nearly all) 3 s everal (positive statement, more than a few options) 4 t oo few (not enough) 5 a ll (not all) 6 little (negative statement; a little would be positive) 7 p lenty of (lots of, talking about the benefits of work placements) few (positive statement; talking about benefits) 8 a 3 1 as (comparative statement) 2 off (talking about opposites; on or off the field) 3 without (expression: it goes without saying, meaning it is obvious) 4 so (so is mental training; mental training is also crucial.) 5 of (consists of; dependent preposition) 6 able (able to + verb anticipate) 7 how (in what way) 8 doing (doing so substitutes understand and manage emotions)

Listening 1 1a noun ​2an adjective ​3a noun ​4a noun ​ 5a noun / noun phrase ​6a noun / noun phrase ​ 7an adjective ​8a noun 2 1 public recognition … what does success sound like to you? … to me, its the public recognition that comes with sporting achievement 2 devastated I tried to be optimistic even though I was devastated. 3 rest indoors I struggled the most with being forced to restindoors … 4 determination … so I just needed to redirect my determination. 5 comfort zone … being out of my comfort zone has only pushed me harder. 6 self-belief … its my self-belief that’s been vital in helping get me here.

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WORKBOOK ANSWER KEY

Use of English 2 1 It is possible to add ‘very’ before the adjective in bold in these sentences: 2 (They must have been very desperate to have considered committing a crime.) 6 (Everyone was very surprised when the teacher left in the middle of the term.) 7 (Despite being very popular among his work colleagues…) 2 1obvious 2ridiculous 3exaggerated 4enjoyable 5plausible 6believed 7disappointed 8limited 3 1A 2D 3D 4A 5B 6B 7C 8B 4 1wholly 2virtually 3entirely 4dreadfully 5expressly 6reasonably

Speaking 1 1 talk about 2pictures 2 talking about things that are similar and / or different 3 when the interlocutor stops you 2 11✓ 2✗ 3✗ 4✗ 5✓ 3 1 although, different 2 whereas 3 major, however, more 4 similar, both, However 5 Although 6 that, whereas 4 Extract 6(It speaks about all three pictures but the task asks for comparison between only two.)

Writing 1 1 C (because of the use of surely) 2 D (uses contractions and the colloquialism the sooner the better) 3 D (gives an opinion) 4 A (quotes a figure) 5 B (because indicates an explanation) 2 1 F (it should be formal or semi-formal) 2 F (only two) 3T 4 F (only if you wish to, and not all three) 5T 6 F (this is for FCE) 3 1 nearly everyone’s life / most people’s life 2 probably 3 can prepare 4 Nearly all of us / Most people / Most of us 5 would say 6 nearly always / most often / usually 4 1B 2C 3A 4C 5B 5 Model answer A quick glance at any TV guide will reveal a high number of TV talent shows across the channels. These are popular viewing, but it is debateable what benefits they actually bring to the contestants themselves. Even winners of the series may have one moment of glory and then seemingly disappear from sight. Clearly one major benefit to any aspiring performer is the immediate access to a national, or even in some cases, a global stage. Millions of people watch their performances and the audience may include producers or agents who could help further a career. Another point, perhaps more contentious, is that contestants need to cope with a fairly high level of stress. For many of them, it can be a relentless sequence of learning new routines and trying to produce near perfect performances to vast live audiences on a regular basis. The pressure is significant and can

affect some contestants badly. Others, however, thrive under the pressure and it can be good preparation for working in a notoriously insecure industry. In general, I feel that perhaps the more important benefit is the once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to reach a wide audience. There are many performers who could well achieve great success if only more people were aware of their talent. Shows like these give people a chance, and if they fail, then at least they can be reassured that they have tried or that perhaps this path was not quite right for them.

Unit Check 1 1playing 2wanting 3to take 4having 5to tell 6to do, playing 2 1talking 2take 3to calm 4to socialise 5staying out 6to eat 7to drink 8having 9to feel 3 1none 2little 3any 4all 5the whole 4 1eternal 2colossal 3formidable 4square 5cut 6there 5 1unprecedented growth 2vast number 3resounding success 4impressive accomplishment 5burning ambition 6futile attempts 7dismal failure 8get the better of you

UNIT 3 Reading 1 1A 2A 3B 4B 5A 6B 7A 8A 2 1 In the first paragraph, the writer says that A the additional elements of the Angela’s collection were well hidden. B the audience was impressed with how waterproof the jacket was. C initially, there was nothing to differentiate the jacket from other people’s. D Angela had previously claimed to be inspired by the weather. 2 In the second paragraph, the writer implies that A Angela had specific instructions from the art school. B The art school took credit for Angela’s collection. C Angela’s collection interprets the school’s policy. D Angela had to get permission from the school’s policy makers. 3 In line 36 centre-piece in refers to A the overcoat. B the reflective jacket. C the sleeping bag coat. D the tent jacket. 4 In the third paragraph, the writer says that Angela A uses only recycled materials. B throws hardly any material away. C gives her unused material to others. D uses mass-produced materials. 5 In the fourth paragraph the writer implies that making something the fashion industry likes A is a benefit. B is an achievement. C is profitable. D isn’t important. 6 In line 55 closer to home suggests that A the writer is from the USA. B the writer lives close to Angela Luna. C the writer is writing from a foreign country. D the writer is visiting the USA.

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3 1 A What I wasn’t expecting was for the art graduate to remove the coat from the model and make it into a tent right there on the catwalk. 2 C … embodies her art school’s commitment to using design for social good. 3 D to help keep homeless people warm and safe from the bitter winter nights on the streets in a tent jacket 4 A … sourcing pieces from sustainable and repurposed materials … 5 B … the notoriously hard-to-impress fashion industry … 6 A … such as in New York City, where the collection was designed … 4 1needs ​ 2begins ​ 3isn’t ​ 4purpose ​ 5has ​ 6well-known ​ 7any ​ 8isn’t ​ 9progressing ​ 10requires

Grammar 1 1D ​ 2B ​ 3E ​ 4A ​ 5C 2 1like ​ 2as ​ 3as ​ 4alike ​ 5like 3 1As (as something goes is an expression which is used before making a comparison of something with the subject mentioned.) 2 the most (superlative as saying the best of all to date) 3 as (as a team) 4 like (similar to) 5 much more (comparing two different situations) 6 such as (for example) 7 like (for example) 8 far (easily the most) 9 alike (in a similar or the same way) 10 the wider (comparative statement: the wider they can use this method, the more money they can collect) 4 1much more creative ways ​ 2look no further than ​3as a way to help ​ 4more impressive idea ​5faster this happens 6 1 haven’t developed 2 doesn’t have to train 3 want to give 4 Not everybody carries cash

Vocabulary 1 1 transformed (very much changed person) 2 modify (make some alterations to) 3 re-vamp (make drastic changes to) 4 adapt (change slightly) 5 made (make a sacrifice; collocation) 6 adjusting (changing the amount slightly) 7 turning (evolving into; phrasal verb) 8 turns (do a good turn; expression) 2 Leon Logothetis has made done a lot of good for people by doing making a difference to a lot of people’s lives and at times even moving turning them around. The former stockbroker has travelled the globe on a vintage yellow motorbike giving people a helping hand and generally making doing acts of kindness. Leon believes that kindness doesn’t have to be materialistic and that doing giving a hug, giving praise or saying paying a compliment are acts of kindness than can make a difference. Leon says that kindness is about showing people that they matter and that we can do this by simply making doing someone a favour and making someone’s day a little bithappier.

3 1made ​ 2did ​ 3Make ​ 4make ​ 5make ​ 6do 4 1 I did a double take (gap 2) 2 to make amends (gap 5) 3 made an exception for me (gap 1) 4 make the best of the rest of the day (gap 3) 5 make a mockery of my baking skills (gap 4) 6 let me do my own thing (gap 6)

Listening 1 1 Why did Carol set up Community Kitchen? 2 How does Carol feel about asking people to pay for the meals? 3 What does Jason like most about his job? 4 How does Jason feel about being an outreach worker? 5 What do Jason and Carol both think about the future of the project? 6 How does Carol feel about the families who have meals at the community kitchen? 2 1 A … so many people were left without enough money to buy proper food for their families. 2 D We still have to charge in order to keep the project going … 3 D Working on a project and seeing it come to life is definitely the best part of my job. 4 C I get a great sense of pride in seeing the achievements that the young people we work with make. 5 B One of the fantastic things about this project is its sustainability. (Jason) I agree – we are able to buy ingredients from the money charged for each meal and we have recently started making a small profit, too. (Carol) 6 B I think it’s important for families to spend mealtimes bonding and talking about their day. 3 1D ​ 2 B ​3 G ​4 E ​5 H ​6 C ​7 A ​8 F 4 1rewarding ​ 2engaged ​ 3empower ​ 4insight ​ 5liaising ​ 6touches on

Use of English 1 1 1helping ​ 2have allowed ​3let ​ 4were allowed ​5made ​ 6getting ​ 7made ​ 8having 2made ​ 3let ​ 4made ​ 5allowed ​ 6getting 2 1helped ​ 3 1let ​ 2get ​ 3made ​ 4have ​ 5allows 4 1 Generation Z are reported to be more entrepreneurial than the Millennials. 2 Teachers predict that young people’s use of social media will result in problems unless it is closely monitored by their parents. 3 The teacher told the students that they would all benefit from some careers advice. 4 My brother advised me not to let my students make the same mistakes we made. 5 The number of successful, young entrepreneurs today is the highest (that) it has ever been according to a recent report. 6 Students got their papers re-marked after complaining about the marking scheme.

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WORKBOOK ANSWER KEY

Use of English 2 1 -ary

literary

-ive

instructive destructive

-al

autumnal global

-able

negotiable

-ous

courageous humorous

-ible

reversible edible

2 1reversible 2negotiable 3global 4literary 5destructive 6edible 7instructive 8courageous 3 1numerous 2explanation 3effectively 4beneficial 5indecisive 6deprioritisation 7advantageous 8consciously 4 1C 2B 3B 4A 5B 6C

Speaking 1 1T 2T 3T 4 F (It is not necessary to make a decision within the time limit, only to be working towards one.) 5 F (It is perfectly fine to agree to disagree, no consensus is required, only attempts at persuasion and/or reasoning behind a candidate’s point of view.) 2 1 and that’s because … 2 the main reason I say that is because … 3 my point is that if … 4 well for a start … 5 a good example is … 6 you’ve just got to look at what happens if … 7 what we’ve got to remember is that … 8 if you think about it … 3 1 main reason I say that 2 just got to look at what happens if 3 you think about it 4 point is 5 a start 6 good example is 4 1 main reason I say that 2 just got to look at what happens if 3 you think about it 4 point is 5 a start 6 good example is 5 1C 2A 3B

Writing 1 1 F (because there may be a more formal task, e.g. letter of complaint / application) 2T 3T 4 F (because the opening and closing should be the same in both) 5T 2 A3 B1 C4 D5 E2 3 1case 2worth 3incorrect 4insist 5consider 6discover

4 1 I feel that I must write (to you) because … 2 I appreciate that you have to give both sides of the question, but … 3 I think you should / ought to retract your statement. 4 If you could print an apology that would be …. 5 I think you may be mistaken. 6 I have a different point of view. 5 Points 1, 4 and 5 6 Model answer Dear Editor After reading the article on your website today regarding the influence of the media and celebrity role models on the decisions young people make, I am writing to correct some of your mistaken assumptions. The main problem with your article, in my view, is that the writer is over-generalising. Whereas I agree that some young people may be negatively influenced by what is shown in the media and celebrity lifestyle choices, I must point out that this is definitely not the case for all of us. While I admire certain celebrities for their talent, neither I – nor any of my friends – would consider copying their decisions. I would hope that we appreciate the difference between their worlds and our own and realise that we need to consider what is right for us in completely unique circ*mstances. In addition to this, I think it is worth mentioning that the media clearly has an influence on everyone; we all watch the news and our opinions (which also inform our choices) are inevitably based on what we learn. This is a truth that is impossible to ignore. However, to single out my generation as being particularly affected by this is, as far as I am concerned, completely unfair and patronising. I was quite shocked to read the article and I really feel that you should address the unfairness by writing another piece. The topic of influences and how they affect our decisions is interesting and deserves a much more balanced approach. Yours

Unit Check 1 1much more likely 2than 3alike 4as 5better 6more 7as far as 8most 9like 10as 2 1worse 2best 3most challenging 4not as prepared as 5healthier 6better 3 1get 2had 3make 4let 5getting 6allowed 7forced 8help 4 1revamp 2transformed 3amend 4adapt 5altered 6evolving 7modify 8donate 5 1make 2turn 3make 4give 5do, pay 6give 6 1make 2doing 3do 4make 5make 6make 7make 8do

USE OF ENGLISH UNITS 1–3 Part 1 1 A (completely change because you exchange one life for another) 2 B (a selective memory is one which remembers certain parts, usually the best parts, and forgets the rest) 3 D (similar to remember) 4 C (turn something around is to change something completely) 5 B (burning ambition is a collocation) 6 A (resounding success is a collocation) 7 D (dismal failure is a collocation) 8 B (cut (their) losses is an expression meaning to abandon a course of action because it is going wrong)

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Part 2 9 addicted to (dependent preposition) 10 how harmful (inversion) 11 had been doing (past perfect) 12 on the increase (phrase meaning to be growing) 13 as a way (preposition; as a means in the manner of) 14 cut down on (phrasal verb meaning to reduce the amount of something) 15 concerned about (dependent preposition) 16 don’t let (let means allow/permit; allow and permit would both be followed by infinitive with to) Part 3 19necessarily  ​20unsustainable  ​ 17dissatisfied ​18negatively ​ 21dramatic  ​22adjustments ​23significant ​24impulsively Part 4 25 block (out) the memory 26 was (extremely) embarrassed by 27 only to find that 28 advised us not to eat 29 to put into becoming 30 ended up with / ended up getting

UNIT 4 Reading 1 1spot on ​2norms ​ 3stance ​ 4purport ​ 5ushering ​ 6pretentiousness ​ 7diehards ​ 8disdain 2 1 D (Eva) I do think that the documentary got one thing right; you are more likely to see someone wearing the same thing as you because of this. (Adam) links with Although we may share music preferences or fashion choices, that’s really down to passing trends (Eva) 2 B (Helena) as it was implied that we were being pushed around online at the command of large companies (Helena) links with not because we are manipulated to do so by some rogue computer programmers or power-hunger corporations (Eva) 3 A (Luke) Instead of a thought-provoking documentary, it was just another ninety minutes of depressing speculation (Helena) links with the doom and gloom it spreads about how things might be in years to come. (Luke) 4 A (Luke) I didn’t like the condescending attitude of the documentary. (Luke) contrasts with I found it lighthearted and verging on amusing (Helena), presented in an accessible manner, without being overly intense (Adam) and It goes without saying that the overriding feel of the documentary was tongue in cheek, quite funny really (Eva) 3 1scrapped ​ 2condescending ​ 3narrow-minded ​ 4retail ​ 5tailor ​ 6doom and gloom ​7shift ​ 8manipulated

Grammar 1 1A ​ 2B ​ 3D ​ 4C ​ 5E 2 1 A I look forward to hearing from you. Correct B I look forward to hear from you. Incorrect (after to need gerund) 2 A I’m loving this dress. It’s so you! Correct (colloquial use of a stative verb) B I love this dress. It’s so you! Correct 3 A I’m depending on you to help me revise for this exam. Correct B I depend on you to help me revise for this exam. Incorrect (because it is a temporary situation)

4 A The woman walks in wearing pyjamas and the other shopper look on aghast. Correct (used for dramatic sequence) B The woman walks in wearing pyjamas and the other shopper looked on aghast. Incorrect (mix of tenses) 5 A I’m thinking white walls, minimalist furniture and bold colours for this room. Correct (colloquial use of a stative verb) B I think white walls, minimalist furniture and bold colours for this room. Correct 6 A Is this bill including the wine and deserts? Incorrect B Does this bill include the wine and deserts? Correct 3 1C ​ 2D ​ 3A ​ 4F ​ 5B ​ 6E 4 1lead ​ 2find ​ 3complaining ​ 4shakes ​ 5leaves ​ 6portraying ​ 7wearing ​ 8get ​ 9begin ​ 10thinking

Vocabulary 1 1pleated ​ 2flared ​ 3skimpy ​ 4ripped ​ 5loud ​ 6bootcut ​ 7embroidered ​ 8five-inch ​ 9shabby ​ 10designer 2 1 consistent (not contradicting my beliefs; compliant is incorrect because it means obeying rules) 2 individuality (expressing our character; individualism is incorrect because it is the collective noun for a group of people) 3 indistinguishable (they all appear the same; incomparable is incorrect because it means that something is so good that it is unparalleled) 4 spitting (spitting image is an expression meaning exactly the same) 5 equivalent (the same as; equal to has the same meaning, but is used when making more specific comparison of size orquantity) 6 carbon (carbon copies is an expression meaning identical) 3 1E ​ 2B ​ 3D ​ 4A ​ 5F ​ 6C 5 1 F … a student from the faculty of Ecology and Marine Conservation. 2 T For me it’s something creative and I get a lot of enjoyment from it. 3 F I never take any interest in high street fashion. 4 T To be honest there are so many other areas which are worthy of our attention. Just look around you – politics, science, the arts … 5 T Also it’s so ephemeral, what is fashionable now will be forgotten very soon. 6 F I feel sorry for fashion victims at times because I think that they are just being brainwashed by the media to think a certain way. 6 1synonymous ​ 2fit ​ 3anonymity ​ 4stood ​ 5rebellious ​ 6uproar ​ 7far ​ 8difference ​ 9wavelength ​ 10take

Listening 1 Extract 1 1 Why does the woman mention the court case in the USA? A to provide evidence for the link between names and confidence B to clarify her feelings about names and personality traits C to explain a commonly held belief about names and achievements 2 What do they both think about the process of choosing a name? A It should involve more people than just the parents. B It is a decision that shouldn’t be made under pressure. C Its importance is often underestimated.

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WORKBOOK ANSWER KEY Extract 2 3 How does the student feel about having to bring up this topic with the teacher? A determined to be treated fairly B uncomfortable about bringing the topic up C frustrated that nobody is listening to him 4 Why doesn’t he want to use an English name? A It’s too difficult for him to pronounce. B It doesn’t reflect his personality. C It still wouldn’t help him fit in with the other students. Extract 3 5 How did the man feel about his own name when he was younger? A embarrassed that it was unusual B lucky that people remembered it C difficult to explain to people 6 What advice does the man give about choosing a name to work under? A Check that it hasn’t been used before. B Make sure it isn’t too unusual. C Think carefully about the spelling. 2 Extract 1 1 A If we feel negatively about our name, we can transfer those feelings to our sense of self. Take a recent court case in the USA of a boy … 2 C … choosing a name for a baby is a huge responsibility and I’m sure most people don’t even realise it … Extract 2 3 B I don’t want to make too much of a fuss and I’d rather not have to mention this … 4 B … I feel like I’d be losing my sense of identity and my heritage if I adopted an English-sounding name. Extract 3 5 A I used to resent having such an obscure name when I wasyounger … 6 B … you can come up with something unique, but still retain your identity. 3 1B 2A 3A 4B 5B 6A 7B 8A

Use of English 1 1 1 in doing so (so is a substitute for a verb phrase) 2 If you have any (any is a substitute for a noun) 3 Women cry, and men do too. (too is a substitute for a verb phrase) 4 Do you think so? (think so is a substitute for a verb phrase) 5 describe each one (each one is a substitute for a noun) 6 exotic ones (ones is a substitute for a noun) 2 1 a single decision! any 2 of the alternatives ones 3 making decisions doing so 4 decision one 5 also suffered from indecision did too 6 I am also indecisive am too 7 I never know which dish to pick either neither do I 8 that I am indecisive so 3 1 not (you don’t have a problem) 2 any (you don’t have any information) 3 if so (if you do have all the facts) 4 one (best alternative = singular) 5 doing so (eliminating the alternatives) 6 If not (if you don’t act quickly) 4 1 I enrolled for a course in psychology and my sister did too. 2 I am very bad at making decision and so is my brother. 3 Jon and I can’t agree and neither of us wants to admit we are wrong. 4 If I finish the book in time I’ll lend it to you. If not, I’ll send it to you by post.

5 I made a decision about the colour of the paint, but I’m not sure that it was the right one. 6 I’m certain I heard Pam come in, but I think so. 5 1 with 2 of 3 so (rightly so is expressing strong agreement) 4 them (the brains) 5 with (familiar with the gender stereotyping) 6 same (same wavelength means thinking the same thing, being in agreement) 7 nor (neither … nor; negative comparison) 8 any (any more than; comparative)

Use of English 2 1 2 3 4

1read 2away 3round 4stand 5about 6live A3 B 6 C 4 D 1 E 2 F 5 1run 2catch 3come 4away 5put 6read 1 B (correct collocation with down) 2 D (correct collocation to form phrasal verb) 3 A (correct collocation to form phrasal verb) 4 B (correct particle for collocation) 5 D (correct adverb) 6 A (correct meaning) 7 B (correct meaning) 8 C (correct collocation with together) 5 1get out of 2run out of 3catch up with 4put up with 5do away with 6come up with

Speaking 1 Pieces of advice 3 and 4 are correct. 2 1C 2D 3B 4E 5A 3 1 There are several ways to come at this question. 2 That’s something I haven’t considered before. 3 Would you mind repeating that please? 4 Well, there is no one answer to that. 5 I’m so sorry – did you say that people think it’s … 6 A2 B1 C3

Writing 1 A 2 (global / worldwide – international) B 1 (learn what happens – see what’s going on) C 3 (people from other countries who visit – people … take their cultures with them) 2 Points 1 and 2 are addressed. Point 1 is considered the more important (influence of the internet) 3 1 B People get ideas from what they learn happens or is popular in other countries (link between ideas and choices) 2 A We can buy the same items from global retail stores worldwide (link between items and clothes)

Unit Check 1 1’m thinking 2press 3love 4Am I wearing 5Am I projecting 6is always telling 7having 8Is looking 2 1so 2doing so 3any 4not 5did too 6ones 3 1one 2any 3did 4ones 5so 6not 4 1skimpy shorts 2embroidered shirt 3flared jeans 4scruffy hair 5bootcut trousers 6pleated skirt 7five-inch heels 8loud pattern 5 1wavelength 2spitting image 3indistinguishable 4individuality 5equivalent to 6rebellious 7world of difference 8cause an uproar 6 1far 2carbon 3consistent 4with 5out 6to

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UNIT 5 Reading 1 1initial ​ 2spouses ​ 3prospective ​ 4buy into ​5generated ​ 6defining 3 1 D … the most forward-thinking brands are relying on the simplest, most traditional form of advertising: wordof-mouth (para 1) links with So, why this return to the promotional basics? (para D) 2 G Influencers have to believe in their own potential to sell a product or a brand. (para G) links with Celine Leroy, a fashion and lifestyle blogger, claims to only accept offers from companies whose products have something to do with her brand identity (para 2) 3 F On the other hand, I turned down some lucrative offers to advertise products because they had nothing to with what I stand for (para 2) links with Many influencers will readily turn down an offer that doesn’t fit with their ideology, even if it means rejecting a large fee. (para F) 4 B However, the freedom to choose what they will endorse results in a level of authenticity (para B) links with In addition to freedom over who they work with, most influencers prefer to have freedom over how they work. (para 4) 5 E … those tools were enough to enable them to become powerful marketing force (para 4) links with One such successful blogger is Daniella Barbosa … (para E) 6 A … building a relationship with someone with fewer followers could bring bigger returns in the long run (para 5) links with Even if an influencer’s audience never grows above the tens of thousands (para A) 2authentic ​ 3lucrative ​ 4engaged ​ 4 1bidding ​ 5in the long run ​6be indicative of ​7exploit ​ 8endorse

Grammar 1 1B ​ 2D ​ 3F ​ 4G ​ 5A ​ 6C ​ 7E 2B ​ 3A ​ 4B ​ 5C 2 1A ​ 3 1 The company was about to invest in artificial intelligence. 2 We knew that mobile technology would have a massive impact on society. 3 By 2030 big data will have become key to a company’s success. 4 I’m to take a course in advanced robotics next month. 5 By September I will have been working here for five years. 6 Online banking will be used by everyone very soon. 4 1would ​ 2will ​ 3are going to be living ​4will have created ​ 5will be spending ​6will be

Vocabulary 1 Down 1 consume 2 collect Across 3 hoard 4 accumulate 5 acquire 2 1 I could have gone mad in that shop. It was so me, I could have bought up the shop. 2 My mum is a bit low so I’m going to splash out and buy her something nice. 3 I’d love some new clothes but I’ll have to go without until I get my allowance. (without) 4 I’m going for the minimalist look and I’ll throw away anything that clutters up my flat. 5 Those jeans don’t fit anymore but I’ll hang onto them in case I lose some weight. 6 I love a bargain and I never pass up the opportunity to go sales shopping.

3 1C ​ 2B ​ 3E ​ 4F ​ 5D ​ 6A 5 1 Because it’s pricey/expensive. 2 A Persian style rug. 3 Glamping. Glamorous camping. 4 Her grandparents 60th wedding anniversary. 5 On the terrace. 6 No, she hasn’t. 3hanging onto ​4sentimental value ​ 6 1go without ​2hoard ​ 5easy prey ​6insatiable desire ​7buy up ​8a soft touch

Listening 1 Task 1 A encouragement from friends and family B reassessing priorities C experience living abroad D listening to an expert E raising money for charity F meeting people with the same problems G talking with a foreign friend H getting advice from peers Task 2 A don’t overreact to embarrassing situations B don’t shut out the people around you C don’t get too comfortable D don’t expect to still have a social life E don’t worry too much about mistakes F don’t accept every piece of advice you’re given G don’t lose your enthusiasm H don’t listen to your careers department’s advice 2 Task 1 1 F … until I started interning at the French consulate and heard stories from kids who were struggling kids like I’d been. 2 B … I drove past the remains of a roadside accident. It seemed like a sign … 3 A … my mates convinced me to keep going. 4 D It wasn’t until I travelled to South Africa to listen to a talk by an industry leader that I realised that I was holding myself back. 5 H Going to a networking event for entrepreneurs with similar business models helped me move forward. Task 2 6 C That fear definitely pushed me harder. 7 F … trust your own intuition and what you are trying to achieve. 8 B … it’s essential not to lose sight of other aspects of your life. 9 E L earning to embrace your mistakes is an important skill for any entrepreneur. 10 G … so it’s important not to lose your passion for your idea … 3 1on the backburner ​2prototype ​ 3seek out ​4intuition ​ 5cliché ​ 6embrace ​ 7retreat ​ 8overwhelmed Time out 1 R (£150,000 start-up capital invested by Dragons) ​2 F 3 R (£75,000 start-up capital invested by Dragons) ​ 4 R (£0 start-up capital invested by Dragons – but the company is now valued at millions) ​5 F ​6 R (£50,000 start-up capital invested by Dragons)

Use of English 1 1 1examine ​ 2investigate ​ 3taking ​ 4have ​ 5establish ​ 6impose 2 1about ​ 2with ​ 3of ​ 4of ​ 5to ​ 6on 3 1impose ​ 2made ​ 3examine ​ 4play ​ 5provided ​ 6create ​ 7has ​ 8Take

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WORKBOOK ANSWER KEY 41 2 3 4 5 6

themselves (reflexive pronoun referring to the street markets) to (correct collocation; rise to the challenge) than (comparative construction; more creative than before) for (dependent preposition; opportunities for) by (dependent preposition; run by) or (conjunction to connect two choice; either a trader or a performer) 7 from (when talking about a wide range of things in a list, to emphasise the variety we use the construction; from x through to y) 8 on (dependent preposition; impact on)

Use of English 2 1 1turnover 2cover-up 3intake 4fallout 5setbacks 6crackdown 2 1C 2E 3H 4A 5F 6D 7B 8G 3 1D 2D 3S 4D 5D 6S 7D 8D

Speaking 1 4 choose two out of three pictures to talk about ✓ 7 use words and phrases to talk about what is similar and different about the pictures ✓ 2 B is correct (A is incorrect because the questions are printed on the photo sheet; B is correct because the questions will ask for speculation of some type and direct description takes too much time and is not what is asked for.) 3 1highly 2pure 3all 4faint 5may 6gather 7right 8well 9would 10likelihood 4 1Pictures A and B (the students in the classroom and the one where the children are playing shops) 2 B and C Thinking about the usefulness or effectiveness of the two methods, it’s hard to say / When it comes to how they’re feeling, it’s highly likely … 5 1 It’s highly likely that … ✓ 7 I think I’m right in saying that … ✓ 8 It could well be that … ✓ 9 I would say that … ✓

Writing 11 2 3 4 5

F (should be formal as it is for someone in authority) T T T F (it needs to be divided into sections with headings for clarity and to guide the reader) 6T 7 F (a direct complaint would be too personal) 8T 2 1(direct) and 2(too informal) 3 4 sections (aim / description / evaluation of outcomes / recommendations) 5 1purpose 2outlines 3indicate 4consider 5might 6to sum up 7recommend 8by doing this

Unit Check 1 1will/‘ll be staying 2will have known 3to attend 4will/‘ll have been going 5will see 6closes 7will/‘ll be flying 8will/‘ll have been living 9starts 10will notice 2 1would 2was 3was about to 4will have been looking 5will have seen 6am to see 7will be 8‘ll be having 3 1attitude to 2flooded with 3evidence of 4information about 5based on 6causes of 7dissatisfaction with 8relationship with

4 1accumulated 2hoard 3acquired 4sentimental 5prey 6soft 7hard 8down 9collect 10consume 5 1hanging onto 2clutter up 3pass up 4splashed out 5bought up 6go without

UNIT 6 Reading 1 1D 2G 3B 4C 5E 6H 7A 8F 2 1 T They make more sense on the stage than on the big screen; and in this case, an adaptation into a mini television series is most appropriate. 2 T How the screenwriter interprets a character’s personality, reactions and even physical appearance is likely to differ from an individual reader’s interpretation 3 T A film version of a popular book… is more often than not followed by an outcry that it is different from the book. 4 F Reimagining a book as another form of media is a complicated process … 3 1 B There is perhaps nothing more personal and difficult to define than a reader’s relationship with a story; writing possesses a special power … 2 B Ultimately, an adaptation of a story deserves to be treated as such 3 C A film version of a popular book usually generates huge amounts of publicity in the lead up to its release and is more often than not followed by an outcry that is different from the book 4 A The lack of a rating system for books means that authors can put characters in a variety of situations that would not be permitted on screen 5 A Books with more narrated scenes are more suited to adaptations for the theatre 6 D … the nature of television series allows the inclusion of side stories that help piece together the story naturally, as in the original source material 4 1 musings (personal considerations you say aloud) 2 tedious (very boring) 3 staple of (something that is used all the time) 4 on its own merits (based on what you see not on what you already know about it) 5 evoke (to produce very strong feelings) 6 piece together (to join all the parts) 7 overcome (to control something that could stop you achieving something else) 8 condense (to reduce significantly into something smaller)

Grammar 1 1B 2F 3D 4A 5C 6E 2 1hadn’t put 2hadn’t had 3would you do 4didn’t like 5would have turned out 6had had 7wouldn’t know 8didn’t happen 3 1 If it isn’t wasn’t for my brother, I would never have met my best friend. 2 If you didn’t tell hadn’t told me, I would never have remembered it was his birthday. 3 If I knew had known you hated cheese, I wouldn’t have put it on the pizza. 4 But for your help, I would have never had taken such a good photo. 5 Supposing you failed the exam, will would you re-take it? 6 If only I have had enough money, I would go on holiday with my friends to Greece.

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4 1read ​ 2would have used ​3had had ​4have had  5will get ​6smile ​ 7would love ​8need 9been able  ​10had read

1 Across 1 delusion ​ 3fallacy ​ 5dreams ​ 8hallucinations  1 ​ 0fantasy Down 2 imagination ​ 4illusion ​ 6realism  ​7reality  ​9image 2 1in ​ 2on ​ 3out ​ 4up ​ 5on ​ 6for 3 1go to great lengths ​2give us the impression ​ 3fallacy ​ 4delusion ​ 5get into character ​6semblance ​ 7put on a brave face ​8through and through

5 B I grew up in the countryside having adventures in the woods fighting battles with sticks and making friends with the people who lived in the river (Melanie) I see a difference in … the games that we used to play when we were younger (Patrick) 6 B It makes me uncomfortable to think that a generation might miss out on the simple pleasures of running around on a made up quest in favour of an electronics-based one. (Melanie) whereas there are no limits on what a child can create using a cardboard box! (Patrick) 3 1momentum ​ 2tapped into ​3premise ​ 4reinforcing ​ 5differentiate ​ 6enormously ​ 7no harm ​8bleak 4 1G ​ 2F ​ 3C ​ 4A ​ 5E ​ 6B ​ 7D ​ 8H

Listening

Time out 1 H ​2 B ​3 D ​4 G ​5 F ​6 A ​7 E ​8 C

Vocabulary

1 1 What does Patrick say about his previous work? A He tended to paint rather than draw. B He didn’t consider drawing for his sister. C He wasn’t enthusiastic about doing children’s illustrations. D He preferred to illustrate comic books. 2 How does Patrick feel about the way his idea developed? A proud that he can now run a successful business B surprised that it happened so quickly C pleased that he can help so many people D overwhelmed by the number of purchases 3 For Melanie, what should be avoided? A depending on the owl to teach children how to behave B telling the owl how they feel instead of their parents C leaving children alone for too long with the owl D allowing children to spend too much time talking to the owl 4 What does Melanie think about telling children made up stories? A It has a negative impact on their creativity. B It isn’t the same as lying. C It can be disappointing for children. D It is something that parents do too often. 5 When asked about imaginative play, both Patrick and Melanie express A sadness that it is being replaced by technology. B nostalgia for childhood memories. C a desire to promote it in schools. D frustration that it isn’t taken seriously. 6 What do Patrick and Melanie both think about electronic games? A They make life more enjoyable. B They can’t replace the power of make believe. C They are better because they are more realistic than other games. D They are ruining modern children’s childhoods. 2 1 C it seemed too silly and I thought of myself as more serious 2 B I honestly had no idea that it would be used by so many people in so many different ways 3 D While I wouldn’t recommend allowing children to become too reliant on Oscar the Owl make believe isn’t about tricking children into believing 4 B something, its about presenting them with a situation and then letting them take it from there

Use of English 1 1 1most notably ​2coupled with ​3so as to ​4since ​ 5or rather ​6under these circ*mstances  ​7then again ​ 8Provided that 2 1C ​ 2A ​ 3F ​ 4B ​ 5D ​ 6E 3 1 since (purpose) 2 or rather (reformulation) 3 Under these circ*mstances (consequence) 4 most notably (example) 5 provided that (condition) 6 in order to (purpose) 7 as well as (addition) 8 Having said that (limitation) 4 1 due (due to the fact, phrase meaning because) 2 as (adverb meaning also called) 3 in (in order to is used with the infinitive form of a verb to express the purpose of something) 4 of (consisted of; a phrasal verb meaning to be made of or formed from something) 5 called/named (adjective meaning labelled) 6 about (preposition meaning connected with or associated with) 7 these (pronoun used to indicate a state, the circ*mstances) 8 by (preposition used for saying how something is done)

Use of English 2 1 1mock ​ 2above-board ​ 3authentic ​ 4candid ​ 5disguise 2 1play ​ 2believe ​ 3honest ​ 4cheat ​ 5fib ​ 6mocking ​ 7disguising ​ 8scam 3 1 1B, 2A 2 1B, 2A 3 1A, 2B 4 1B, 2A 5 1A, 2B

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WORKBOOK ANSWER KEY 41 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

C B B B B A B C

(correct collocation) (correct meaning) (correct collocation) (correct meaning with the morality) (correct collocation) (correct collocation) (correct collocation) (correct collocation)

Speaking 1 1historical films 2autobiographies 3celebrity photographs 5 1 The reason I say this is because … 2 Why I think this way is because … 3 The reasoning behind this is … 4 Let’s take an example … 5 You’ve only got to remember … 6 What I mean is if … 6 1prime 2mean 3also 4instance 5Take 6basically

Writing 11 2 3 4 5 6 31

F (otherwise you will lose marks) F (usually for your teacher) T T F (do not quote directly – need use your own words) F (no, this is at FCE level) points 1 and 2 2point 2 3yes

Unit Check 1 1had known 2would have visited 3hadn’t seen 4would have believed 5realised 6would have paid 7need 8to choose 2 1 If it hadn’t been for my friend Marina, I wouldn’t have / never would have read the book. 2 If I were braver, I would go / try sky diving. 3 If I see a strange event, I want to film it. 4 Had I known it was going to be sunny I would have brought sun cream. 5 If it hadn’t been for the detective, the mystery wouldn’t have been resolved. 6 If I had passed chemistry, I would have been able to study medicine. 3 1fantasy 2illusion 3hallucinations 4imagination 5realism 6image 4 1great 2slips 3into 4convincing 5impression 6semblance 5 1taken her for 2making it up 3taken in 4make out 5put on 6take on

USE OF ENGLISH UNITS 1–6 Part 1 1 A (be clearly better or different from the rest) 2 C (push all the right buttons; be attractive, appealing to someone) 3 A (have) 4 D (figment of our imagination is something which we imagine) 5 B (hang onto is a phrasal verb meaning to want to keep and not let go of something) 6 A (give up is a phrasal verb meaning relinquish, surrender) 7 A (a fantasy world is one which is not true; the opposite of our day to day lives) 8 B (a take on something is an opinion, a point of view about something)

Part 2 9 if (if we were to… second conditional) 10 up (free up means to gain time; phrasal verb) 11 like (sound like means to appear as if) 12 other (in other words is an expression to re-phrase something previously stated) 13 off (switch off means turn off; phrasal verb) 14 be (we will be spending is the future continuous; looking at an action which will be in progress at a point in the future) 15 back (look back means remember/recollect; phrasal verb) 16 have (I could have used is a past tense modal verb) Part 3 17truthfully 18limitations 19commitment 20increasingly 21curiosity 22probability 23disastrous 24foolish Part 4 25the thought of 26take on life 27it hard to concentrate 28put off cleaning 29was about to leave 30should you want to

UNIT 7 Reading 1 1inaccessible 2professes 3entice 4unashamedly 5successive 6accommodate 7refrain 8galvanised 2 2 lighting and characters are not mentioned 3 1 A … rather clarifies the complexity of decision-making for people who find themselves in a constant struggle to achieve a basic standard of living 2 A … the characters’ current desperation and hope for a better future. 3 B … the music portrays the issues facing abandoned children living in poverty, such as the upbeat ‘Food, glorious, food’, which captures the characters’ excitement at satisfying their hunger, the costume design also highlights the difference between rich and poor. 4 D A popular choice for high school drama clubs due to its handling of multiculturalism and identity … 5 C Using a groundbreaking original script … 6 C … it helped pave the way for other playwrights to write stories based on related subjects. 7 B … the musical still emphasises the vulnerability and loneliness of children without a support network. 8 B … to an equally difficult life as a street boy under the watchful eye of an older boy, who is skilled in pickpocketing. 9 A … the cycle of despair and poverty in which many French citizens were trapped in France in the early 1800s. 10 C … its operatic score underlines lyrics addressing the struggles of working class America. The contrast involved in telling a tale that focuses on working class people through a genre generally associated with upper classes makes this musical truly original … 4 1opulent 2tackles 3trivialise 4dated 5rags 6bleak 7harrowing 8social cohesion

Grammar 1 1possibility 2possibility 3necessity 4certainty 5criticism 6certainty 2 1A 2A 3B 4A 5B 3 1F 2F 3T 4F 5T 4 1needed 2could 3will 4may 5may 6ought 7would 8might

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Vocabulary 1 1hold back. ​2have your say. ​3sit up and take notice ​ 4Say it as it is ​5in a word  ​6a way with words  ​ 7tongue-tied ​ 8for want of a better word 2 1 has got his own way (He has striven to remain anonymous means he wanted to be anonymous. He is anonymous and so he has succeeded in getting what he wanted.) 2 In a word (Only using one word. This is an expression. For want of a better word is an alternative expression.) 3 sit up and take notice (He has caused an impression on the art world with what he has done.) 4 word of mouth (He has become well known just from people talking to each other.) 5 don’t hold back (They are forthcoming in saying how good he is and how proud they are of him.) 6 a spotlight on (This is an expression meaning focusing attention on something.) 7 put (Couldn’t put into words; they can’t find the words to express how they feel) 8 the last word (Means to be the last person to have an opinion about something and so the person with the most important opinion.) 3 1 short and sweet (The opposite of long and rambling.) 2 verbose (The opposite of concise.) 3 convoluted (Means not a linear argument, difficult to follow.) 4 articulate (Means speech which is easy to understand.) 5 eloquent (Means speech which is carefully crafted, with well-chosen words.) 6 accessible (Means easy to understand, not complicated.) 4 1 A (articulate – express ideas well) 2 B (curt – using very few words in order to convey displeasure) 3 C (wordy – too many words / too long) 4 B (convoluted – difficult / complicated to follow; not straightforward)

Listening 1 Extract 1 You are going to listen to a conversation between a lecturer and a design student about a project on the originality of fashion. 1 How did the girl feel about being given clothes by her grandmother? A relieved to have fashionable clothes B inspired to create her own clothes C pleased to be able to share her love of fashion 2 According to the lecturer, originality in fashion is being devalued because designers A only know how to make minimal changes to existing products. B have to compete with large brands. C don’t have enough time to come up with new ideas. Extract 2 You are going to listen to a conversation between two friends about electronic devices. 3 How does the boy react to his friend’s new phone? A He complains that it looks just like his. B He argues that cheaper phones last longer. C He explains that his friend could have saved money. 4 How does the girl feel about copycat products? A annoyed that they are so easy to produce B sad about their impact on originality C frustrated that nothing is done about them

Extract 3 You are going to listen to a conversation between a girl and her brother aboutbooks. 5 What is the girl doing? A complaining about the predictability of stories B worrying about finishing reading a book for school C defending her favourite story genre 6 What do they both emphasise about a good stories? A the individuality of the writer’s voice B the ability to recognise the writer’s influences C the memorable characters 2 1 C I loved going to her house and talking about fabrics and patterns 2 B … it’s almost impossible to produce original designs on the kind of scale that large chains use. 3 C There’s really no need to spend a lot of money on electronic goods … … which is a shame because it means that people with 4 B genuinely good ideas that could become quality products don’t stand a chance. 5 A … I’ve given up on so many books a few chapters in because it’s blatantly obvious what is going to happen. … the best writers have their own unique style, you know 6 A who is writing it instantly (Girl) and the strongest personal identity (Brother). 2ploy ​ 3shelled out ​4tweaking ​ 5blatantly ​ 3 1pushing ​ 6swiping Time out 1 A (Guglielmo Marconi received the credit) 2 E (Thomas Edison received the credit)  3 F (Alexander Graham Bell received the credit) 4 B (IBM received the credit) 5 C (Archie received the credit) 6 D (Karl Benz received the credit)

Use of English 1 1 1had been increasing ​2had been released ​3hadn’t known ​ 4had created  5 ​ buying ​ 6had decided 2 1 was convinced that the painting he had bought was an original. 2 recommended buying that we/I buy art from a reputable dealer. 3 wasn’t worried about whether it was a forgery. 4 complained that the painting was far too expensive. 5 estimated that the German artist copied about fifty European artists. 6 hope that their painting isn’t a forgery. 7 regretted buying the painting 8 encouraged me to go to the exhibition (because I would enjoy it) 3 1for ​ 2for ​ 3on ​ 4what ​ 5that ​ 6to 4 1 The first forgery is thought/believed to date back to the High Renaissance. 2 He threatened to report the company to the police if the goods were counterfeit. 3 We were asked whether we thought (that) buying fake designer goods affected the original designer. 4 The three men are thought to have been selling fake goods. 5 He advised me to check the painting was authentic. 6 She revealed (that) the painting was authentic because it had a signature on the back.

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WORKBOOK ANSWER KEY

Use of English 2

Unit Check

1 1duplication 2breakage 3defence 4closure 5offence 6confusion 7treatment 8present, presentation 2 1E 2H 3A 4C 5F 6G 7B 8D 3 1failure 2apologise 3confidence 4performance 5delivery 6suitably 7arguably 8movement 4 1relationship 2criticism 3disturbance 4involvement 5impression 6survival 5 1impression 2disturbances 3involvement 4criticism 5relationship 6survival

1 1will have heard 2could have phoned 3had needed to see 4shouldn’t have been waiting 5could have had 6should have 7might just as well 8ought to have known 2 1 She reassured me that I would pass the exam. 2 He swore to look after it. / He swore that he would look after it. 3 He warned me to be careful (with it) because it was hot. 4 She encouraged me to try it. 5 He expected them to arrive about 7 p.m. 6 She recommended that we buy an electric one. 7 She announced that she was having/going to have a baby. 8 He grumbled that the lessons were (really) boring. 3 1D 2G 3E 4C 5F 6H 7B 8A 4 1sweet 2put 3sit 4words 5hold 6point 7say 8walk

Speaking 2 1First, obviously 2Regarding 3because 4Personally, having 5Moving 6whereas 3 The student did not follow advice 2.

Writing 11 2 3 4 5 6 22 3 31 2 3 4 5

T T F (it uses persuasive language throughout to support ideas) F (both are formal as they are to be read by people in authority) F (both use headings to make the points stand out clearly. Bullets can also be used, but sparingly) T refer back to the objectives of the proposal ✓ use different phraseology from the rest of the proposal ✓ D (use of the word: purpose, it outlines what the proposal is for) C (gives reasons, rationale behind the proposal) E (gives examples of what could be done) A (refers to the organisation) B (summarises the main points)

5 Model answer Introduction The purpose of this proposal is to present the idea of setting up a school radio station which students could listen to during their breaks and free time in the school day. Reasons for having a radio station Students like to be involved in school life and keep updated with school news. They can currently do this through the school website and newsletters but a radio station would be more immediate and also entertaining at the same time. What the station would broadcast We believe that students would enjoy listening to class discussions or debates and hearing students talk about their achievements and trip experiences. There could also be interviews with teachers and local people. For example we could invite local businessmen to give interviews about work prospects and careers advice. Other ideas would include phone-in programmes where students can discuss school issues and song request sections with music by school bands and groups. How the station would be run We would suggest that the station is manned by student volunteers from different year groups. There could be a school club dedicated to the station where students meet, plan and record different items to be broadcast. Summary We strongly believe that a radio station such as this would bring students together and involve them more in school life as well as giving students the opportunity to be involved in organising a very exciting project. We really hope that this proposal will be given consideration.

UNIT 8 Reading 1 1laudable 2wordy 3brevity 4vilify 5time constraints 6no-holds-barred 2 1 expresses a similar opinion to A about the intentions of health campaigns? 2 holds a different opinion to the other commentators about the effectiveness of health campaigns? 3 has the same opinion as D about more practical ways of dealing with health issues? 4 holds the same view as C about the way campaigns address certain age groups? 3 1 D (Nicolas) Miguel says I do agree with the principle behind public health campaigns and Nicolas shares the same viewpoint, saying the rationale behind health campaigns is admirable 2 C (Irina) Miguel thinks that the more we are exposed to hardhitting messages, the less effective they become. Gemma says Campaigns need to be backed up with some real help, otherwise they are just pointless, and Nicolas believes that the trouble is that they are often too little, too late. In contrast, Irina thinks that these types of health campaign create a feeling of togetherness 3 B (Gemma) Nicolas talks about When I noticed my younger brother falling into the same pattern, I talked to him about steering clear of too many fatty foods and I think that health campaigns should mirror this kind of model. Gemma gives a similar example and says Consider someone who smokes because they are incredibly stressed; perhaps if the campaign centred on reasons for the unhealthy behaviour and provided support on ways to better manage this, people would be more likely to heed the warning. 4 A (Miguel) Irina thinks that (young people) don’t like feeling like they are being talked down to. Miguel believes that when you’re a teenager like me, it can sometimes feel like you are being bombarded with information on how you should live your life, as if you aren’t capable of making your own decisions 4 1heed the warning 2put their mind to it 3jump on the bandwagon 4don’t give a second glance 5steering clear 6falling into the same pattern 7akin to 8principle 5 1heed the warning 2steer clear 3falling into the same pattern 4jumping on the bandwagon 5put our minds to it 6principle 7gave it a second glance 8akin to

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Grammar 1 1 D (The alternative impersonal passive form.) 2 B (At the end of the sentence this adds impact.) 3 A (The agent is unimportant. We don’t need to know who talks about the stress threshold.) 4 A (The agent is unknown or unimportant.) 5 C (The positioning at the beginning makes it impersonal.) 2 1be put off ​2have been shattered ​3thought to be ​ 4will be halved ​5need to be ​6are said to increase ​ 7weren’t made to be ​8having jobs done 3 1 I was asked to answer some questions related to anxiety. 2 We were told to think of ways to deal with stress. 3 I was given a weekend away for my birthday. 4 Readers were asked to send in ideas for relaxation. 5 The guests were taken to a spa retreat for the day. 6 The event is being filmed later today. 7 We are told that knowing our stress threshold is important. 8 He is being given an award this evening.

Vocabulary 1 Across 4 rant 5 shriek 7 giggle 8 outrage Down 1 wrath 2 smirk 3 snigg*r 6 weep 2empathise ​ 3moan ​ 4compassion ​ 2 1considerate ​ 5gloomy 3 1rip ​ 2grin and bear it ​3get it off my chest ​ 4shoot my mouth off ​5long face 4 1groan ​ 2sympathise ​ 3fed up ​4laugh ​ 5outraged ​ 6let rip ​7shaken up ​8weep ​ 9ranting ​ 10chuckling

Listening 1 1adjective ​ 2adjective ​ 3adjective ​ 4adjective/noun ​ 5adjective/noun ​ 6noun ​ 7noun ​ 8noun 2 1aware ​ 2excessive ​ 3shameful ​ 4eternal fasts ​ 5dangerous ​ 6lifestyle ​ 7mass market ​8side effects 3 1ailments ​ 2upcoming ​ 3scepticism ​ 4trial and error ​ 5manifests ​ 6fasts ​ 7wreaked havoc ​8susceptible Time out 1 D ​2 B ​3 C ​4 C ​5 A ​6 B ​7 A ​8 A

Use of English 1 1 balanced diet fire-proof vest five-year old boy fussy eater growing problem increasingly dangerous amount long-standing tradition long-term relationship slowly cooked food sweet tooth

2 adjective + noun: fussy eater, sweet tooth, balanced diet, growing problem compound adjective + noun: long-term relationship, fire-proof vest, five-year old boy, long-standing tradition compound adjective with adverb + noun: slowly cooked food, increasingly dangerous amount 3 1 V ​2 F ​3 F ​4 I ​5 F ​6 I 4 1 slow-cooked food 2 Home-cooked food 3 processed food 4 health problems 5 regular exercise 5 1 for (collocation, praised for) 2 look (phrasal verb; look back) 3 which/that (relative pronoun) 4 not (not substitutes the phrase don’t have a sweet tooth) 5 be (to be depressed) 6 up (phrasal verb; come up with) 7 only (not only are they; conjunction used when listing alternatives ) 8 that (relative pronoun) 6 1hectic ​ 2guitar ​ 3serious ​ 4hour and a half’s ​ 5high-performing ​ 6far-reaching ​7little-known ​ 8best-kept ​ 9updated ​ 10well-trained

Use of English 2 1 1contact ​ 2reliance ​ 3break ​ 4gold ​ 5adherence ​ 6acquaintance 2 1close ​ 2heavy ​ 3tough ​ 4solid ​ 5casual ​ 6strict 3 1 D (correct collocation with to) 2 A (correct meaning) 3 A (correct collocation) 4 A (correct collocation) 5 B (correct verb + noun collocation) 6 C (correct meaning) 7 D (correct collocation) 9 A (no preposition for other options) 2A ​ 3B ​ 4C ​ 5D 6E 4 1F ​ 5 1suspicious nature ​2standard issue ​3poor second ​4fair game ​ 5steady hand ​6high price

Speaking 1 1B ​ 2B ​ 3A 2 Extract 1– 1 A Extract 2 – 3 B Extract 3 – 2 A 3 1 I’m really sorry to interrupt, but … 2 Excuse me, can I just say that … ? 3 I’m not sure I understand what you mean. 4 Sorry, what was that? 5 Before you go on, I’d like to say … 6 Could you rephrase that, please? 7 I’m sorry, I didn’t catch that. 8 I’d just like to add that …

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WORKBOOK ANSWER KEY

Writing 1 invite professionals to give talks give easy practical cookery classes 2 1B 2A 3C The best introduction for the essay would be C 3 one way this could be done / another option / the problems associated with unhealthy eating / such as these 5 Model answer We are constantly being told that we need to start eating more nutritious and well-balanced meals. This, however, is not easy to do. This is because we have got into bad eating habits for a variety of reasons. We need to identify these reasons so that more guidance can be given to help develop healthy eating habits. One important reason is that we become used to certain eating patterns in childhood. Whereas many parents are careful in what food they give their children, others are perhaps less aware and children become used to eating foods with a lot of salt or sugar. Peer pressure is also a factor here, as children often want to copy what their school mates do and eating unhealthy snacks can be one of these things. Another reason could be that when we get older and life becomes busier it is very easy to slip into the habit of eating fast food from takeaway restaurants or ready meals that can be quickly cooked in the microwave. Whereas this is fine from time to time, it isn’t that good for our health. All things considered, I really feel that the more important issue here is that of our childhood eating patterns as these often define the way we look at food and mealtimes for the rest of our lives. In fact, busy parents may also give their children fast food, which then becomes a pattern. It is a parent’s responsibility to give their children well balanced, healthy meals and to this end food education should be targeted at the family.

Unit Check 11 2 3 4 5 6

Vitamin E is known to be good for the skin. Years ago, it was thought that salt was good for you. Now it is thought that salt is related to high blood pressure. The majority of walnuts we eat are exported from the USA. A large amount of avocados we eat are grown in Mexico. Children are usually encouraged (by people) to eat plenty of fruit and vegetables. 7 A few years ago green tea was claimed (by doctors) to be a miracle drink. 8 Many health myths have been shattered (by scientific discoveries). 2 1Home-cooked food 2sweet tooth 3processed food 4long-standing tradition 5balanced diet 6fussy eater 7freshly picked vegetables 8growing problem 3 1up 2lost, let 3long 4grin 5off 6mouth 4 1depressed 2groan 3sympathise 4gloomy 5consideration 6compassion 7moan 8empathise 9stressed 10grumpy

UNIT 9 Reading 1 1head up 2charisma 3squabbles 4sizeable 5get his head round 6sought out 7draining 8ideally placed 2 4 is correct (only teenager B didn’t have a positive experience) 3 1 C We hit it off straight away and since the program finished, we’ve kept in touch. 2 B … we wanted to work seriously and be challenged by something that we might encounter in the future. To be perfectly honest, I came away feeling disappointed and cheated. 3 D … towards the end of the week we moved onto a group action project, which I preferred because it meant that we could be in the driving seat! 4 A It showed us that we have to get on with each other and make the best of each other’s skills, after all, we can’t just walk out of a job after an argument! 5 A … this term I’m going to join the events committee at school to help out with the student-led events that take place throughout the year. 6 B Unfortunately, this just had the opposite effect as it felt like the organisers were trying too hard and were completely out of touch with people my age. 7 D … every day we were there for eight hours, with at least three different sessions per day. 8 B … after a couple of days I was already wishing that I hadn’t bothered. The tasks that we were given were supposed to equip us with real-life skills, but they were all intentionally ‘wacky’ to appeal to people in my age group 9 A It showed us that we have to get on with each other and make the best of each other’s skills; after all, we can’t just walk out of a job after an argument! 10 C The programme itself was nothing special… 4 1rivalry 2equip 3got heated 4outgrown 5surpassed 6outstanding 7a blast 8hit it off

Grammar 1 1 A Never before had I spoken in public, but in the debating society I’m getting used to it. 2 B It’s the charismatic people that I have met that make the drama club so amazing. 3 D What I love about clubs is that I meet people that I wouldn’t otherwise have met. 4 A Not only are they fun, but it’s useful because it looks good on my CV. 5 C It does sometimes feel draining playing sport every week, but I do feel in great shape. 6 B It’s the fact that I am always learning something new that I love. 7 A In no way would I say that I am creative, but in this club I am developing creative skills. 2 1no way 2not only 3no sooner 4What 5Never 6What 7not once 8no circ*mstances 3 1 A: What I love about ‘castellers’ is being part of a team. B: No way would I ever have gone right to the top! 2 A: Never have I hurt myself when doing ‘castellers’. B: Under no circ*mstances would I recommend this to anyone who is afraid of heights. 3 A: Not only do I go every week, but I’ve joined a second group! B: Only once did I miss a Sunday last year, when I was ill. 4 1than 2way 3rarely/seldom 4no 5What 6only 7that 8does

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Vocabulary

Use of English 2

1 1tasks ​ 2take ​ 3collaboratively ​ 4responsibility ​ 5stifled ​ 6ideas ​ 7lead ​ 8respect 2 1take ​ 2touch ​ 3heads ​ 4stops ​ 5player ​ 6place 3 1resolution ​ 2collaboratively ​ 3requirement ​ 4communication ​ 5performance ​ 6honed  ​7survival ​ 8implicitly

1 1-en ​ 2mis- ​ 3over- ​ 4under- ​ 5en- ​ 6re2 1ensure ​ 2redo ​ 3mishear ​ 4overruns ​ 5underestimate ​ 6overlook 3 1Originally ​ 2tendency ​ 3assumption ​ 4personality ​ 5unnatural ​ 6enable ​ 7impressive ​ 8sharpen 4 1underpay ​ 2overreact ​ 3retrain ​ 4mistake ​ 5fasten ​ 6enforce

Listening 2 Task 1 1 D I’m so determined to do well in an exam that I want to take advantage of every spare second. 2 B … I’m afraid to stop in case I lose it and have to start again. 3 H Most of my colleagues have lunch at their desks and meetings are often scheduled for during the lunch period because people take it for granted that you’ll be in the office. 4 E It’s not uncommon to spend the whole shift sorting out a problem and because of the logistics involved, I can’t just take time out. 5 C I want to present myself as hardworking and proactive, so I don’t feel like I can ignore emails or phone calls because I’m taking a break. Task 2 6 D …otherwise I have difficulty remembering the content I’m studying. 7 F It isn’t productive if it means that I can’t work properly for the next day or two because I can’t focus on the task. 8 G …which means I don’t get tired and avoid the typical midafternoon slump that I’d get if I didn’t get any fresh air. 9 A Driving home feeling so tired felt dangerous and I was terrified I’d crash into another car. 10 C …otherwise I start getting awful headaches 3 1deliberate ​ 2extreme ​ 3same ​ 4relaxed ​ 5down ​ 6prevented ​ 7expected ​ 8temporary

Use of English 1 1 1F ​ 2I ​ 3F ​ 4F ​ 5I ​ 6F ​ 7I ​ 8I 2re-evaluation ​ 3acquisition ​ 4increase ​ 2 1performance ​ 5importance ​ 6refusal 3 1 an argument that soft skills such as empathy and negotiation skills are essential for recruitment. 2 by the complexity of the skill sets needed for twenty-first century jobs. 3 a rapid increase in people’s understanding of the importance of soft skills. 4 development in our knowledge of soft skills over the past five years. 5 a refusal by some people to acknowledge the relevance of soft skills in the workplace. 6 have difficulty identifying soft skills. 4 1 Interviews tasks are often designed to test a person’s (level of) creativity in resolving problems. 2 The failure to accept the importance of soft skills by some educationalists, puts some candidates at a disadvantage. 3 The hard work by the candidate for the interview was evident in her presentation. 4 There is some confusion as to the format of skills-based interviews. 5 Skills-based interviews aim to assess the performance of candidates / candidates’ performance in different situations. 6 There is stronger competition / more competition than there used to be for jobs in the digital marketing industry.

Speaking 1 1 F (it’s by the interlocutor) 2 F (any picture can be chosen) 3 F (the answer should be brief but with a little detail) 4 T 5 F (questions requiring a personal answer are not appropriate at CAE) 2 Pictures A and B. 3 1 the similarities ✓ 2 the differences ✓ 4 the advantages related to the second picture ✓ 5 how the people in the first picture might be feeling ✓ 6 how the people in the second picture might be feeling ✓ 4 Question 2 (1 requires a personal answer – not appropriate at CAE; 3 covers the original question and would not be asked; 2asks for speculation, could apply to all three, does not have a right or wrong answer and should not overlap with long turn.)

Writing 1 2 an introduction detailing the purpose of the report. ✓ 3 headings for each section. ✓ 4 some facts about the school. ✓ 7 comments about the good and bad points of the experience. ✓ 8 suggestion(s) for improvement. ✓ 2 2 The aim of this report 3 the placement / the work / recommendations 4 relatively small … 120 children 7 Good: range of levels / teaching methods / useful / enjoyable Bad: more involvement with the children 8 visit the school prior to the start … to discuss what … most useful … 3 1E (specific) ​2C (general) ​3B (general) ​4D (specific) ​ 5A (general) 2exception ​ 3point ​ 4part ​ 5far ​ 6whole 4 1rule ​ 6 Model answer The purpose of this report is to assess my recent work experience placement at a leisure centre and to make recommendations regarding using this placement again for future students. The Centre Holbury Leisure Centre has a fifty-metre swimming pool and offers facilities for more than fifteen different sports. It is a popular and busy centre, attracting people from the local community as well as accommodating regular visits from schools. My placement was for a fortnight and on the whole I feel I benefitted a great deal from what I did there. The work I was given a variety of different jobs during the two weeks which for the most part taught me a lot about how a leisure centre is run and how it feels to work there. I appreciated learning about the different sports and also seeing how the trainers interact with the public. I was also given the opportunity to feed some ideas into the latest advertising campaign for the centre, which was exciting. I was less happy with the hours I spent teaching beginners to swim as I did not 199

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WORKBOOK ANSWER KEY feel my supervisor fully supported me. In addition to this I felt that the trainers relied a little too much on my help when they were short staffed. Recommendations Overall, I believe that the centre is a good place for a work experience placement and should be offered to future students. However, it is worth noting that any student placed there really needs to be ready to work very hard, as they may be called upon to assist trainers at short notice.

Unit Check 1 1In no way 2what 3not only 4Only once 5Never 6Not until 7no circ*mstances 8no sooner 2 1 No sooner had I accepted the role of team leader than Istarted to regret it. 2 Only once have I been chosen to be team captain. 3 Not only do I hate being the team leader, but I am also very indecisive. 4 At no time did I ever want to be the lead singer when I was in the band / when I was in the band did I ever want to be the lead singer. 5 In no way would I say I am / am I a sporty person, but I do like running. 6 Under no circ*mstances would I ever buy a lottery ticket, because I think it’s a waste of money. 3 1 The complexity of relationships is what makes them interesting. 2 There is a suggestion that you should choose friends who are different from you. 3 The development of friendships depends on many factors. 4 Competition between / among friends is not healthy. 5 There is an argument that friendships are our most important relationships. 6 The success of friendships depends on how much time and emotion we invest in them. 4 1put somebody in their place 2take a back seat 3team players 4lay down 5the buck stops here 6put our heads together

USE OF ENGLISH UNITS 1–9 Part 1 1 A (words fail is an expression describing an emotional or surprising reaction to a situation.) 2 C (grin and bear it is an expression meaning to accept something without complaining) 3 B (a smile which is smug and conceited) 4 A (build up trust with someone is to establish a relationship based on mutual trust) 5 C (to create an atmosphere; collocation) 6 A (take the initiative; collocation) 7 D (to take a back seat is to deliberately give up control) 8 A (lead by example is to behave in an exemplary way which shows others how to act) Part 2 9 that (relative pronoun; referring to what was reported) 10 on (insist on; a dependent preposition) 11 what (relative pronoun, referring to what she found) 12 able (able to swim means capable of swimming) 13 been (present perfect have been born) 14 up (come up with; phrasal verb) 15 be (passive structure; to be supported) 16 have (past modal verb talking about possibility; might have been due to)

Part 3 17considerable 18pursuit 19enthusiastic 20isolation 21unwillingness 22typically 23happiness 24option Part 4 25dared not tell 26want of a better 27it is believed 28good team player 29denied permission to 30made a good impression on

UNIT 10 Reading and Use of English Part 1 1 B (committing to memory; expression meaning to remember something well.) 2 C (resounding success; collocation) 3 B (the individuality of a person tells us how they are unique) 4 A (to earn respect means to gain respect from other people; collocation.) 5 A (spitting image; expression meaning to look identical to someone else) 6 D (identical twins are twins that are genetically and physically the same) 7 A (indistinguishable from each other means it is impossible or very difficult to see a difference between them) 8 A (the last word is an expression meaning to have the final or definitive pronouncement on a decision) Part 2 9 to (one thing is similar to something else) 10 more (comparative structure The shallower our breathing the more we gulp for breath; The harder we work the more we gain) 11 for (something happens for a reason) 12 not (not always so substitutes it isn’t always due to sadness) 13 that (having said that is an expression meaning nevertheless or in spite of that) 14 order (we use in order to to say it is possible to do something) 15 be (crying can be a mood booster; modal verb can plus infinitive without to) 16 them (pronoun refers to tears) Part 3 17 qualifications (certificates to show your academic achievements) 18 increasingly (progressively, continuously more) 19 enlighten (inform, tell, make aware) 20 achievement(s) (academic attainments, exams that someone has passed) 21 conscientious (be careful, be attentive) 22 inability (powerlessness, incapacity) 23 underestimate (underrate, think less of something) 24 cautionary (a warning) Part 4 25 Under no circ*mstances must / should you speak during the exam. 26 I was under the impression that you had been given the job. 27 Our general health is reported to be better than last year. 28 The teacher threatened to give them extra homework if they were not quiet. 29 It has been agreed that we will try harder in class. 30 Tom might have left the computer on. Part 5 31 D … most people try to get the best balance between a secure job and something that they get genuine enjoyment from; … force most people to settle for either former or the latter.

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32 C … despite the superficial differences, these economies could be linked by their apparent dependence on certain conditions … 33 B The distinction between work time and leisure time becomes blurred, and you need to exercise a lot of discipline to commit yourself to taking time off. 34 B … giving into the temptation to lower your price in order to secure a job can lead you into a cycle of low prices that is difficult to get back out of. 35 A Some people struggle with feelings of panic and a fear of destitution that can stem from such a lack of control. 36 B … just because something looks like an easy way to make money with minimal effort doesn’t mean that there aren’t hidden side effects. Part 6 37 B It didn’t give us a full picture; the article simply listed a series of facts (B) links with I don’t think that the article was objective enough (D) 38 A … if you are going to hand out potentially life-changing … consequences (A) links with There is no need to ruin young people’s futures for making a foolish mistake. (C) 39 C … the article showed me that they operate on a much larger scale nowadays than I had realised (A) links with but I was unaware that paid-for essays were so prevalent in higher education nowadays. (C) 40 D … to my mind unnecessarily severe, consequences to students (A) links with such unnecessarily extreme measures. (B) and I don’t believe that giving criminal records is the best route to go down. (C), whereas (D) has a positive view and says I believe that the writer’s suggestion of giving criminal records is a valid one. Part 7 41 C … New York University’s Polytechnic School of Engineering carried out some interesting research (para 1) links with the results showed that (C) 42 B For the general population, engaging our hands in constant movement, for example by doodling or clicking a pen (para 2) links with allowing part of your brain to engage in something seemingly banal and repetitive like those mentioned above (B) 43 D … set up a blog through which he asked people what they usually play with when they are bored at work (para 3) links with Through such questions (D) 44 E … the explosion in popularity of so-called fidget toys … (para 4) links with Among the benefits of these tools (E) and However, not everyone is convinced that these are just harmless tools to distract idle hands (E) links with Some schools in the UK have begun banning fidgeting toys (para 5) 45 A … annoying and showing off to their peers by doing tricks that they learn online (para 5) links with Peers of a student using a fidget spinner are often driven to distraction by the constant whirring and spinning (A) 46 F … their research can reach further than just the production of for-profit, market-specific fidgeting toys (para 6) links with understanding the science of fidgeting can have an impact on the design of digital interactions (F) Part 8 47 E Refine your keywords and make sure your CV is keyword rich. Many companies use software to scan CVs for keywords, so be keyword savvy if you don’t want to miss out on that perfect job 48 C … make sure your CV portrays your unique marketing message which sells you and your brand. 49 A Your CV should be enticing to the eye … 50 D Be ruthless about eliminating all superfluous information or wordy language. 51 C There is nothing wrong with boasting …

52 B An in-depth analysis of the skills set and tasks inherent in the job needs to be done … 53 A Think of your CV as a snapshot of you. Think of it as a visual image of yourself … 54 B A blanket CV … is not going to bowl over most bosses. 55 D Your CV is certainly not meant to be your autobiography and so two pages of A4 is the maximum you should be aiming for. 56 E The central core of your CV should be your competency profile as opposed to a list of exams you have passed.

Writing Model answers 1 Essay There is little doubt that the world is facing environmental problems on a scale that will have inescapable consequences for everyone on the planet. The question of how we deal with these issues is of immediate concern to us all. For many people, these problems seem beyond our individual control and as a result people pass the responsibility of action to others. This is a short-sighted approach; there is always something individuals can do, from recycling to making choices about whether to use renewable energy or drive less pollutingcars. On a global scale, countries can work together to help solve these problems. Climate change takes no notice of borders; it is affecting everyone wherever they live on the planet. Countries have historically had different priorities concerning the wealth and welfare of their own citizens. Now, they need to cooperate to deal with pollution of all types and share scientific research to find ways we can overcome or learn to live with the consequences. Whereas scientists can give us the evidence to explain what is happening to the planet, the way we deal with this is completely our responsibility. It is vitally important that as individuals we are educated about what is going on and how we can help, even in small ways. However, in my opinion we shall not be able to make significant progress without international agreements. I truly hope that countries will be able to set aside their differences and work together in the future for the good of everyone. 2 Proposal Introduction In order to help promote cultural awareness and understanding, my proposal is for an international food week at this school to take place in June. Organisation Instead of serving the meals that students usually expect to find, the cafeteria could offer a range of choices from a different country each day. Volunteer students might also dress up in national costumes to help serve the food and in addition to this, the cafeteria could be decorated in the national colours of the country. There might be a small cost to the school involved as some ingredients may be more expensive and exceed the normal cafeteria budget, but it should not be significant. Preparation There would be a student group set up to research different meals and discuss with the cafeteria staff what would or would not be feasible. The group could even survey other students for suggestions as to what could be included on the menus. This group would oversee the decoration of the cafeteria and help serve the meals. Before the week itself we would create and print out for the students information related to the history behind the different meals and any customs associated with them.

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WORKBOOK ANSWER KEY Summary This proposal would help promote students’ understanding of different cultures in an enjoyable and educational way. Everybody likes food and a country’s meals are certainly at the heart of its culture. An international food week could spark students’ interests to learn even more about other countries and I hope you will give this proposal full consideration. 3 Review Documentaries are being made nearly every week about one topic or another and it seems that their popularity is ever increasing. However, there is no doubt in my mind that the stand-out documentary series of recent times, perhaps of this decade, has to be the amazing Planet Earth 2. The original Planet Earth was made more than ten years ago and used the most advanced technology of the time to film astonishing sequences of the natural world. The second series, exploiting the very latest developments in technology is even more spectacular. A daring crew of cameramen bring us breath-taking shots that take us from isolated islands, through mountains, deserts and grasslands to the amazing underworld of our cities, and show us the challenges facing the animals in these places. From an entertainment point of view this series keeps you on the edge of your seat, not wanting to miss one shot. No one who sees Planet Earth 2 could ever forget the slow-motion shots of snow eagles fighting in the mountains, or the terrifying spectacle of racer snakes chasing and killing baby marine iguanas. And throughout the series the familiar, soft voice of David Attenborough makes us aware how precious all these animals and environments are, and reminds us of the desperate need to protect them. A series like this, so visually bold and exciting, can probably do more to alert us all to the problems facing the environment today, than any book or political speech. If you haven’t seen it already, I recommend that you do. It will probably be one of the most memorable documentaries you’ve ever watched. 4 Letter Dear Sir I am writing to bring some important information to the attention of your readers. This is regarding the proposed development of the wild ground area between the river and Bassett Avenue. Initially the proposal was to develop the space to create a pleasant green area with paths, flowers and benches where people could walk and sit. A small playground was to be built on the east side of the area suitable for young children. However, I have recently discovered that new plans have been put forward to build a large number of houses on the site instead. Each building will have several flats to rent and with views across the river this will be extremely profitable for the developers. I have to say that I am appalled by these plans. There are already many housing developments in this area and the local roads would become even more congested were this proposal to go ahead. What the area does need is a green space as per the original plan. People need somewhere to go to relax, and this spot overlooking the river would be ideal. I am dismayed that these new proposals have not been easily available for public view and discussion, and I hope that by publishing this letter you will make people aware of what is going on. I have started an online petition against the proposed development and I would like as many signatures as possible so that we can persuade the developers to reconsider their plans. This development has to be stopped.

5 Report Introduction The aim of this report is to summarise and evaluate the events of the recent youth conference on the environment and to comment on whether students should continue to attend next year. The day’s events The youth conference was held on Saturday 7th April and was attended by myself and three other students from this school. There were over six hundred students from various schools in the country. As expected, a large part of the day was taken up with talks on various environmental problems, given by specialists in their fields. Most of the talks were followed by question and answer sessions. Part of the afternoon was dedicated to discussion groups where we talked about possible future public awareness campaigns and also effective ways of bringing environmental issues into primary education. Value of the events The majority of the talks were engaging and informative, with the exception of a talk on climate change which was over reliant on statistical data. The discussions and brainstorming sessions worked extremely well and contributions were enthusiastic and creative. I am sure that all the participants gained a lot of insight into environmental problems and possible solutions from this conference. It was also very interesting to meet students with similar concerns from all over the country. Recommendations Regarding future attendance, I would definitely encourage anyone interested in the environment to go. Any concerns such as the dryness of the talk mentioned above will almost certainly be picked up on from our feedback forms. The conference organisers can be relied on to present an interesting and valuable day of events.

Listening Part 1 1 B It sounds more like a niche idea and may take off on a small scale. 2 B It would do you the power of good to really switch off with something so immersive. 3 A But I think that all sorts of people stand to benefit. Students, single people, single parent families, first time buyers. 4 B I’ve read that these houses are an inexpensive alternative, but the expense of building them is not really cutting the costs. The smaller pieces need to be custom built which is a costly business, and hence counterproductive 5 C Perhaps if you look far enough its bound to happen. You know, fortuity. Quite frankly I like to spend my time and money on more intellectually challenging stuff! 6 B I guess I did take the article at face value and I was really taken in by it. When you put it like that I suppose you have a point. Part 2 7 science It’s no secret that my talent lies in arts-based subjects, rather than science 8 straightforward … in the end, I decided to concentrate on a more straightforward approach 9 explanation While their importance to our existence needs no explanation, … 10 ants … ants work together to carry things that are twice their size 11 connections I realise that not all of you will share my outlook on nature and that these connections may appear to be weak to some

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12 puzzling … we don’t spend enough time studying the lessons that nature can teach us. You may think that our obsession with trying to produce new ways of thinking and resolving problems is praiseworthy. I’ve heard it described as unnecessary, but everyone agrees with the idea that it’s puzzling 13 respectful While people around the world are often dismissive of nature’s importance or are uncaring towards it, some indigenous cultures are respectful of nature 14 inspiration Our tendency is to look to empowering quotes on social media for inspiration, but next time you are feeling down or confused, I recommend going to any wide open field or the heart of a forest and take the time to really open your eyes to what is around you. Part 3 15 B … I considered opening by café but I wasn’t sure about my abilities to make a success of it … 16 C … it’s not eaten by as many people in the UK … 17 B … I’m known amongst my friends for giving advice, so it came naturally to me! 18 A … I feel fortunate that no two days are the same! 19 C (Samia) Allowing it to evolve organically took the pressure off … (Mike) Not rushing into anything. I’m glad that I took the time to get to know my customers, to be able to talk to them about the gelato, to get their ideas and their feedback. 20 C I don’t have one end goal, instead I have lots of small goals that lead up to something bigger, and that will always lead onto something else. Part 4 Task 1 1 F … focus on my passion for graphic design. 2 E When the opportunity came to secure a new partnership, it felt like my hard work finally paid off 3 G … I came first place in a contest for start-ups … 4 A … I came across my grandmothers antique earring down the back of the sofa months after I lost it. 5 D I ended up with a five-star hotel in the Bahamas for £200 … Task 2 1 E … trust in your own intuition … 2 D … expanding your network of friends and acquaintances. 3 C Depending too much on other people … 4 A … most things can be avoided if you take extra precautions! 5 G … sticking to one path to reach it is more likely to set you up for failure …

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SPEAKING: SUCCESS CRITERIA The following information aims to help teachers and students gain a better understanding of what Cambridge Advanced candidates need to do in order to achieve a pass in the exam (Solid), or higher grades (Good and Acing it!) in the Speaking paper. The categories are based on the marking criteria for the Cambridge Advanced exam. These tables can be used by teachers when assessing speaking, or by students when peer or self-assessing their performance in speaking tasks. They can also use them to set goals to help them advance their speaking skills.

Part 2: Individual long turn + = Solid plus whatever is in the Good or Acing It! box.

SOLID

GOOD

ACING IT!

GRAMMATICAL RESOURCE Range

Uses both simple structures and complex structures, e.g. relative / noun clauses (e.g. It looks as if he’s someone who enjoys what he does for a living), contrast of tenses (e.g. They might have just received some good news or perhaps they’re looking forward to something about to happen), passive forms (e.g. The children are being taught about cooking.)

+ Uses a good range.

+ Uses a wide range.

Accuracy

Uses grammar to convey meaning with a good level of accuracy.

+ Only minor errors or slips.

+ Only very minor errors or slips.

LEXICAL RESOURCE Function

Speculates, compares, contrasts and gives opinions about the photos.

+ Uses a range of phrases appropriately and accurately, e.g. It looks as if … / Both photos show … / While the person in this photo … , the person in the other … / What strikes me about this photo is that …

+ Uses a wide range of phrases appropriately and accurately, e.g. It looks as if … / Both photos show … / While the person in this photo … , the person in the other … / What strikes me about this photo is that …

Range

Uses different vocabulary to talk about familiar and unfamiliar topics related to the photos, e.g. words, collocations (e.g. laughing hysterically / a sense of community), fixed expressions (e.g. having a go at something / bear in mind that).

+ Uses a good range of vocabulary.

+ Uses a wide range; can talk about abstract topics related to the photos, e.g. working smart vs working hard; searching for happiness vs accepting what you have.

Accuracy

Uses vocabulary accurately and appropriately.

+ Often uses vocabulary flexibly, e.g. to emphasize, reformulate, paraphrase, e.g. The boy looks as if he’s frustrated about something. I mean, something’s clearly not going to plan.

+ Consistently uses vocabulary flexibly, e.g. to emphasize, reformulate, paraphrase, e.g. The boy looks as if he’s frustrated about something. I mean, something’s clearly not going to plan.

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DISCOURSE MANAGEMENT Fluency

Can talk about the photo for one minute with very little hesitation.

+ Often speaks with ease.

+ Consistently speaks with ease.

Relevance

Contribution is relevant to the photos.

+ Contribution is usually coherent and repetition of ideas is minimal.

+ Contributions are consistently coherent and varied, with no repetition of ideas.

Development of ideas and organisation

Ideas about the photos are developed and organised, e.g. by giving reasons and examples.

+ Ideas are mostly coherent.

+ Ideas are consistently coherent.

Cohesion

Uses cohesive devices to connect ideas about the photos (e.g. Having said that, on top of that, as a result), discourse markers (e.g. you know, you see, I mean, anyway), related vocabulary (e.g. I was cycling home when I got a puncture and had to use a pump) and referencing / substitution (e.g. it, this, one).

+ A good range of language is used.

+ A wide range of language is used.

PRONUNCIATION Clarity of pronunciation

Sounds are pronounced clearly; stress is placed correctly in words and sentences; intonation is appropriate. Overall, the speaker is intelligible to the listener.

+ Pronunciation is used to help convey + Pronunciation is used to help convey meaning. meaning and make meaning clearer.

INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION Response

Listens and responds to partner’s description of the two photos when prompted by the examiner.

+ Response is mostly related to their partner’s description, e.g. As Ana said… / I’d say that … which is similar to what Ana mentioned earlier.

+ Response is fully related to their partner’s description. As Ana said… / I’d say that … which is similar to what Ana mentioned earlier.

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SPEAKING: SUCCESS CRITERIA

Part 3: Collaborative task + = Solid plus whatever is in the Good or Acing It! box.

SOLID

GOOD

ACING IT!

GRAMMATICAL RESOURCE Range

Uses both simple structures and complex structures, e.g. relative / noun clauses (e.g. What you just said was interesting), contrast of tenses (e.g. People once wrote letters regularly but they’ve become redundant in recent years), passive forms (e.g. Letters are only written in the business world these days.)

+ Uses a good range.

+ Uses a wide range.

Accuracy

Uses grammar to convey meaning with a good level of accuracy.

+ Only minor errors or slips.

+ Only very minor errors or slips.

LEXICAL RESOURCE Function

Gives and justifies opinions about the given prompts; speculates, suggests and evaluates.

+ Uses a range of phrases appropriately and accurately, e.g. As far as I’m concerned / The reason for that is … / it could be that … / I’d recommend … / The most useful is … because … .

+ Uses a wide range of phrases appropriately and accurately, e.g. As far as I’m concerned / The reason for that is … / it could be that … / I’d recommend … / The most useful is … because … .

Range

Uses different vocabulary to talk about the prompts, e.g. words, collocations (e.g. be of central importance / come to an agreement), fixed expressions (e.g. come to mind / so to speak).

+ Uses a good range.

+ Uses a wide range; can talk about abstract topics related to the prompts, e.g. working smart vs working hard; searching for happiness vs accepting what you have.

Accuracy

Uses vocabulary accurately and appropriately.

+ Often uses vocabulary flexibly, e.g. to emphasize, reformulate, paraphrase, e.g. It’s difficult to lose touch with old friends these days. Technology makes keeping in touch easy.

+ Consistently uses vocabulary flexibly, e.g. to emphasize, reformulate, paraphrase, e.g. It’s difficult to lose touch with old friends these days. Technology makes keeping in touch easy.

DISCOURSE MANAGEMENT Fluency

Talks for an appropriate length for the task with very little hesitation.

+ Often speaks with ease.

+ Consistently speaks with ease.

Relevance

Contribution is relevant to the prompts given in the task.

+ Contributions are usually coherent and repetition of ideas is minimal.

+ Contributions are consistently coherent and varied, with no repetition of ideas.

Development of ideas and organisation

Ideas about the prompts are developed and organised, e.g. by giving reasons and examples.

+ Ideas are mostly coherent.

+ Ideas are consistently coherent.

Cohesion

Uses cohesive devices to connect ideas about the prompts (e.g. Having said that, on top of that, as a result), discourse markers (e.g. you know, you see, I mean, anyway), related vocabulary (e.g. Public transport is cheap but you have to wait at bus stops or on platforms) and referencing / substitution (e.g. it, this, one).

+ A good range of language is used.

+ A wide range of language is used.

PRONUNCIATION Clarity of pronunciation

Sounds are pronounced clearly; stress is placed correctly in words and sentences; intonation is appropriate. Overall, the speaker is intelligible to the listener.

+ Pronunciation is used to help convey + Pronunciation is used to help convey meaning. meaning and make meaning clearer.

INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION Initiation and response

Starts discussion and responds to partner appropriately, sustaining interaction, e.g. by agreeing/disagreeing, adding a point or asking a follow-up question.

+ Usually interacts with ease.

+ Consistently interacts with ease.

Negotiation

Discusses some or all of the prompts and negotiates towards an outcome.

+ Widens the scope of interaction by discussing or asking questions about other aspects of the prompts.

+ Widens the scope of interaction by discussing or asking questions about other aspects of the prompts.

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Part 4: Discussion + = Solid plus whatever is in the Good or Acing It! box.

SOLID

GOOD

ACING IT!

GRAMMATICAL RESOURCE Range

Uses both simple and complex structures, e.g. relative / noun clauses (e.g. Whatever we do on social media, it’s in the public domain), contrast of tenses (e.g. Before messaging apps had been created, everyone used email), passive forms (e.g. The internet was invented as a communication tool.)

+ Uses a good range.

+ Uses a wide range.

Accuracy

Uses grammar to convey meaning with a good level of accuracy.

+ Only minor errors or slips.

+ Only very minor errors or slips.

LEXICAL RESOURCE Function

Gives and justifies opinions in response to the questions; speculates, agrees and disagrees.

+ Uses a range of phrases appropriately and accurately, e.g. As far as I’m concerned / The reason for that is … / it could be that … / I completely agree with you.

+ Uses a wide range of phrases appropriately and accurately, e.g. As far as I’m concerned / The reason for that is … / it could be that … / I completely agree with you.

Range

Uses different vocabulary to talk about the prompts, e.g. words, collocations (e.g. be of central importance / come to an agreement), fixed expressions (e.g. come to mind / so to speak).

+ Uses a good range.

+ Uses a wide range; can talk about abstract topics, e.g. working smart vs working hard; searching for happiness vs accepting what you have.

Accuracy

Uses vocabulary accurately and appropriately.

+ Often uses vocabulary flexibly, e.g. to emphasize, reformulate, paraphrase, e.g. Social media is a lifeline for some people. I mean, people who live alone depend on it for social interaction.

+ Consistently uses vocabulary flexibly, e.g. to emphasize, reformulate, paraphrase, e.g. Social media is a lifeline for some people. I mean, people who live alone depend on it for social interaction.

DISCOURSE MANAGEMENT Fluency

Talks for an appropriate length for the task with very little hesitation.

+ Often speaks with ease.

+ Consistently speaks with ease.

Relevance

Contribution is relevant to the discussion.

+ Contributions are usually coherent and repetition of ideas is minimal.

+ Contributions are consistently coherent and varied, with no repetition of ideas.

Development of ideas and organisation

Ideas and opinions are developed and organised, e.g. by giving reasons and examples.

+ Ideas are mostly coherent.

+ Ideas are consistently coherent.

Cohesion

Uses cohesive devices to connect ideas. (e.g. Having said that, on top of that, as a result), discourse markers (e.g. you know, you see, I mean, anyway), related vocabulary (e.g. Social media helps people to create a network of contacts online.) and referencing / substitution (e.g. it, this, one).

+ A good range of language is used.

+ A wide range of language is used.

PRONUNCIATION Clarity of pronunciation

Sounds are pronounced clearly; stress is placed correctly in words and sentences; intonation is appropriate. Overall, the speaker is intelligible to the listener.

+ Pronunciation is used to help convey + Pronunciation is used to help convey meaning. meaning and make meaning clearer.

INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION Initiation and response

Starts discussion and responds to partner’s + Usually interacts with ease. contributions appropriately which sustains inter